Publications by authors named "Normala Ibrahim"

33 Publications

Diagnostic power of resting-state fMRI for detection of network connectivity in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Computer and Communication System Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) detects functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities that occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). FC of the default mode network (DMN) is commonly impaired in AD and MCI. We conducted a systematic review aimed at determining the diagnostic power of rs-fMRI to identify FC abnormalities in the DMN of patients with AD or MCI compared with healthy controls (HCs) using machine learning (ML) methods. Multimodal support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was the commonest form of ML method utilized. Multiple kernel approach can be utilized to aid in the classification by incorporating various discriminating features, such as FC graphs based on "nodes" and "edges" together with structural MRI-based regional cortical thickness and gray matter volume. Other multimodal features include neuropsychiatric testing scores, DTI features, and regional cerebral blood flow. Among AD patients, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/Precuneus was noted to be a highly affected hub of the DMN that demonstrated overall reduced FC. Whereas reduced DMN FC between the PCC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was observed in MCI patients. Evidence indicates that the nodes of the DMN can offer moderate to high diagnostic power to distinguish AD and MCI patients. Nevertheless, various concerns over the homogeneity of data based on patient selection, scanner effects, and the variable usage of classifiers and algorithms pose a challenge for ML-based image interpretation of rs-fMRI datasets to become a mainstream option for diagnosing AD and predicting the conversion of HC/MCI to AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25369DOI Listing
May 2021

Serotonergic receptor gene polymorphism and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in ethnic Malay patients with first episode of major depressive disorder.

Pharmacogenomics J 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Pharmacotherapeutics Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

The polymorphisms of the 5HTR1A and 5HTR2A receptor genes (rs6295C/G and rs6311G/A) have been evaluated for association with SSRI treatment outcome in various populations with different results. The present study was carried out to determine the association between genotypes of HTR1A-rs6295 and HTR2A-rs6311 with SSRI treatment outcome among the ethnic Malay patients diagnosed with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). The patients were recruited from four tertiary hospitals in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Predefined efficacy phenotypes based on 25% (partial early response) and 50% (clinical efficacy response) reduction in Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale-self Rated score (MADRS-S) were adopted for assessment of treatment efficacy in this study. Self-reporting for adverse effects (AE) was documented using the Patient Rated Inventory of Side Effect (PRISE) after treatment with SSRI for up to 6 weeks. Adjusted binary logistic regression between genotypes of the polymorphism obtained using sequencing technique with the treatment outcome phenotypes was performed. The 142 patients recruited were made up of 96 females (67.6%) and 46 males (32.4%). Clinical efficacy and Partial early response phenotypes were not significantly associated with genotypes of HTR1A and HTR2A polymorphism. The GG genotype of HTR2A polymorphism has decreased odds for dizziness (CNS) and increased odds for poor concentration. The GA genotype increases the odd for excessive sweating, diarrhoea, constipation and blurred vision. The CC genotype of HTR1A-rs6295 decreases the odd for nausea/vomiting and increases the odd for anxiety. Thus, some genotypes of HTR1A and HTR2A polymorphism were associated with SSRI treatment outcomes in ethnic Malay MDD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41397-021-00228-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Effectiveness of Online Mindfulness-Based Intervention (iMBI) on Inattention, Hyperactivity-Impulsivity, and Executive Functioning in College Emerging Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Study Protocol.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 30;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common neurodevelopmental disorder, often persists into adulthood. In Malaysia, the prevalence rate of hyperactivity symptoms is highest among Chinese Malaysians. There are limited evidence-based treatment options targeting the core symptoms of ADHD, as well as executive functioning. In addition, conventional psychotherapeutic approaches for adults with ADHD have been found to be highly labor-intensive. The present study will evaluate the effectiveness of an online mindfulness-based intervention to reduce inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and improve executive functioning among Chinese Malaysian college emerging adults with ADHD. Informed by established literature, we will design an 8-week online mindfulness-based intervention (i.e., iMBI). We will conduct a two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing an iMBI plus treatment-as-usual group ( = 54) and an enhanced treatment-as-usual control group ( = 54). Outcome measures of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and executive functioning will be collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 1-month post-intervention. The findings of the present study will not only demonstrate the implementation of iMBI as a new treatment modality but also inform practitioners on the effectiveness of iMBI in reducing the burden of adults living with ADHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908460PMC
January 2021

Association of Internet Addiction with Adolescents' Lifestyle: A National School-Based Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 29;18(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is an issue of growing concern with adverse effects on adolescents' health and social functioning. This study aims to determine the prevalence of IA among school-going adolescents in Malaysia and its associated factors-specifically, lifestyle factors. A nationwide cross-sectional school-based health survey was conducted in 2017 among 27,497 students from 212 randomly selected secondary schools. Information regarding sociodemography, lifestyle, and internet use was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. IA was measured using the Malay Version of Internet Addiction Test (MVIAT). The prevalence of internet addiction was 29.0%. A multivariable logistic analysis revealed that inadequate fruit and vegetable intakes, consumed carbonated soft drinks at least once a day, consumed fast food at least three days/week, sedentary behavior, current E-cigarette users, and ever/current alcohol drinkers were lifestyle factors significantly associated with IA. Adolescents from urban schools, of higher school grade, and those whose parents are married but living apart were also found to have a greater risk for internet addiction. A positive association was found between IA with unhealthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents. The modification of lifestyle factors needs to be considered while developing strategies and interventions for awareness-raising and prevention of IA among adolescents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801949PMC
December 2020

