Publications by authors named "Noushin Mohammadifard"

101 Publications

Salt intake and its sources in children, adolescents and adults in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

East Mediterr Health J 2021 Mar 23;27(3):279-286. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: There is little evidence about salt intake and its food sources in the Iranian population, especially in children and adolescents.

Aims: To investigate salt intake and dietary sources in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014-2015. We randomly selected 1384 adults (50.3% female, 49.7% male) aged > 18 years [mean 37.9 (10.6) years], and 786 children and adolescents (50.9% male, 49.1% female) aged 6-18 years [mean 12.5 (3.4) years]. All participants underwent a dietary assessment for salt intake, using a validated food frequency questionnaire.

Results: The total salt intake was 10.9 (3.4) g/day in adults and 10.3 (2.9) g/day in children and adolescents. Added salt was the primary source of salt intake, followed by bread and cheese in both groups. Salt intake was related significantly to being younger, male, a smoker, less educated and physically active in the adult group. In children and adolescents, it was significantly associated with increasing age, male sex, low physical activity and parents' education level (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Salt intake in Isfahan was more than twice that recommended by the World Health Organization. The main source of sodium was added salt, followed bread and cheese. Future national studies are warranted to assess the dietary salt intake and its main sources in different provinces in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/2021.27.3.279DOI Listing
March 2021

Associations of unprocessed and processed meat intake with mortality and cardiovascular disease in 21 countries [Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) Study]: a prospective cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

McMaster University, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Dietary guidelines recommend limiting red meat intake because it is a major source of medium- and long-chain SFAs and is presumed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence of an association between unprocessed red meat intake and CVD is inconsistent.

Objective: The study aimed to assess the association of unprocessed red meat, poultry, and processed meat intake with mortality and major CVD.

Methods: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) Study is a cohort of 134,297 individuals enrolled from 21 low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Food intake was recorded using country-specific validated FFQs. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major CVD. HRs were estimated using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts.

Results: In the PURE study, during 9.5 y of follow-up, we recorded 7789 deaths and 6976 CVD events. Higher unprocessed red meat intake (≥250 g/wk vs. <50 g/wk) was not significantly associated with total mortality (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.02; P-trend = 0.14) or major CVD (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11; P-trend = 0.72). Similarly, no association was observed between poultry intake and health outcomes. Higher intake of processed meat (≥150 g/wk vs. 0 g/wk) was associated with higher risk of total mortality (HR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.10; P-trend = 0.009) and major CVD (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.98; P-trend = 0.004).

Conclusions: In a large multinational prospective study, we did not find significant associations between unprocessed red meat and poultry intake and mortality or major CVD. Conversely, a higher intake of processed meat was associated with a higher risk of mortality and major CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa448DOI Listing
March 2021

Validity and reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Iranian adults.

Nutr Diet 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Aim: To validate a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) and assess the dietary intake of Iranian adults.

Methods: This study was conducted among 113 healthy adults in Iran. We administered twelve 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs) during a year as a reference method. The 165-item SFFQ was administered twice, along with the first and last 24DRs. To examine validity and reproducibility of SFFQ, the correlation coefficients (r) and de-attenuated correlation coefficients and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between 24DRs and SFFQ were calculated. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess agreement between the two methods.

Results: De-attenuated correlations varied from 0.42 (polyunsaturated fatty acids) to 0.62 (energy) (all P < .001) for nutrients and from 0.48 (oils and fats) to 0.65 (sweets) for food groups (all P < .05). We found reasonable reproducibility of SFFQ for both nutrients and food groups. ICC (95%CI) varied from 0.47 (0.15-0.74) for saturated fatty acids to 0.64 (0.47-0.76) for energy and from 0.43 (0.15-0.62) for oils and fats to 0.58 for grains (0.31-0.69). According to the Bland-Altman plots, we observed an acceptable level of agreement between the two methods.

Conclusions: We found reasonable relative validity and acceptable reproducibility of SFFQ. This SFFQ can be used to classify individuals based on their dietary intake in our population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1747-0080.12666DOI Listing
March 2021

Longitudinal association of dietary carbohydrate and the risk cardiovascular disease: a dose-response meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Mar 19:1-16. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Hypertension Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Previous findings on the association of dietary carbohydrate with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality are inconsistent. We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary carbohydrate and the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and EMBASE, was performed up to June 2019. Prospective cohort studies which examined dietary carbohydrate in relation to fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal stroke, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death were included in our study. Summary HRs and 95% CIs were estimated using a random-effects model. A total of 19 cohort studies including 15,663,111 participants were identified. Combining 27 effect sizes with 1,577,225 CVD cases led to a significant association between dietary carbohydrate and total CVD events (HR= 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10; I = 38.5%), but no association was observed between dietary carbohydrate and CVD mortality (HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.14; I=27.1%, derived from 8 effect sizes with 106,412 events), and CHD events (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.09; I = 46.6%, derived from 18 effect sizes with 1,549,281 events). Moreover, using 8 effect sizes with 6,829 cases, higher carbohydrate intake was associated with increased risk of stroke (HR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.27; I= 0.0%). In subgroup analysis by sex, higher carbohydrate intake increased the risk of total CVD events (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.17; I = 0.0%), and CHD (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.20; I= 15.0%), but not stroke and CVD mortality in women. No significant association was found in men. Low- to very-low-certainty evidence suggests that higher carbohydrate intake is directly but slightly associated with CVD and stroke risk, while no association was found for CHD and CVD mortality. We also found sex-specific associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1900057DOI Listing
March 2021

Longitudinal association of dietary fat intake with cardiovascular events in a prospective cohort study in Eastern Mediterranean region.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Mar 9:1-10. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

We examined the association of dietary fats intake with the 13-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Iranian population. Totally 5432 participants of Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS) aged ≥ 35 years were included in the current study. The frequency of dietary fats including hydrogenated vegetables oil (HVO), non-hydrogenated vegetables oil (nHVO), olive oil, ghee, and animal fats during the preceding year were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the top quartile of HVO tended to have 68% greater risk for myocardial infarction compared with those in the first quartile (95% CI: 1.02, 2.78; P = 0.058). No association was found for other dietary fat sources with ischaemic heart disease, stroke, all-cause and CVD mortality after adjustment for all potential confounders. Higher consumption of HVO was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2021.1895725DOI Listing
March 2021

Longitudinal association between an overall diet quality index and latent profiles of cardiovascular risk factors: results from a population based 13-year follow up cohort study.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Mar 10;18(1):28. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are associated with an unhealthy lifestyle, including poor diet. Indices reflecting the overall quality of diets are more effective than single food or nutrient-based approaches in clarifying the diet disease relationship. The present study aims to use latent variable modeling to examine the longitudinal joint relationships between the latent profiles of CVDs risk factors and the diet quality index (DQI).

