Publications by authors named "Noriko Nomura"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

R3HDM1 haploinsufficiency is associated with mild intellectual disability.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jun 22;185(6):1776-1786. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Developmental Disability Center, Kasugai, Japan.

R3HDM1 (R3H domain containing 1) is an uncharacterized RNA-binding protein that is highly expressed in the human cerebral cortex. We report the first case of a 12-year-old Japanese male with haploinsufficiency of R3HDM1. He presented with mild intellectual disability (ID) and developmental delay. He had a pericentric inversion of 46,XY,inv(2)(p16.1q21.3)dn with breakpoints in intron 19 of R3HDM1 (2q21.3) and the intergenic region (2p16.1). The R3HDM1 levels in his lymphoblastoid cells were reduced to approximately half that of the healthy controls. However, the expression of MIR128-1, in intron 18 of R3HDM1, was not affected via the pericentric inversion. Knockdown of R3HDM1 in mouse embryonic hippocampal neurons suppressed dendritic growth and branching. Notably, the Database of Genomic Variants reported the case of a healthy control with a 488-kb deletion that included both R3HDM1 and MIR128-1. miR-128 has been reported to inhibit dendritic growth and branching in mouse brain neurons, which directly opposes the novel functions of R3HDM1. These findings suggest that deleting both R3HDM1 and MIR128-1 alleviates the symptoms of the disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in R3HDM1 only. Thus, haploinsufficiency of R3HDM1 in the patient may be the cause of the mild ID due to the genetic imbalance between R3HDM1 and MIR128-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62173DOI Listing
June 2021

Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen 2 (SCCA2, SERPINB4): An Emerging Biomarker for Skin Inflammatory Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Apr 6;19(4). Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Department of Environmental Immuno-Dermatology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan.

Squamous cell carcinoma antigens 1 and 2 (SCCA1 and 2, SERPIN B3 and B4), members of the ovalbumin serpin (ov-serpin)/clade B serpin family, were originally discovered as tumor-specific antigens and are used as tumor markers for various kinds of squamous cell carcinomas. Recently, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of how SCCA1/2 enhance tumor growth has greatly increased. Moreover, it has been shown that SCCA1/2 are involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases: asthma, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD). IL-22 and IL-17, signature cytokines of type 17 inflammation, as well as IL-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 inflammation, both of which are positively correlated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis and allergic diseases, respectively, can induce expression of SCCA1/2 in airway epithelial cells and/or keratinocytes, leading to high expression of SCCA1/2 in these diseases. Based on these findings, several trials have been performed to examine the potential of applying SCCA1/2 to biomarkers for these diseases. The findings show that SCCA2 is useful to aid diagnosis, estimate clinical severity and disease type, and assess responses to treatment in psoriasis and AD. These results suggest that SCCA2 has emerged as a novel biomarker for skin inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5979376PMC
April 2018

Clinical and genetic characterization of a patient with SOX5 haploinsufficiency caused by a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation.

Gene 2018 May 22;655:65-70. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; Department of Neurology, Neurology and Stroke Center, Takamatsu Municipal Hospital, Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan. Electronic address:

Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (OMIM: 616803) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, speech delay, and mild characteristic facial appearance caused by SOX5 haploinsufficiency on chromosome 12p12.1. There are clinical variabilities among the patients with genomic alterations, such as intragenic deletions, a point mutation, and a chromosomal translocation of t(11;12)(p13;p12.1), in SOX5. We report herein a 5-year-old Japanese male with a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(12;20)(p12.1;p12.3) presenting a mild intellectual disability, speech delay, characteristic facial appearance, and autistic features. We determined the translocation breakpoints of the patient to be in intron 4 of SOX5 and the intergenic region in 20p12.3 via FISH and nucleotide sequence analyses. Thus, the present patient has SOX5 haploinsufficiency affecting 2 long forms of SOX5 and is the second reported case of Lamb-Shaffer syndrome caused by a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation. This report confirmed that haploinsufficiency of the 2 long forms of SOX5 presents common clinical features, including mild intellectual disability and autistic features, which could be useful for the clinical diagnosis of Lamb-Shaffer syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.02.049DOI Listing
May 2018

SCCA2 is a reliable biomarker for evaluating pediatric atopic dermatitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 05 5;141(5):1934-1936.e11. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Division of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Saga Medical School, Saga, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.01.021DOI Listing
May 2018

Phenotype-genotype correlations of PIGO deficiency with variable phenotypes from infantile lethality to mild learning difficulties.