BsmI-ApaI-TaqI TAC (BAt) Haplotype of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Is Associated with Increased Risk of Major Depressive Disorder.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 May 9;71(5):981-990. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Heritability of major depressive disorder (MDD) is between 36 and 44%, suggesting that up to nearly half of the phenotypic variability is attributable to genes. A number of genetic polymorphisms have been shown to predispose certain individuals to depression. Of particular interest are the polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. Although the VDR gene has been well characterized and a vast number of polymorphisms have been identified, the association between BsmI (rs1544410), ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), together with their haplotypes, and MDD risk have yet to be established. We conducted a matched case-control study with a total of 600 participants comprising 300 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 300 controls matched by age, gender and ethnicity in a 1:1 ratio, in four public hospitals in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Three adjacent SNPs of the VDR gene-BsmI (rs1544410), ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236)-were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from conditional logistic regression using Stata 16. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype association with MDD were analyzed using the online SNPStats program. None of the genotypes of the three SNPs was significantly associated with risk of developing MDD after adjusting for confounding factors. However, the TAC (BAt) haplotype was associated with increased odds of MDD (adjusted OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.30-3.61, p = 0.003) using CCT (baT) as reference haplotype. The findings suggest that the BsmI-ApaI-TaqI TAC (BAt) haplotype of the VDR gene increases susceptibility to MDD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01719-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Relations of Bedtime Mobile Phone Use to Cognitive Functioning, Academic Performance, and Sleep Quality in Undergraduate Students.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 29;17(19). Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

The present cross-sectional study examined the relations of bedtime mobile phone use to cognitive functioning, academic performance, and sleep quality in a sample of undergraduate students. Three hundred eighty-five undergraduate students completed a self-administered questionnaire containing sociodemographic variables, bedtime mobile phone use, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (attention and verbal memory). At bivariate level, increased scores in bedtime mobile phone use were significantly correlated with decreased scores in academic performance and sleep quality. Our multivariate findings show that increased scores in bedtime mobile phone use uniquely predicted decreased scores in academic performance and sleep quality, while controlling for gender, age, and ethnicity. Further untangling the relations of bedtime mobile phone use to academic performance and sleep quality may prove complex. Future studies with longitudinal data are needed to examine the bidirectional effect that bedtime mobile phone use may have on academic performance and sleep quality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579316PMC
September 2020

Relations of Bedtime Mobile Phone Use to Cognitive Functioning, Academic Performance, and Sleep Quality in Undergraduate Students.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 29;17(19). Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

The present cross-sectional study examined the relations of bedtime mobile phone use to cognitive functioning, academic performance, and sleep quality in a sample of undergraduate students. Three hundred eighty-five undergraduate students completed a self-administered questionnaire containing sociodemographic variables, bedtime mobile phone use, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (attention and verbal memory). At bivariate level, increased scores in bedtime mobile phone use were significantly correlated with decreased scores in academic performance and sleep quality. Our multivariate findings show that increased scores in bedtime mobile phone use uniquely predicted decreased scores in academic performance and sleep quality, while controlling for gender, age, and ethnicity. Further untangling the relations of bedtime mobile phone use to academic performance and sleep quality may prove complex. Future studies with longitudinal data are needed to examine the bidirectional effect that bedtime mobile phone use may have on academic performance and sleep quality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579316PMC
September 2020

Predictors of recurrence of major depressive disorder.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(3):e0230363. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

A total of 201 patients with major depressive disorder from four hospitals in Malaysia were followed up for 5 years to determine the prognostic factors of recurrent major depressive disorder that could potentially contribute to improving the management of MDD patients. For each individual patient, at the time of recruitment as part of a case-control study, information was collected on recent threatening life events, personality and social and occupational functioning, while blood samples were collected to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR), zinc transporter-3 (ZnT3), dopamine transporter-1 (DAT1), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), serotonin receptor 1A (HT1A) and 2A (HT2A) genes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression were used to estimate hazard functions for recurrence of major depressive disorder. Individuals with severe MDD in previous major depressive episodes had five and a half times higher hazard of developing recurrence compared to mild and moderate MDD (HR = 5.565, 95% CI = 1.631-18.994, p = 0.006). Individuals who scored higher on social avoidance had three and a half times higher hazard of recurrence of MDD (HR = 3.525, 95% CI = 1.349-9.209; p = 0.010). There was significant interaction between ApaI +64978C>A single nucleotide polymorphism and severity. The hazard ratio increased by 6.4 times from mild and moderate to severe MDD for A/A genotype while that for C/A genotype increased by 11.3 times. Social avoidance and severity of depression at first episode were prognostic of recurrence. Screening for personality factors at first encounter with MDD patients needs to be considered as part of the clinical practice. For those at risk of recurrence in relation to social avoidance, the psychological intervention prescribed should be customized to focus on this modifiable factor. Prompt and appropriate management of severe MDD is recommended to reduce risk of recurrence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230363PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082055PMC
June 2020

Effectiveness of a culturally adapted biopsychosocial intervention (POHON SIHAT) in improving self-efficacy in patients with diabetes attending primary healthcare clinics in Putrajaya, Malaysia: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2020 02 16;10(2):e033920. Epub 2020 Feb 16.