Methods: A total of 4390 Iranian adults aged 35 and older within the framework of the Isfahan Cohort Study were included in the current secondary analysis. DQI focused on food groups, including fast foods, sweets, vegetables, fruits, fats, and proteins, based on a validated food frequency questionnaire. The score of DQI has a range between 0 (indicating healthy and high diet quality) and 2 (indicating unhealthy and low diet quality). Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric measurements, blood glucose, serum lipids, and high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) were measured according to standard protocols in 2001, 2007, and 2013 to evaluate the profiles of CVDs risk factors. A Bayesian Multidimensional Graded Responses Linear Mixed Model was used for data analysis.

Results: At baseline, the participants' mean ± standard deviation age was 50.09 ± 11.21, and 49.5% of them were male. Three latent profiles of CVDs risk factors were derived: (1) Fit Pre-Metabolic Syndrome (FPMS) profile characterized by normal anthropometric indices and some impaired metabolic risk factors; (2) DysLipoproteinemia Central Obese (DLCO) profile with abdominal obesity and impaired low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as other normal risk factors; (3) Impaired Laboratory Inflammatory State (ILIS) profile with impaired high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hs-CRP and other normal risk factors. In general, higher scores of the extracted latent profiles indicated more impaired function in the related risk factors. After controlling for various potential fixed and time-varying confounding variables, a significant positive longitudinal association was found between FPMS, DLCO, and ILIS profiles and DQI (β (95% CrI): 0.26 (0.03,0.51), 0.14 (0.01,0.27), and 0.24 (0.11,0.38), respectively), demonstrating that lower overall diet quality was associated with more impaired function of the related risk factors.

Conclusions: More adherence to a healthy quality diet is associated with lower levels of all emerging latent profiles of CVDs risk factors. Increasing the knowledge of the community about the importance of the quality of consumed foods may help to prevent CVDs. It is recommended that further investigations, particularly interventional studies, be conducted to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-021-00560-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948330PMC
March 2021

Associations of Fish Consumption With Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Among Individuals With or Without Vascular Disease From 58 Countries.

JAMA Intern Med 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Importance: Cohort studies report inconsistent associations between fish consumption, a major source of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Whether the associations vary between those with and those without vascular disease is unknown.

Objective: To examine whether the associations of fish consumption with risk of CVD or of mortality differ between individuals with and individuals without vascular disease.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This pooled analysis of individual participant data involved 191 558 individuals from 4 cohort studies-147 645 individuals (139 827 without CVD and 7818 with CVD) from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study and 43 413 patients with vascular disease in 3 prospective studies from 40 countries. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression separately within each study and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. This analysis was conducted from January to June 2020.

Exposures: Fish consumption was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. In 1 of the cohorts with vascular disease, a separate qualitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of individual types of fish.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Mortality and major CVD events (including myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, or sudden death).

Results: Overall, 191 558 participants with a mean (SD) age of 54.1 (8.0) years (91 666 [47.9%] male) were included in the present analysis. During 9.1 years of follow-up in PURE, compared with little or no fish intake (≤50 g/mo), an intake of 350 g/wk or more was not associated with risk of major CVD (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04) or total mortality (HR, 0.96; 0.88-1.05). By contrast, in the 3 cohorts of patients with vascular disease, the HR for risk of major CVD (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96) and total mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) was lowest with intakes of at least 175 g/wk (or approximately 2 servings/wk) compared with 50 g/mo or lower, with no further apparent decrease in HR with consumption of 350 g/wk or higher. Fish with higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids were strongly associated with a lower risk of CVD (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97 per 5-g increment of intake), whereas other fish were neutral (collected in 1 cohort of patients with vascular disease). The association between fish intake and each outcome varied by CVD status, with a lower risk found among patients with vascular disease but not in general populations (for major CVD, I2 = 82.6 [P = .02]; for death, I2 = 90.8 [P = .001]).

Conclusions And Relevance: Findings of this pooled analysis of 4 cohort studies indicated that a minimal fish intake of 175 g (approximately 2 servings) weekly is associated with lower risk of major CVD and mortality among patients with prior CVD but not in general populations. The consumption of fish (especially oily fish) should be evaluated in randomized trials of clinical outcomes among people with vascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.0036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941252PMC
March 2021

Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality.

N Engl J Med 2021 04 24;384(14):1312-1322. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

From the Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Medicine, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto (D.J.A.J.), and Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital Toronto (D.J.A.J., K.S.), Toronto, the Population Health Research Institute (M.D., S.I.B., K.T., S.Y.) and Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (A.M., S.I.B.), McMaster University, and McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences (S.R.), Hamilton, ON, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Laval, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Quebec, QC (P.P.), the Division of Cardiac Prevention and Rehabilitation, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa (A.P.), and the Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON (K. Yeates) - all in Canada; the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai (V.M.), and St. John's Research Institute, St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore (S.S.) - both in India; the International Research Center, Hospital Alemão Oswaldo Cruz, São Paulo (A.A.); Estudios Clínicos Latino América, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina (R.D.); the Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden (A.R.); Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile (F.L.); the Masira Research Institute, Medical School, Universidad de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia (P.L.-J.); the Medical Research and Biometrics Center, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (W.L., X.L.); the Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey (A.O.); the Institute for Community and Public Health, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (R.K.); Advocate Research Institute, Advocate Health Care, Downers Grove, IL (R.K.); Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran (N.M.); the Department of Cardiac Sciences, King Fahad Cardiac Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (K.F.A.); the Department of Physiology, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare (J.C.); Hatta Hospital, Dubai Medical College, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (A.H.Y.); the Department of Community Health Sciences and Medicine, Aga Khan University, Pakistan (R.I.); Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh, and UCSI University, Selangor (K. Yusoff), and the Department of Community Health, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur (N.I.) - both in Malaysia; the Department of Social Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland (K.Z.); and the School of Life Sciences, Independent University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (R.Y.).

Background: Most data regarding the association between the glycemic index and cardiovascular disease come from high-income Western populations, with little information from non-Western countries with low or middle incomes. To fill this gap, data are needed from a large, geographically diverse population.

Methods: This analysis includes 137,851 participants between the ages of 35 and 70 years living on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.5 years. We used country-specific food-frequency questionnaires to determine dietary intake and estimated the glycemic index and glycemic load on the basis of the consumption of seven categories of carbohydrate foods. We calculated hazard ratios using multivariable Cox frailty models. The primary outcome was a composite of a major cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) or death from any cause.

Results: In the study population, 8780 deaths and 8252 major cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up period. After performing extensive adjustments comparing the lowest and highest glycemic-index quintiles, we found that a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of a major cardiovascular event or death, both among participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.82) and among those without such disease (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.34). Among the components of the primary outcome, a high glycemic index was also associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. The results with respect to glycemic load were similar to the findings regarding the glycemic index among the participants with cardiovascular disease at baseline, but the association was not significant among those without preexisting cardiovascular disease.

Conclusions: In this study, a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2007123DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-term association of red meat consumption and lipid profile: A 13-year prospective population-based cohort study.

Nutrition 2021 Jan 10;86:111144. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: The long-term associations between red meat consumption and lipid profile are not completely known. This longitudinal study assessed the association of red meat consumption with lipid profile in healthy Iranian adults using repeated measurements of red meat intake.

Methods: The population-based longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Isfahan Cohort Study on a subsample of 1376 healthy adults, aged ≥35 y, for whom complete information was available in all three phases of the study. A simplified qualitative 48-item food frequency questionnaire, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, and fasting serum lipids and blood sugar were evaluated in three phases. Mixed-effects linear regression was applied to examine the longitudinal associations between red meat consumption and lipid profile.

Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, each single-serving increase in red meat and organ meat consumption was significantly associated with an increment in triacylglycerol (β = 6.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.97-8.63), total cholesterol (β = 3.03; 95% CI, 2.02-4.04), low-density lipoprotein (β = 3.40; 95% CI, 2.64-4.17), high-density lipoprotein (β = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.28-0.93), ratio of low-density to high-density lipoprotein (β = 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.05), and non-high-density lipoprotein (β = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.41-3.43). However, processed meat consumption had no significant association with lipid profile.

Conclusions: Total red meat intake had a significant, direct association with lipid profile after a 13-year follow-up period in a cohort of the healthy Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111144DOI Listing
January 2021

Longitudinal Association of Nut Consumption and the Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Prospective Cohort Study in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

Front Nutr 2020 21;7:610467. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Faculty of Medicine, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

There are few pieces of evidence on the association between nut consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This study investigated the relationship of nut consumption with the risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in the Iranian population. This population-based prospective cohort study was carried out in 6,504 randomly selected participants aged ≥35 years in central Iran (2001-2013) in the framework of the Isfahan Cohort Study. Dietary data were collected by a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire. Subjects or their next of kin were interviewed biannually, looking for the possible occurrence of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. During the median follow-up of 135 months and 52,704.3 person-years, we found a total of 751 CVD events. In unadjusted model, participants in the highest quartile of nut intake had a lower CVD risk {hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 0.57(0.47-0.70); for trend < 0.001}, CVD mortality [HR (95% CI): 0.54 (0.33-0.72); for trend < 0.001], and all-cause mortality [HR (95% CI): 0.24 (0.14-0.42); for trend < 0.001]. In the fully adjusted model, the association was diluted, and no significant relationship was found between nut intake and CVD events and all-cause mortality, except for CVD mortality in the highest quartile vs. the lowest one [HR (95% CI): 0.55 (0.30-0.98)]. Nut intake had an inverse association with the risk of CVD mortality. It is suggested to perform studies to examine the association of individual types of nuts and different preparation methods on CVD risk and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.610467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859480PMC
January 2021

Visceral Obesity and Its Shared Role in Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease: A Scoping Review of the Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Treatments.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 27;21(23). Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, Institute of Epidemiology & Health Care, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

The association between obesity, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been demonstrated in animal and epidemiological studies. However, the specific role of visceral obesity on cancer and CVD remains unclear. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a complex and metabolically active tissue, that can produce different adipokines and hormones, responsible for endocrine-metabolic comorbidities. This review explores the potential mechanisms related to VAT that may also be involved in cancer and CVD. In addition, we discuss the shared pharmacological treatments which may reduce the risk of both diseases. This review highlights that chronic inflammation, molecular aspects, metabolic syndrome, secretion of hormones and adiponectin associated to VAT may have synergistic effects and should be further studied in relation to cancer and CVD. Reductions in abdominal and visceral adiposity improve insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and cytokines, which consequently reduce the risk of CVD and some cancers. Several medications have shown to reduce visceral and/or subcutaneous fat. Further research is needed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms by which visceral obesity may cause both cancer and CVD. The role of visceral fat in cancer and CVD is an important area to advance. Public health policies to increase public awareness about VAT's role and ways to manage or prevent it are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730690PMC
November 2020

Pathways leading to prevention of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease: An interaction model on 15 years population-based cohort study.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 Sep 5;19(1):203. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: A comprehensive study on the interaction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is critical to prevent cardiovascular events. The main focus of this study is thus to understand direct and indirect relationships between different CVD risk factors.