Department of Psychiatry, St. Vincent's Mental Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: People with diabetes are often associated with multifaceted factors and comorbidities. Diabetes management frameworks need to integrate a biopsychosocial, patient-centred approach. Despite increasing efforts in promotion and diabetes education, interventions integrating both physical and mental health components are still lacking in Malaysia. The Optimal Health Programme (OHP) offers an innovative biopsychosocial framework to promote overall well-being and self-efficacy, going beyond education alone and has been identified as relevant within the primary care system. Following a comprehensive cultural adaptation process, Malaysia's first OHP was developed under the name 'Pohon Sihat' (OHP). The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the mental health-based self-management and wellness programme in improving self-efficacy and well-being in primary care patients with diabetes mellitus.

Methods And Analysis: This biopsychosocial intervention randomised controlled trial will engage patients (n=156) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from four primary healthcare clinics in Putrajaya. Participants will be randomised to either OHP plus treatment as usual. The 2-hour weekly sessions over five consecutive weeks, and 2-hour booster session post 3 months will be facilitated by trained mental health practitioners and diabetes educators. Primary outcomes will include self-efficacy measures, while secondary outcomes will include well-being, anxiety, depression, self-care behaviours and haemoglobin A1c glucose test. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, immediately postintervention, as well as at 3 months and 6 months postintervention. Where appropriate, intention-to-treat analyses will be performed.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study has ethics approval from the Medical Research and Ethics Committee, Ministry of Health Malaysia (NMRR-17-3426-38212). Study findings will be shared with the Ministry of Health Malaysia and participating healthcare clinics. Outcomes will also be shared through publication, conference presentations and publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03601884.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044963PMC
February 2020

Effect of a School-Based Anxiety Prevention Program among Primary School Children.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 12 5;16(24). Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang Selangor 43300, Malaysia.

Anxiety is one of the most common mental health disorders in childhood, and children with anxiety have an increased risk of psychiatric disorders during adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based anxiety prevention program for reducing anxiety among primary school students relative to a school-as-usual control group. Secondary to this, the current study aimed to examine the effect of a school-based prevention program on worry coping skills and self-esteem. A two-group parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of a single-blinded study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the program, with schools as the unit of allocation and individual participants as the unit of analysis. The intervention program was conducted between May 2016 and December 2017. The primary outcome was anxiety, whereas the secondary outcomes were worry coping skills and self-esteem measured at three months post-intervention. Data were analyzed by using a generalized linear mixed model, accounting for the clustering effect. Subgroup analyses were performed for children with anxiety. A total of 461 students participated in this study. At baseline, there was no significant difference between groups for anxiety score, worry coping skills score, and self-esteem score ( > 0.05). The intervention was effective in reducing anxiety for the whole sample ( = 0.001) and the anxiety subgroup ( = 0.001). However, it was not effective in improving worry coping skills and self-esteem. These findings suggest that the program could be effective for reducing symptoms of anxiety when delivered in schools and provide some support for delivering this type of program in primary school settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950005PMC
December 2019

Improving multicultural parenting program for children with emotional and behavioral problems: An integrated review.

Asian J Psychiatr 2020 Jun 21;51:101851. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Children with emotional and behavioral problems are often managed using medications or behavioral therapy, but in some countries, there is no structured parenting intervention to equip parents from different cultural backgrounds with adequate parenting skills to help these children. This paper aims to synthesize key findings from previous research on multicultural parenting programs and produce a comprehensive integrated view by looking into three separate themes: effective multicultural parenting programs, ethnocultural groups and cultural adaptation process. Literature search through Scopus and Google Scholar from 1999 to 2019 was conducted using the terms "effective parenting program", "effective parenting intervention", "effective multicultural parenting program", "effective multicultural parenting intervention", "multicultural parenting program", "multicultural parenting intervention", "parenting program and ethnic groups", "parenting intervention and ethnic groups", "adapted parenting program", "adapted parenting intervention", "cultural adaptation of parenting program'' and "cultural adaptation of parenting intervention". By applying the "Literature Review Synthesis Process", authors conducted cross-analysis, integrated possibilities, and prioritized the synthesized information gearing towards highly probable solutions for improving multicultural parenting programs to manage emotional and behavioral problems in children better. Development of a culturally fit parenting intervention and its implications on existing parenting programs are also discussed. The findings highlight the need 1) to engage with ethnocultural groups of parents during development of a new multicultural parenting program, and 2) to incorporate specific measures for engaging with parents during multicultural parenting program implementation. This paper contributes in acknowledging cultural components in future parenting intervention programs. Finally, recommendations are made for future directions of research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2019.101851DOI Listing
June 2020

Genetic endophenotypes for insomnia of major depressive disorder and treatment-induced insomnia.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2019 06 18;126(6):711-722. Epub 2019 May 18.