Methods: A longitudinal data on adults aged ≥35 years, who were free of CVD at baseline, were used in this study. The endpoints were CVD events, whereas their measurements were demographic, lifestyle components, socio-economics, anthropometric measures, laboratory findings, quality of life status, and psychological factors. A Bayesian structural equation modelling was used to determine the relationships among 21 relevant factors associated with total CVD, stroke, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and fatal CVDs.

Results: In this study, a total of 3161 individuals with complete information were involved in the study. A total of 407 CVD events, with an average age of 54.77(10.66) years, occurred during follow-up. The causal associations between six latent variables were identified in the causal network for fatal and non-fatal CVDs. Lipid profile, with the coefficient of 0.26 (0.01), influenced the occurrence of CVD events as the most critical factor, while it was indirectly mediated through risky behaviours and comorbidities. Lipid profile at baseline was influenced by a wide range of other protective factors, such as quality of life and healthy lifestyle components.

Conclusions: Analysing a causal network of risk factors revealed the flow of information in direct and indirect paths. It also determined predictors and demonstrated the utility of integrating multi-factor data in a complex framework to identify novel preventable pathways to reduce the risk of CVDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01375-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487611PMC
September 2020

White Rice Intake and Incident Diabetes: A Study of 132,373 Participants in 21 Countries.

Diabetes Care 2020 11 1;43(11):2643-2650. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Objective: Previous prospective studies on the association of white rice intake with incident diabetes have shown contradictory results but were conducted in single countries and predominantly in Asia. We report on the association of white rice with risk of diabetes in the multinational Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study.

Research Design And Methods: Data on 132,373 individuals aged 35-70 years from 21 countries were analyzed. White rice consumption (cooked) was categorized as <150, ≥150 to <300, ≥300 to <450, and ≥450 g/day, based on one cup of cooked rice = 150 g. The primary outcome was incident diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a multivariable Cox frailty model.

Results: During a mean follow-up period of 9.5 years, 6,129 individuals without baseline diabetes developed incident diabetes. In the overall cohort, higher intake of white rice (≥450 g/day compared with <150 g/day) was associated with increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.40; for trend = 0.003). However, the highest risk was seen in South Asia (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.13-2.30; for trend = 0.02), followed by other regions of the world (which included South East Asia, Middle East, South America, North America, Europe, and Africa) (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.08-1.86; for trend = 0.01), while in China there was no significant association (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.77-1.40; for trend = 0.38).

Conclusions: Higher consumption of white rice is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes with the strongest association being observed in South Asia, while in other regions, a modest, nonsignificant association was seen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc19-2335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576435PMC
November 2020

Temporal Trends of the Incidence of Ischemic Heart Disease in Iran Over 15 Years: A Comprehensive Report from a Multi-Centric Hospital-Based Registry.

Clin Epidemiol 2020 6;12:847-856. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: We sought to explore the temporal trend of ischemic heart disease (IHD) incidence rate (IR) in a large city of Iran.

Methods: The study population comprised hospitalized patients who were living in Isfahan, Iran, with first or recurrent IHD during the period of 2001 to 2016. To identify patients, clinical diagnostic codes were applied according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10: I20.0, I21-I25) and the "World Health Organization Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease" diagnostic categories (WHO-MONICA). Using a direct method, we calculated age-, sex-, and place-of-residence-adjusted incidence rates based on multiple reference populations. To examine the long-term trend for the IR, a bootstrap robust zero-truncated negative binomial regression model was used.

Results: A total of 102,254 hospitalized patients, with a mean (SD) age of 61.85 (12.79), were registered between 2001 and 2016. After an initial reduction from 2006 to 2010, crude and adjusted IRs of IHD increased between 2010 and 2016. We further observed a significant increasing long-term temporal trend in the IR with an average annual change of 1.42% to 3.36% over the study period.

Conclusion: Our findings showed a decreasing trend in the IR of IHD between 2006 and 2010, possibly attributed to the comprehensive community-based interventions named "Isfahan Healthy Heart Program" performed from 2001 to 2007, followed by an increase in the adjusted IR of IHD between 2010 and 2016 in Isfahan; this indicates the importance of continuing the preventive measures to preclude the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in our population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S259953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429231PMC
August 2020

Is urinary sodium excretion related to anthropometric indicators of adiposity in adults?

J Res Med Sci 2020 22;25:50. Epub 2020 May 22.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Although increasing salt intake is associated with greater odds of obesity, little is known about its relationship with body fat. We investigated the relation of urinary sodium (UNa) with obesity indices, including Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE), a body shape index (ABSI), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR).

Materials And Methods: A total of 508 free-living adults aged ≥ 19 years were selected through stratified multistage random method as a representative of general population from central parts of Iran and were included in this cross-sectional study. Dietary sodium intake was measured using 24-h UNa (24-UNa) excretion. Weight, height, and WC were measured using standard protocols and calibrated equipment and used to measure obesity indicators, including BMI, WHtR, ABSI, and CUN-BAE. Adjusted univariate multiple logistic regression was used to assess the risk of having greater obesity measures across the tertiles of 24-UNa.

Results: Individuals in the top tertile of 24-UNa in comparison with those in the first tertile had greater body weight (72.02 ± 1.00 vs. 66.02 ± 0.89 kg; < 0.0001), BMI (26.14 ± 0.33 vs. 24.82 ± 0.29 kg/m; = 0.007), and CUN-BAE (29.89 ± 0.42 vs. 28.38 ± 0.78; = 0.036). There was a trend toward an increment in WC by increasing sodium intake ( = 0.073). After controlling for potential confounders, individuals with greater sodium consumption had greater chance for overweight (odds ratio [OR]: 1.004, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.001-1.007; = 0.015), abdominal obesity (OR: 1.004, 95% CI: 1.00-1.008; = 0.031), and more body fat (OR: 1.007, 95% CI: 1.003-1.01; = 0.001). No significant association was found for sodium and WHtR and ABSI.

Conclusion: Greater 24-UNa excretion was associated with greater means of body weight, BMI, WC, and CUN-BAE. Although changes in obesity indices per each additional 24-UNa excretion were small, our findings are relevant because of the rising obesity epidemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_1048_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377121PMC
May 2020

Association of dairy consumption with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes in 147 812 individuals from 21 countries.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 04;8(1)

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study.

Methods: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the , we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For , we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes).

Results: In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome.

Conclusions: Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326257PMC
April 2020

High dietary acid load score is not associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in Iranian adults.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2021 Jan 5;91(1-2):152-163. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Psychosomatic research center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The association between dietary acid load and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk is not well-known. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary acid load and the risk of MetS among Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 1430 Iranian adults. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary acid load was estimated using potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP). MetS was defined according to the ATP-III criteria. The risk of MetS and its components was explored using logistic regression test. Totally, 205 individuals were identified to have MetS. No significant association for MetS was found across the quartiles of PRAL and NEAP either in the crude model [Q4 PRAL: OR (95% CI): 0.94 (0.67-1.32), and NEAP: OR (95% CI): 0.88 (0.63-1.25)] or fully-adjusted model [Q4 PRAL: OR (95% CI): 0.90 (0.61-1.33), and NEAP: OR (95% CI): 1.05 (0.70-1.57)]. Amongst the components of MetS, higher scores of NEAP was associated with an increased risk of impaired blood sugar after adjustment for potential confounders [OR (95% CI): 1.35 (0.93-1.96)]. No significant association was found for other components either with PRAL or with NEAP. Our findings suggest no association between dietary acid load and MetS risk in Iranian adults. However, higher dietary acid load, measured by NEAP, but not PRAL, was associated with increased risk of impaired fasting blood sugar. Longitudinal studies are warranted to explore whether a diet low in potential acid load could reduce MetS risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000626DOI Listing
January 2021

The alternate-day fasting diet is a more effective approach than a calorie restriction diet on weight loss and hs-CRP levels.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2020 Jan 31:1-9. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran.

The aim of present study was to compare, and determine, the effects of a modified alternate-day fasting diet vs. calorie restriction on inflammatory indices and coagulation factors. This was a randomized clinical trial consisting of 80 metabolic syndrome patients, who were enrolled and randomly dichotomized into a modified alternate-day fasting diet or calorie restriction group for 4 months. We measured weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumstance (WC), waist-hip-ratio (WHR) and fat mass as primary outcomes and assessed high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and coagulation factors levels as secondary outcomes before and after intervention. Compared to the calorie restriction diet, following a modified alternate-day fasting diet led to a greater reduction in body weight (kg) (-6.43 ± 4.34 vs -4.11 ± 4.27; P = 0.02), BMI (kg/m) (-3.19 ± 2.90 vs -1.43 ± 2.72; P = 0.01), fat mass (kg) (-4.88 ± 2.09 vs -3.72 ± 2.43; P = 0.03), WC (cm) (-5.57 ± 5.64 vs -2.32 ± 5.95; P = 0.01) and WHR (-0.05 ± 0.06 vs -0.02 ± 0.07; P = 0.04). Furthermore, a greater change was found in hs-CRP levels (mg/L) (-2.06 ± 1.18 vs -0.97 ± 0.82; P = 0.03), prothrombin time (s) (1.41 ± 2.34 vs -0.41 ± 2.17; P < 0.001), activated partial thromboplastin time (s) (0.26 ± 3.70 vs -1.78 ± 3.56; P = 0.04) in modified alternate-day fasting diet when compared to calorie restriction diet. However, there was no difference in TNF-α or IL-6 and fibrinogen between groups (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that a modified alternate-day fasting diet can be a beneficial alternative for the management of body weight, fat mass and WC as well as hs-CRP and coagulation factors levels among metabolic syndrome patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000623DOI Listing
January 2020

Association of egg intake with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in 177,000 people in 50 countries.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 04;111(4):795-803

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Eggs are a rich source of essential nutrients, but they are also a source of dietary cholesterol. Therefore, some guidelines recommend limiting egg consumption. However, there is contradictory evidence on the impact of eggs on diseases, largely based on studies conducted in high-income countries.

Objectives: Our aim was to assess the association of egg consumption with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality in large global studies involving populations from low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

Methods: We studied 146,011 individuals from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Egg consumption was recorded using country-specific validated FFQs. We also studied 31,544 patients with vascular disease in 2 multinational prospective studies: ONTARGET (Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global End Point Trial) and TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACEI Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease). We calculated HRs using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering by study center separately within each study.

Results: In the PURE study, we recorded 14,700 composite events (8932 deaths and 8477 CVD events). In the PURE study, after excluding those with history of CVD, higher intake of egg (≥7 egg/wk compared with <1 egg/wk intake) was not significantly associated with blood lipids, composite outcome (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.04; P-trend = 0.74), total mortality (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.15; P-trend = 0.38), or major CVD (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.01; P-trend = 0.20). Similar results were observed in ONTARGET/TRANSCEND studies for composite outcome (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.25; P-trend = 0.09), total mortality (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55), and major CVD (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.29; P-trend = 0.12).

Conclusions: In 3 large international prospective studies including ∼177,000 individuals, 12,701 deaths, and 13,658 CVD events from 50 countries in 6 continents, we did not find significant associations between egg intake and blood lipids, mortality, or major CVD events. The ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00153101. The PURE trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03225586.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138651PMC
April 2020

Essential hypertension in children, a growing worldwide problem.

J Res Med Sci 2019 23;24:109. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Hypertension is one of the most common diseases worldwide. For many decades, it was considered as a problem related to adult population; however, its incidence in children has also been increased in recent years. Although secondary causes of hypertension are more common in children, few studies have been published focusing on the growing epidemic rate of essential hypertension in children and adolescents. Considering the importance of essential hypertension and its cardiovascular consequences, we review briefly its epidemiology and risk factors in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_641_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950331PMC
December 2019

Modified alternate-day fasting vs. calorie restriction in the treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized clinical trial.