Pharmacotherapeutics Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is primarily hinged on the presence of either low mood and/or anhedonia to previously pleasurable events for a minimum of 2 weeks. Other clinical features that characterize MDD include disturbances in sleep, appetite, concentration and thoughts. The combination of any/both of the primary MDD symptoms as well as any four of the other clinical features has been referred to as MDD. The challenge for replicating gene association findings with phenotypes of MDD as well as its treatment outcome is putatively due to stratification of MDD patients. Likelihood for replication of gene association findings is hypothesized with specificity in symptoms profile (homogenous clusters of symptom/individual symptoms) evaluated. The current review elucidates the genetic factors that have been associated with insomnia symptom of MDD phenotype, insomnia symptom as a constellation of neuro-vegetative cluster of MDD symptom, insomnia symptom of MDD as an individual entity and insomnia feature of treatment outcome. Homozygous CC genotype of 3111T/C, GSK3B-AT/TT genotype of rs33458 and haplotype of TPH1 218A/C were associated with insomnia symptom of MDD. Insomnia symptom of MDD was not resolved in patients with the A/A genotype of HTR2A-rs6311 when treated with SSRI. Homozygous short (SS) genotype-HTTLPR, GG genotype of HTR2A-rs6311 and CC genotype of HTR2A-rs6313 were associated with AD treatment-induced insomnia, while val/met genotype of BDNF-rs6265 and the TT genotype of GSK-3beta-rs5443 reduced it. Dearth of association studies may remain the bane for the identification of robust genetic endophenotypes in line with findings for genotypes of HTR2A-rs6311.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-019-02014-yDOI Listing
June 2019

Screening of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) single nucleotide polymorphisms and plasma BDNF levels among Malaysian major depressive disorder patients.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(1):e0211241. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin found in abundance in brain regions such as the hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum and basal forebrain. It has been associated with the risk of susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to determine the association of three BDNF variants (rs6265, rs1048218 and rs1048220) with Malaysian MDD patients.

Methods: The correlation of these variants to the plasma BDNF level among Malaysian MDD patients was assessed. A total of 300 cases and 300 matched controls recruited from four public hospitals within the Klang Valley of Selangor State, Malaysia and matched for age, sex and ethnicity were screened for BDNF rs6265, rs1048218 and rs1048220 using high resolution melting (HRM).

Findings: BDNF rs1048218 and BDNF rs1048220 were monomorphic and were excluded from further analysis. The distribution of the alleles and genotypes for BDNF rs6265 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the controls (p = 0.13) but was in Hardy Weinberg disequilibrium for the cases (p = 0.011). Findings from this study indicated that having BDNF rs6265 in the Malaysian population increase the odds of developing MDD by 2.05 folds (95% CI = 1.48-3.65). Plasma from 206 cases and 206 controls were randomly selected to measure the BDNF level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A significant decrease in the plasma BDNF level of the cases as compared to controls (p<0.0001) was observed. However, there was no evidence of the effect of the rs6265 genotypes on the BDNF level indicating a possible role of other factors in modulating the BDNF level that warrants further investigation.

Conclusion: The study indicated that having the BDNF rs6265 allele (A) increase the risk of developing MDD in the Malaysian population suggesting a possible role of BDNF in the etiology of the disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211241PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345459PMC
November 2019

Morning boost on individuals' psychophysiological wellbeing indicators with supportive, dynamic lighting in windowless open-plan workplace in Malaysia.

PLoS One 2018 29;13(11):e0207488. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Workplace architectural lighting conditions that are biologically dim during the day are causing healthy individuals to experience light-induced health and performance-related problems. Dynamic lighting was reported beneficial in supporting individuals' psychological behavior and physiological responses during work period in Europe. It has yet to be investigated in workplaces with minimal/no natural daylight contribution in tropical Malaysia. Hence, an exploratory experimental study was initiated in an experimental windowless open-plan workplace in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang. The aim was to identify dynamic lighting configurations that were more supportive of a morning boosting effect than the control constant lighting, to support dayshift individuals' psychophysiological wellbeing indicators during the peak morning work period. The immediate impact of a 2-hour morning exposure to overhead white LED (6500 K) with different horizontal illuminance levels and oscillations (lighting patterns) were investigated on physiological indicator limited to urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, and psychological indicators for alertness, mood, visual comfort, cognitive and visual task performance. Not all of the investigated dynamic lighting configurations were supportive of a morning boost. Only configurations 500increased to750 and 500increased to1000 lx therapeutically supported most of the indicators. Both these configurations suppressed urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, and improved alertness, cognitive performance, positive affect, and visual comfort better than 'visit 1: 500constant500' lx (control). The increasing oscillation was observed more beneficial for the morning boost in tropical Malaysia, which is in reverse to that specified in the human rhythmic dynamic lighting protocol developed by researchers from the Netherlands for application during winter. The findings from this study present the feasibility of dynamic architectural lighting acting as an environmental therapeutic solution in supporting the individuals' psychophysiological wellbeing indicators in windowless open-plan workplace in tropical Malaysia. Further investigations on the two prospective configurations are recommended to determine the better supportive one for the morning boosting effect in Malaysia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207488PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264480PMC
April 2019

Effectiveness of health education intervention in improving knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding Tuberculosis among HIV patients in General Hospital Minna, Nigeria - A randomized control trial.

PLoS One 2018 22;13(2):e0192276. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Niger state Agency for the control of AIDS, Minna, Niger state, Nigeria.

Introduction: The risk of development of active TB in HIV-infected individuals is 20-37 times higher than those that are HIV negative. Poor knowledge of TB amongst people living with HIV has been associated with high transmission.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a new health education intervention module in improving knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding tuberculosis among HIV patients in General Hospital Minna, Nigeria.

Methods: A randomized control trial was carried out from July 2015 to June 2017. A random number generating program was used to allocate 226 respondents into 2 groups. The intervention group received health education regarding tuberculosis using the developed module. The control group received the normal services provided for HIV patients. Data were collected from December 2015 to September 2016 at baseline, immediate post intervention, three, six and nine months. The outcome measures were knowledge, attitude, and practice.

Results: There was no significant difference with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, KAP of the respondents in the intervention and control group at baseline. However, there was significant improvement in knowledge in the intervention group compared to the control group, group main effect (F = (1,218) = 665.889, p = 0.001, partial ἠ2 = 0.753, d = 5.4); time (F = (3.605, 218) = 52.046, p = 0.001, partial ἠ2 = 0.193, d = 1.52) and interaction between group with time (F = (3.605, 218) = 34.028, p = 0.001, partial ἠ2 = 0.135, d = 1.23). Likewise, there was significant improvement in attitude, group main effect (p = 0.001, d = 1.26) and time (p = 0.001, p, d = 0.65). Similarly, there was improvement in practice, group main effect, time, and interaction of group with time (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The health education intervention program was effective in improving KAP regarding tuberculosis among HIV patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0192276PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5823396PMC
April 2018

Recent Updates on Treatment of Ocular Microbial Infections by Stem Cell Therapy: A Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Feb 13;19(2). Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Genetics and Regenerative Medicine Research Centre, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Ocular microbial infection has emerged as a major public health crisis during the past two decades. A variety of causative agents can cause ocular microbial infections; which are characterized by persistent and destructive inflammation of the ocular tissue; progressive visual disturbance; and may result in loss of visual function in patients if early and effective treatments are not received. The conventional therapeutic approaches to treat vision impairment and blindness resulting from microbial infections involve antimicrobial therapy to eliminate the offending pathogens or in severe cases; by surgical methods and retinal prosthesis replacing of the infected area. In cases where there is concurrent inflammation, once infection is controlled, anti-inflammatory agents are indicated to reduce ocular damage from inflammation which ensues. Despite advances in medical research; progress in the control of ocular microbial infections remains slow. The varying level of ocular tissue recovery in individuals and the incomplete visual functional restoration indicate the chief limitations of current strategies. The development of a more extensive therapy is needed to help in healing to regain vision in patients. Stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can give rise to a vast variety of cell types following proper differentiation protocol. Stem cell therapy shows promise in reducing inflammation and repairing tissue damage on the eye caused by microbial infections by its ability to modulate immune response and promote tissue regeneration. This article reviews a selected list of common infectious agents affecting the eye; which include fungi; viruses; parasites and bacteria with the aim of discussing the current antimicrobial treatments and the associated therapeutic challenges. We also provide recent updates of the advances in stem cells studies on sepsis therapy as a suggestion of optimum treatment regime for ocular microbial infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5855780PMC
February 2018

Recent Updates on Treatment of Ocular Microbial Infections by Stem Cell Therapy: A Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Feb 13;19(2). Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Genetics and Regenerative Medicine Research Centre, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Ocular microbial infection has emerged as a major public health crisis during the past two decades. A variety of causative agents can cause ocular microbial infections; which are characterized by persistent and destructive inflammation of the ocular tissue; progressive visual disturbance; and may result in loss of visual function in patients if early and effective treatments are not received. The conventional therapeutic approaches to treat vision impairment and blindness resulting from microbial infections involve antimicrobial therapy to eliminate the offending pathogens or in severe cases; by surgical methods and retinal prosthesis replacing of the infected area. In cases where there is concurrent inflammation, once infection is controlled, anti-inflammatory agents are indicated to reduce ocular damage from inflammation which ensues. Despite advances in medical research; progress in the control of ocular microbial infections remains slow. The varying level of ocular tissue recovery in individuals and the incomplete visual functional restoration indicate the chief limitations of current strategies. The development of a more extensive therapy is needed to help in healing to regain vision in patients. Stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can give rise to a vast variety of cell types following proper differentiation protocol. Stem cell therapy shows promise in reducing inflammation and repairing tissue damage on the eye caused by microbial infections by its ability to modulate immune response and promote tissue regeneration. This article reviews a selected list of common infectious agents affecting the eye; which include fungi; viruses; parasites and bacteria with the aim of discussing the current antimicrobial treatments and the associated therapeutic challenges. We also provide recent updates of the advances in stem cells studies on sepsis therapy as a suggestion of optimum treatment regime for ocular microbial infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5855780PMC
February 2018

Excessive internet use in young women: What are the implications?