Complement Ther Med 2019 Dec 28;47:102187. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Faculty Research Centre for Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, UK.

Objective: The aim of present study was to compare the effect of calorie restriction and modified alternate-day fasting diet on treatment of adults with metabolic syndrome.

Design: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 70 participants diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.

Setting: Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups to follow either calorie restriction or a modified alternate-day fasting diet for 8 weeks. Diets was prescribed by dietitians and specialized for each participant. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and lipid profile were measured at baseline and after trial conclusion.

Results: 69, out of 70, participants completed the study and were included in the final analysis. The results showed that, compared with calorie restriction, following the modified alternate-day fasting diet significantly reduced body weight (P = 0.003), waist circumference (P = 0.026), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.029) and fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.009). However, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in triglyceride (P = 0.614), total cholesterol (P = 0.759), LDL-C (P = 0.289), HDL-C (P = 0.909), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.262), HOMA- IR (P = 0.425) and fasting insulin concentrations (P = 0.496). In addition, the participants did not report any complaint due to difficulties with diet adherence when following calorie restriction or modified alternate-day fasting diet.

Conclusions: the present study suggests that modified alternate-day fasting diet may be a more effective option in managing body weight, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, compared with common calorie restriction. Further studies are needed to confirm the veracity of our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.08.021DOI Listing
December 2019

Trend of salt intake measured by 24-hour urine collection samples among Iranian adults population between 1998 and 2013: The Isfahan salt study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2019 12 27;29(12):1323-1329. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background And Aim: Few population-based studies conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean region assessed salt intake by the measurement of 24-h sodium urine excretion (24-hUNa). The current study aimed to assess the trend of mean salt intake in Iranian adults between 1998 and 2013.

Methods And Results: These cross-sectional studies were performed on 564, 157, 509 and 837 randomly selected healthy adults aged >18 years from Isfahan city, Iran, in 1998, 2001, 2007 and 2013, respectively. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer according to a standard protocol. Single 24-h urine was collected to assess 24-hUNa as a surrogate of salt intake, and 24-h urinary K (24-hUK). The estimated trend of salt intake was 9.5, 9.7, 9.6 and 10.2 g/day in total population (P < 0.001). The increase in salt intake between 1998 and 2013 was significant only in men, (P < 0.001). The risk of pre-hypertension was 21% and 18% significantly greater in the highest quartiles of UNa/UK after adjustment for potential confounders in 2001 and 2013, respectively, [OR (95% CI): 1.21 (1.03-1.64) and 1.18 (1.02-1.38), respectively].

Conclusions: This population-based study indicated that mean salt intake was about two times of recommendation in Isfahan city, Iran, and suggest that it would be essential to implement a salt reduction strategy program in Iranian population. Longitudinal national studies with larger samples examining the trend of salt intake are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2019.07.019DOI Listing
December 2019

Can methods based on spot urine samples be used to estimate average population 24 h sodium excretion? Results from the Isfahan Salt Study.

Public Health Nutr 2020 02 24;23(2):202-213. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 3rd Moshtagh St., 81583-88994 Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: To assess agreement between established methods of estimating salt intake from spot urine collections and 24 h urinary Na (24hUNa) and then to develop a valid formula that can be used in the Iranian population to estimate salt intake from spot urine samples.

Design: A validation study. Three spot urine samples were collected (fasting second-void morning; afternoon; evening) on the same day as a 24 h urine collection. We estimated 24hUNa from spot specimens using the Kawasaki, Tanaka and INTERSALT equations. Two new formulas were developed, the Iran formula 1 (Iran 1) and Iran formula 2 (Iran 2), based on our population characteristics.

Setting: Iranian adults recruited in 2014-2015.

Participants: Healthy volunteer adults aged ≥18 years.

Results: With all three spot urine specimens, predicted population 24hUNa was underestimated based on the INTERSALT equation (-469 to -708 mg/d; all P < 0·05) and conversely overestimation occurred with the Kawasaki equation (926 to 1080 mg/d; all P < 0·01). The Tanaka equation produced comparable estimates to measured 24hUNa (-151 to 86 mg/d; all P > 0·49). The newly derived formulas, Iran 1 and Iran 2, showed less mean bias than the established equations (Iran 1: 43 to 80 mg/d, all P > 0·55; Iran 2: 22 to 90 mg/d, all P > 0·50).

Conclusions: In this Iranian sample, the Tanaka equation and newly derived formulas produced group-level estimates comparable to measured 24hUNa. The newly developed formulas showed less mean bias than established equations; however, they need to be tested for generalization in a larger sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S136898001900257XDOI Listing
February 2020

Temporal trend analysis of stroke and salt intake: a 15-year population-based study.

Nutr Neurosci 2019 Sep 13:1-11. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.

The aim of this study was to evaluate temporal trends of salt intake with stroke incidence, stroke subtypes, and blood pressure in an adult population. Data were extracted from Isfahan Salt Study. The stroke incidence rate, average salt intake, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults, aged over 18 years were considered from 2000 to 2014. The Average Annual Percent Changes (AAPC), parallelism, and the coincidence of trends were estimated, using a permutation test. The trend of salt intake was increased from 2010 to 2014 (AAPC = +1.59, -value = 0.004). The trend of the stroke incidence rate was nonlinear with two change points in 2003 and 2009. The overall stroke incidence rate increased by 6.65% per year (95% CI: 1.66, 11.8, -value = 0.015). The temporal trend changes of stroke incidence rate were steeper in patients who aged 40-45 and over 50 years (+6 to +11.5%) than in patients who aged 19-40 and 45-50 (range: -3.3% to 0). The parallelism hypothesis of longitudinal changes between salt intake and ischemic stroke was accepted in patients, aged <50 years (-value = 0.871). The average salt intake and its cone-shaped variance over 15 years of the study, indicated that salt intake reduction programs and policies were effective to stop associating intake increase until 2007, however, associated intake was increased since that time, which necessitates performing preventive programs. More importantly, the trend of salt intake and ischemic stroke was similar in patients who aged <50 years, regardless of considering their blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2019.1638665DOI Listing
September 2019

The effect of educational and encouragement interventions on anthropometric characteristics, obestatin and adiponectin levels.