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2017 Jul;30(4):260-267

aDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur bDepartment of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Selayang, Malaysia cDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor.

Purpose Of Review: There are considerable gender differences in youth engaging in excessive internet use (EIU). This review provides updates based on the recent literature focusing on the EIU in young women to describe its implications including what it constitutes of, its correlates, sequelae and preventive and/or treatment strategies.

Recent Findings: Definition of EIU and its conceptualization still requires refinement. Recent studies indicate a changing trend towards female predominance of EIU. Women also differ in their internet use compared with men regarding their preference in the internet content and online activities, motives of use and factors related to access to the internet, including the device, sociocultural restrictions, etc. The correlates and sequelae of EIU encompass psychological, physical, biological, family and social domains that could form the basis of identifying individuals at risk and strategizing treatment.

Summary: The findings indicate the need for standardization in definition and measures of EIU for better recognition of EIU and identification of its at-higher-risk females. Effective preventive and treatment measures are still limited by various methodology flaws outlined here.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000336DOI Listing
July 2017

Excessive internet use in young women: What are the implications?

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2017 Jul;30(4):260-267

aDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur bDepartment of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Selayang, Malaysia cDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor.

Purpose Of Review: There are considerable gender differences in youth engaging in excessive internet use (EIU). This review provides updates based on the recent literature focusing on the EIU in young women to describe its implications including what it constitutes of, its correlates, sequelae and preventive and/or treatment strategies.

Recent Findings: Definition of EIU and its conceptualization still requires refinement. Recent studies indicate a changing trend towards female predominance of EIU. Women also differ in their internet use compared with men regarding their preference in the internet content and online activities, motives of use and factors related to access to the internet, including the device, sociocultural restrictions, etc. The correlates and sequelae of EIU encompass psychological, physical, biological, family and social domains that could form the basis of identifying individuals at risk and strategizing treatment.

Summary: The findings indicate the need for standardization in definition and measures of EIU for better recognition of EIU and identification of its at-higher-risk females. Effective preventive and treatment measures are still limited by various methodology flaws outlined here.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000336DOI Listing
July 2017

A Web-Based Psychoeducational Intervention Program for Depression and Anxiety in an Adult Community in Selangor, Malaysia: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2016 Jun 21;5(2):e112. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Mental disorders are a major public health problem and are debilitating in many nations throughout the world. Many individuals either do not or are not able to access treatment. The Internet can be a medium to convey to the community accessible evidenced-based interventions to reduce these burdens.

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of 4 weeks of a Web-based psychoeducational intervention program for depressive and anxiety symptoms in the community of Selangor, Malaysia.

Methods: A two-arm randomized controlled trial of a single-blind study will be conducted to meet the objective of this study. We aim to recruit 84 participants each for the intervention and control groups. The recruitment will be from participants who participated in the first phase of this research. The primary outcomes of this study are depressive and anxiety scores, which will be assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7, respectively. The secondary outcome includes mental health literacy of the participants, which will be assessed using the self-developed and adapted Mental Health Literacy Questionnaire. The psychoeducational intervention program consists of four sessions, which will be accessed each week. The depressive and anxiety symptoms will be compared between participants who participated in the psychoeducational program compared with the control group. Depressive and anxiety scores and mental health literacy will be assessed at week 1 and at follow-ups at week 5 and week 12, respectively.

Results: The psychoeducational intervention program consists of four sessions, which will be accessed at each week. The depressive and anxiety symptoms will be compared between the intervention and control groups using a series of mixed ANOVAs. Depressive and anxiety scores and mental health literacy will be assessed at week 1 and at two follow-ups at week 5 and week 12, respectively.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study will be the first randomized controlled trial of a Web-based psychoeducational intervention program for depression and anxiety in an adult community in Malaysia. The results from this study will determine the effectiveness of a psychoeducational intervention program in the management of depression and anxiety among adults in the community. If proven to be effective, the intervention can serve as a new modality to manage and reduce the burden of these disorders in the community.