ARYA Atheroscler 2019 May;15(3):123-129

Professor, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Lifestyle modification is the most important strategy for control of obesity and overweight. Obestatin and adiponectin are the biomarkers of obesity. Thus, this study was performed to examine the effect of educational and encouragement interventions and lifestyle modifications on obesity anthropometric as well as obestatin and adiponectin levels.

Methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted on a subsample of TABASSOM study. Participants were 41 overweight and obese children and adolescents aged 6-18 years old and 45 overweight and obese adults aged 19-65 years old. Anthropometric characteristics including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and body fat percentage (BFP) were measured at the first and after one year at the end of study. We implemented some educational and encouragement interventions regarding dietary modification and physical activity during the study. Obestatin and adiponectin levels were measured at the first and end of study by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.

Results: The study did not show significant effect on anthropometric characteristics such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). BFP decreased significantly in boys, total children and adolescent group, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) decreased significantly only in adolescent boys after 1 year (P < 0.050).

Conclusion: Educational and encouraging interventions and lifestyle modifications could lead to decrease of body WHR and BFP in adolescent boys. This is helpful in controlling the increasing rate of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v15i3.1588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698083PMC
May 2019

Effectiveness of polypill for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (PolyIran): a pragmatic, cluster-randomised trial.

Lancet 2019 08;394(10199):672-683

Digestive Disease Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Liver and Pancreaticobiliary Disease Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: A fixed-dose combination therapy (polypill strategy) has been proposed as an approach to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease, especially in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). The PolyIran study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of a four-component polypill including aspirin, atorvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, and either enalapril or valsartan for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Methods: The PolyIran study was a two-group, pragmatic, cluster-randomised trial nested within the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a cohort study with 50 045 participants aged 40-75 years from the Golestan province in Iran. Clusters (villages) were randomly allocated (1:1) to either a package of non-pharmacological preventive interventions alone (minimal care group) or together with a once-daily polypill tablet (polypill group). Randomisation was stratified by three districts (Gonbad, Aq-Qala, and Kalaleh), with the village as the unit of randomisation. We used a balanced randomisation algorithm, considering block sizes of 20 and balancing for cluster size or natural log of the cluster size (depending on the skewness within strata). Randomisation was done at a fixed point in time (Jan 18, 2011) by statisticians at the University of Birmingham (Birmingham, UK), independent of the local study team. The non-pharmacological preventive interventions (including educational training about healthy lifestyle-eg, healthy diet with low salt, sugar, and fat content, exercise, weight control, and abstinence from smoking and opium) were delivered by the PolyIran field visit team at months 3 and 6, and then every 6 months thereafter. Two formulations of polypill tablet were used in this study. Participants were first prescribed polypill one (hydrochlorothiazide 12·5 mg, aspirin 81 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg, and enalapril 5 mg). Participants who developed cough during follow-up were switched by a trained study physician to polypill two, which included valsartan 40 mg instead of enalapril 5 mg. Participants were followed up for 60 months. The primary outcome-occurrence of major cardiovascular events (including hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, fatal myocardial infarction, sudden death, heart failure, coronary artery revascularisation procedures, and non-fatal and fatal stroke)-was centrally assessed by the GCS follow-up team, who were masked to allocation status. We did intention-to-treat analyses by including all participants who met eligibility criteria in the two study groups. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01271985.

Findings: Between Feb 22, 2011, and April 15, 2013, we enrolled 6838 individuals into the study-3417 (in 116 clusters) in the minimal care group and 3421 (in 120 clusters) in the polypill group. 1761 (51·5%) of 3421 participants in the polypill group were women, as were 1679 (49·1%) of 3417 participants in the minimal care group. Median adherence to polypill tablets was 80·5% (IQR 48·5-92·2). During follow-up, 301 (8·8%) of 3417 participants in the minimal care group had major cardiovascular events compared with 202 (5·9%) of 3421 participants in the polypill group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·66, 95% CI 0·55-0·80). We found no statistically significant interaction with the presence (HR 0·61, 95% CI 0·49-0·75) or absence of pre-existing cardiovascular disease (0·80; 0·51-1·12; p=0·19). When restricted to participants in the polypill group with high adherence, the reduction in the risk of major cardiovascular events was even greater compared with the minimal care group (adjusted HR 0·43, 95% CI 0·33-0·55). The frequency of adverse events was similar between the two study groups. 21 intracranial haemorrhages were reported during the 5 years of follow-up-ten participants in the polypill group and 11 participants in the minimal care group. There were 13 physician-confirmed diagnoses of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the polypill group and nine in the minimal care group.

Interpretation: Use of polypill was effective in preventing major cardiovascular events. Medication adherence was high and adverse event numbers were low. The polypill strategy could be considered as an additional effective component in controlling cardiovascular diseases, especially in LMICs.

Funding: Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Barakat Foundation, and Alborz Darou.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31791-XDOI Listing
August 2019

Long-term association of nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2019 09 8;29(9):972-982. Epub 2019 May 8.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background And Aims: Long-term associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors are not well known. We investigated the relationship between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and obesity in a cohort of Iranian adults.

Methods And Results: The study was conducted within the framework of the Isfahan Cohort Study on 1387 healthy participants. The participants were followed up for 12 years. A validated food frequency questionnaire was completed, and anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting serum lipids and blood sugar were evaluated in three phases. Mixed-effects binary logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors. The participants were classified according to the tertiles of nut consumption as cut-points, and associations were evaluated between the thirds of nut intake. Subjects in the last third were less likely to have hypercholesterolemia [OR (95% CI): 0.76 (0.60-0.97)], hypertriglyceridemia [OR (95% CI): 0.74 (0.58-0.93)], and obesity [OR (95% CI): 0.79 (0.50-0.98)] but more likely to have DM [OR (95% CI): 1.85 (1.27-2.68)] than those in the first third. However, after adjustment for various potential confounders, the associations remained significant only for obesity [OR (95% CI): 0.67 (0.48-0.94)] and DM [OR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.37-3.64)].