Clinicaltrial: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 39656144; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN39656144 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6hSVhV71K).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/resprot.4622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4933799PMC
June 2016

DEPRESSION AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2016 Jan;47(1):131-41

Research in the field of factors associated with depression among adolescents is lacking in Malaysia. The aims of the present study were to assess the current prevalence of depression and its related factors among secondary school students in Pasir Gudang, South Malaysia. In this cross sectional study, 2,927 secondary school students (13-17 years old) from urban areas were screened for symptoms of mental disorder as well as demographic and risk behaviors using a validated Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) 12 questionnaire. The majority of the respondents (53.8%) were Malay, of which 53.1% were female. Symptoms of mild depression were found in 33.2% of the respondents, while the prevalence of the symptoms of moderate, severe, and extremely severe depression was 21.5%, 18.1%, and 3.0%, respectively. Logistic regression suggested that participants who were Chinese or had a lower average grade were three times more likely to have depression, while those who came from a single-parent family were twice as likely to have this condition. This study indicated that academic performance and risk behaviors along with the demographic characteristics are important contributors to adolescent depression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2016

Psychometric Properties of the Catastrophic Cognitions Questionnaire-Modified (CCQ-Modified) Among Community Samples in Malaysia.

Stress Health 2016 Dec 1;32(5):543-550. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

The Catastrophic Cognitions Questionnaire-Modified (CCQ-M) is a common instrument for measuring catastrophic thoughts. In some countries, however, CCQ-M still poses concerns following the lack of appropriate validation among their populations. The current study aimed to examine the factor structure of the CCQ-M, the reliability, and the validity in community samples in Malaysia. The Malay version of CCQ-M and additional measures assessing the symptoms and cognitions relevant to anxiety disorders were completed by 682 university students and general community. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure accounting for 62.2% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor model by deleting four items. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the total and the two subscales were .94, .90, and .92, respectively. Test-retest reliability analysis was conducted on 82 university students in the interval period of 14 days, and the result was r = .58. Evidence supported the concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity. In conclusion, the 17-item CCQ-M-Malaysia is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing catastrophic cognitions among Malaysian populations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smi.2660DOI Listing
December 2016

Smoking among Secondary School Students in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia--Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(11):4563-70

Institute of Public Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia E-mail :

Background: Smoking is a learnt behavior during adolescence and understanding the factor/s associated with smoking will assist in identifying suitable measures in combating the rising prevalence of smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to identify the factor/s associated with smoking among form four students in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Multistage sampling was used to select a representative sample of students in 2008 and data were collected using a self-administered validated questionnaire. This study revealed that the overall smoking prevalence was 19.0% with a significantly higher proportion of male smokers (35.8%) as compared to females (3.15%). Adolescents who were male (aOR 6.6, 95%CI 2.61-16.4), those who had peer/s who smoked (aOR 4.03, 95% CI 1.31-12.4), and those who studied in rural areas and Felda Settlements ( aOR 4.59, 95 CI 1.11-18.0; aOR 9.42, 95%CI 3.91-29.1) were more likely to smoke in the past one week. On the other hand, adolescents with better knowledge on the hazards of smoking and negative attitudes towards smoking were less likely to smoke (aOR 0.51, 95%CI 0.37-0.72; aOR 0.67, 95%CI 0.46-0.99). Future promotional and interventional programmes on smoking should be considered and the above identified risk factors integrated to reduce smoking prevalence among students of school-going ages in Kota Tinggi. Johor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.11.4563DOI Listing
March 2016

Effects of a brief mindfulness-based intervention program for stress management among medical students: the Mindful-Gym randomized controlled study.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2015 Dec 20;20(5):1115-34. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Pursuing undergraduate medical training can be very stressful and academically challenging experience. A 5-week mindfulness-based stress management (MBSM/Mindful-Gym) program was developed to help medical students cope with stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing stress among students in a medical school in Malaysia. Seventy-five medical students participated in the program. They were stratified according to years of studies and randomly allocated to intervention (N = 37) and control groups (N = 38). The following outcome variables were measured at pre- and post-intervention: mindfulness (with Mindful Awareness Attention Scale); perceived stress (with Perceived Stress Scale); mental distress (with General Health Questionnaire), and self-efficacy (with General Self-efficacy Scale). Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to analyse the effect of group (intervention vs. control) on changes in the outcome variables. There were significant improvements at one week post-intervention in all outcome variables: mindfulness (β = 0.19, ΔR2 = 0.04, p = .040, f (2) = 0.05), perceived stress (β = -0.26, ΔR2 = 0.07, p = .009, f (2) = 0.10); mental distress (β = -0.28, ΔR2 = 0.10, p = .003, f (2) = 0.15); and self-efficacy (β = 0.30, ΔR2 = 0.09, p < .001, f (2) = 0.21). Six months after the intervention, those who had joined the program reported higher self-efficacy compared to those in the control group (β = 0.24, ΔR2 = 0.06, p = .020, f (2) = 0.08); but there was no difference in other outcome measures. More than 90% of the participants found the program applicable in helping patients and all reported that they would recommend it to others. This study indicates that the program is potentially an effective stress management program for medical students in Malaysia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10459-015-9591-3DOI Listing
December 2015

Testing comparison models of DASS-12 and its reliability among adolescents in Malaysia.

Compr Psychiatry 2014 Oct 2;55(7):1720-5. Epub 2014 May 2.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

Objective: The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) is frequently used in non-clinical research to measure mental health factors among adults. However, previous studies have concluded that the 21 items are not stable for utilization among the adolescent population. Thus, the aims of this study are to examine the structure of the factors and to report on the reliability of the refined version of the DASS that consists of 12 items.

Method: A total of 2850 students (aged 13 to 17 years old) from three major ethnic in Malaysia completed the DASS-21. The study was conducted at 10 randomly selected secondary schools in the northern state of Peninsular Malaysia. The study population comprised secondary school students (Forms 1, 2 and 4) from the selected schools.

Results: Based on the results of the EFA stage, 12 items were included in a final CFA to test the fit of the model. Using maximum likelihood procedures to estimate the model, the selected fit indices indicated a close model fit (χ(2)=132.94, df=57, p=.000; CFI=.96; RMR=.02; RMSEA=.04). Moreover, significant loadings of all the unstandardized regression weights implied an acceptable convergent validity. Besides the convergent validity of the item, a discriminant validity of the subscales was also evident from the moderate latent factor inter-correlations, which ranged from .62 to .75. The subscale reliability was further estimated using Cronbach's alpha and the adequate reliability of the subscales was obtained (Total=76; Depression=.68; Anxiety=.53; Stress=.52).

Conclusion: The new version of the 12-item DASS for adolescents in Malaysia (DASS-12) is reliable and has a stable factor structure, and thus it is a useful instrument for distinguishing between depression, anxiety and stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.011DOI Listing
October 2014

Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014 ;15(10):4359-66

Institute of Public Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia E-mail :

Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.10.4359DOI Listing
May 2015

Correlates of susceptibility to smoking among secondary school students in Kota Tinggi district, Johor, Malaysia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013 ;14(11):6971-8

Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia E-mail :

Background: Smoking among adolescents has been linked to a variety of adverse and long term health consequences. "Susceptibility to smoking" or the lack of cognitive commitment to abstain from smoking is an important predictor of adolescent smoking. In 2008, we conducted a study to determine the psycho-sociological factors associated with susceptibility to smoking among secondary school students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor.

Materials And Methods: Two thousand seven hundred students were randomly selected by proportional stratified sampling. Analyses on 1,736 non-smoking students revealed that prevalence of adolescents susceptible to smoking was 16.3%.

Results: Male gender (aOR=2.05, 95%CI= 1.23-3.39), poor academic achievement (aOR 1.60, 95%CI 1.05-2.44), ever-smoker (aOR 2.17, 95%CI 1.37-3.44) and having a smoking friend (aOR 1.76, 95%CI 1.10-2.83) were associated with susceptibility to smoking, while having the perception that smoking prohibition in school was strictly enforced (aOR 0.55, 95%CI 0.32-0.94), and had never seen friends smoking in a school compound (aOR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.96) were considered protective factors

Conclusions: These results indicate that follow-up programmes need to capitalise on the modifiable factors related to susceptibility to smoking by getting all stakeholders to be actively involved to stamp out smoking initiation among adolescents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.11.6971DOI Listing
August 2014

Depression in male patients on methadone maintenance therapy.

Asia Pac Psychiatry 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:67-73

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Introduction: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in men. The aim of the study was to determine the depressive symptoms and associated factors among men on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 108 subjects who attended the Drug Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur. The instruments used include the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition Axis-I Disorder, Beck Depression Inventory and the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function.

Results: The rate of depression was 44.4%. There were significant associations between Malay ethnicity, secondary education level and concurrent illicit cannabis use with depression (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant associations between depression and erectile dysfunction (P = 0.379).

Discussion: Even though depression is common among men on MMT, it is often missed by the treating doctors. It is important to make the treating doctors aware that depression is a serious clinical condition that has a profound impact on the individual and compliance to treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/appy.12069DOI Listing
April 2013

Stages of smoking cessation among Malaysian adults--findings from national health morbidity survey 2006.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013 ;14(2):805-10

Institute for Public Health, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Increasing the rate of smoking cessation will reduce the burden of diseases related to smoking, including cancer. Understanding the process of smoking cessation is a pre-requisite to planning and developing effective programs to enhance the rate of smoking cessation.The aims of the study were to determine the demographic distribution of smokers across the initial stages of smoking cessation (the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages) and to identify the predictors of smoking cessation among Malaysian adult smokers. Data were extracted from a population-based, cross-sectional survey carried out from April 2006 to July 2006. The distribution of 2,716,743 current smokers across the pre-contemplation stage (no intention to quit smoking in the next six months) or contemplation stage (intended to quit smoking in the next six months) was described. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and the stages of smoking cessation. Of the 2,716,743 current smokers, approximately 30% and 70% were in the pre-contemplative and contemplative stages of smoking cessation respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that male gender, low education level, older age group, married and those from higher income group and number of cigarettes smoked were associated with higher likelihood of pre-contemplation to cease smoking in the next six months. The majority of current smokers in Malaysia were in the contemplative stage of smoking cessation. Specific interventions should be implemented to ensure the pre-contemplative smokers proceed to the contemplative stage and eventually to the preparation stage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.2.805DOI Listing
July 2014