Conclusion: After adjustment for potential confounders, we observed an inverse association for nut consumption and obesity but positive association for DM and nut intake. On the basis of our findings, it is suggested that incorporation of nuts into people's usual diet may have beneficial effects for individuals with lower risk such as subjects without DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2019.04.014DOI Listing
September 2019

Socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in 20 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries: the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic (PURE) study.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 06 23;7(6):e748-e760. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Socioeconomic status is associated with differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease incidence and outcomes, including mortality. However, it is unclear whether the associations between cardiovascular disease and common measures of socioeconomic status-wealth and education-differ among high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries, and, if so, why these differences exist. We explored the association between education and household wealth and cardiovascular disease and mortality to assess which marker is the stronger predictor of outcomes, and examined whether any differences in cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status parallel differences in risk factor levels or differences in management.

Methods: In this large-scale prospective cohort study, we recruited adults aged between 35 years and 70 years from 367 urban and 302 rural communities in 20 countries. We collected data on families and households in two questionnaires, and data on cardiovascular risk factors in a third questionnaire, which was supplemented with physical examination. We assessed socioeconomic status using education and a household wealth index. Education was categorised as no or primary school education only, secondary school education, or higher education, defined as completion of trade school, college, or university. Household wealth, calculated at the household level and with household data, was defined by an index on the basis of ownership of assets and housing characteristics. Primary outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (a composite of cardiovascular deaths, strokes, myocardial infarction, and heart failure), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. Information on specific events was obtained from participants or their family.

Findings: Recruitment to the study began on Jan 12, 2001, with most participants enrolled between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2014. 160 299 (87·9%) of 182 375 participants with baseline data had available follow-up event data and were eligible for inclusion. After exclusion of 6130 (3·8%) participants without complete baseline or follow-up data, 154 169 individuals remained for analysis, from five low-income, 11 middle-income, and four high-income countries. Participants were followed-up for a mean of 7·5 years. Major cardiovascular events were more common among those with low levels of education in all types of country studied, but much more so in low-income countries. After adjustment for wealth and other factors, the HR (low level of education vs high level of education) was 1·23 (95% CI 0·96-1·58) for high-income countries, 1·59 (1·42-1·78) in middle-income countries, and 2·23 (1·79-2·77) in low-income countries (p<0·0001). We observed similar results for all-cause mortality, with HRs of 1·50 (1·14-1·98) for high-income countries, 1·80 (1·58-2·06) in middle-income countries, and 2·76 (2·29-3·31) in low-income countries (p<0·0001). By contrast, we found no or weak associations between wealth and these two outcomes. Differences in outcomes between educational groups were not explained by differences in risk factors, which decreased as the level of education increased in high-income countries, but increased as the level of education increased in low-income countries (p<0·0001). Medical care (eg, management of hypertension, diabetes, and secondary prevention) seemed to play an important part in adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes because such care is likely to be poorer in people with the lowest levels of education compared to those with higher levels of education in low-income countries; however, we observed less marked differences in care based on level of education in middle-income countries and no or minor differences in high-income countries.

Interpretation: Although people with a lower level of education in low-income and middle-income countries have higher incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease, they have better overall risk factor profiles. However, these individuals have markedly poorer health care. Policies to reduce health inequities globally must include strategies to overcome barriers to care, especially for those with lower levels of education.

Funding: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30045-2DOI Listing
June 2019

Dietary patterns in relation to lipid profiles among Iranian adults.

J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2019 13;11(1):19-27. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Lipid metabolism is one of the main concerns of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Little is known about the association between dietary patterns and dyslipidemia. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine such association among Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1433 Iranian adults in Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). Usual dietary intakes were assessed with the use of a 48 items food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Three major dietary patterns were identified: western, semi healthy and healthy fat patterns. After adjustment, subjects in the upper quartiles of western dietary pattern were more likely to have high total cholesterol concentrations than those in the first quartile (odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.25-3.42). Individuals with greater adherence to western dietary pattern had greater odds of having high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared with those in the lowest quartiles (2.53; 1.45-4.40). Semi healthy dietary pattern was not associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Same trend was observed for healthy fat dietary pattern. Significant association was found between western dietary pattern and dyslipidemia among Iranian adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jcvtr.2019.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6477103PMC
March 2019

Low correlation between morning spot and 24-hour urine samples for estimating sodium intake in an Iranian population: Isfahan Salt Study.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2019 Sep 19;89(3-4):185-191. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Nutrition Department, The Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

Although difficult, the 24-hour urine sodium excretion is still considered as the gold standard method to estimate salt intake. The current study aimed to assess the validity of using spot urine samples in comparison with the standard 24-hour urine collection to estimate sodium and potassium intake in healthy Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on 1099 healthy Iranians aged 18-69 years. Samples of 24-hour and fasting morning spot urine were collected to measure sodium and potassium excretions. Tanaka's formula was utilized to predict the 24-hour sodium and potassium urinary excretions based on the spot values. The difference between measured and estimated sodium excretion values was 4265 mg/day (95% CI: 4106-4424; P < 0.001) and 2242 mg/day in case of potassium excretion (95% CI: 2140-2344; P < 0.001). There was a weak significant correlation between the 24-hour urine sodium and potassium excretion and the predicted values (intraclass correlations: 0.22 and 0.28, respectively; both P < 0.001). The weak association between the predicted and measured values of sodium and potassium along with the marked overestimation of daily sodium and potassium excretions based on the spot urine and using Tanaka formula indicates that Tanaka formula is not practical for the prediction of sodium and potassium or salt intake in Iranian adults. Using other spot urine sampling times and/or adopting a formula designed based on the characteristics of the Iranian population may increase the validity of spot urine tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000558DOI Listing
September 2019