Hum Mutat 2017 07 20;38(7):805-815. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

Department of Immunoregulation, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Inherited GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) deficiencies (IGDs), a recently defined group of diseases, show a broad spectrum of symptoms. Hyperphosphatasia mental retardation syndrome, also known as Mabry syndrome, is a type of IGDs. There are at least 26 genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of GPI-anchored proteins; however, IGDs constitute a rare group of diseases, and correlations between the spectrum of symptoms and affected genes or the type of mutations have not been shown. Here, we report four newly identified and five previously described Japanese families with PIGO (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class O) deficiency. We show how the clinical severity of IGDs correlates with flow cytometric analysis of blood, functional analysis using a PIGO-deficient cell line, and the degree of hyperphosphatasia. The flow cytometric analysis and hyperphosphatasia are useful for IGD diagnosis, but the expression level of GPI-anchored proteins and the degree of hyperphosphatasia do not correlate, although functional studies do, with clinical severity. Compared with PIGA (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class A) deficiency, PIGO deficiency shows characteristic features, such as Hirschsprung disease, brachytelephalangy, and hyperphosphatasia. This report shows the precise spectrum of symptoms according to the severity of mutations and compares symptoms between different types of IGD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23219DOI Listing
July 2017

Elevated Na/H exchanger-1 expression enhances the metastatic collective migration of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 04 6;486(1):101-107. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ehime University Medical School, 454, Shitsukawa, To-on, Ehime, 791-0295, Japan. Electronic address:

Cancer cells can migrate as collectives during invasion and/or metastasis; however, the precise molecular mechanisms of this form of migration are less clear compared with single cell migration following epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Elevated Na/H exchanger1 (NHE1) expression has been suggested to have malignant roles in a number of cancer cell lines and in vivo tumor models. Furthermore, a metastatic human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line (SASL1m) that was isolated based on its increased metastatic potential also exhibited higher NHE1 expression than its parental line SAS. Time-lapse video recordings indicated that both cell lines migrate as collectives, although with different features, e.g., SASL1m was much more active and changed the direction of migration more frequently than SAS cells, whereas locomotive activities were comparable. SASL1m cells also exhibited higher invasive activity than SAS in Matrigel invasion assays. shRNA-mediated NHE1 knockdown in SASL1m led to reduced locomotive and invasive activities, suggesting a critical role for NHE1 in the collective migration of SASL1m cells. SASL1m cells also exhibited a higher metastatic rate than SAS cells in a mouse lymph node metastasis model, while NHE1 knockdown suppressed in vivo SASL1m metastasis. Finally, elevated NHE1 expression was observed in human HNSCC tissue, and Cariporide, a specific NHE1 inhibitor, reduced the invasive activity of SASL1m cells, implying NHE1 could be a target for anti-invasion/metastasis therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.03.007DOI Listing
April 2017

Novel mutation in HPRT1 causing a splicing error with multiple variations.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2017 Jan 18;36(1):1-6. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

a Department of Child Neurology , National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP) , Tokyo , Japan.

Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), encoded by the HPRT1. To date, nearly all types of mutations have been reported in the whole gene; however, duplication mutations are rare. We here report the case of a 9-month-old boy with LND. He showed developmental delay, athetosis, and dystonic posture from early infancy, but no self-injurious behaviors. Hyperuricemia was detected, and his HPRT enzyme activity in erythrocytes was completely deficient. A novel duplication mutation (c.372dupT, c.372_374 TTT > c.372_375 TTTT) was identified in exon 4 of the HPRT1, which causes aberrant splicing. This is the third case of a duplication mutation in the HPRT1 that causes splicing error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15257770.2016.1163381DOI Listing
January 2017

Clinical, biochemical and metabolic characterisation of a mild form of human short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase deficiency: significance of increased N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine excretion.

J Med Genet 2015 Oct 6;52(10):691-8. Epub 2015 Aug 6.

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan.

Background: Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase-ECHS1-catalyses many metabolic pathways, including mitochondrial short-chain fatty acid β-oxidation and branched-chain amino acid catabolic pathways; however, the metabolic products essential for the diagnosis of ECHS1 deficiency have not yet been determined. The objective of this report is to characterise ECHS1 and a mild form of its deficiency biochemically, and to determine the candidate metabolic product that can be efficiently used for neonatal diagnosis.

Methods: We conducted a detailed clinical, molecular genetics, biochemical and metabolic analysis of sibling patients with ECHS1 deficiency. Moreover, we purified human ECHS1, and determined the substrate specificity of ECHS1 for five substrates via different metabolic pathways.

Results: Human ECHS1 catalyses the hydration of five substrates via different metabolic pathways, with the highest specificity for crotonyl-CoA and the lowest specificity for tiglyl-CoA. The patients had relatively high (∼7%) residual ECHS1 enzyme activity for crotonyl-CoA and methacrylyl-CoA caused by the compound heterozygous mutations (c.176A>G, (p.N59S) and c.413C>T, (p.A138V)) with normal mitochondrial complex I-IV activities. Affected patients excrete large amounts of N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine, a metabolite of methacrylyl-CoA.

Conclusions: Laboratory data and clinical features demonstrated that the patients have a mild form of ECHS1 deficiency harbouring defective valine catabolic and β-oxidation pathways. N-Acetyl-S-(2-carboxypropyl) cysteine level was markedly high in the urine of the patients, and therefore, N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine was regarded as a candidate metabolite for the diagnosis of ECHS1 deficiency. This metabolite is not part of current routine metabolic screening protocols, and its inclusion, therefore, holds immense potential in accurate diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103231DOI Listing
October 2015

Clinical and biochemical characterization of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency that causes Leigh-like disease and ketoacidosis.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2014 16;1:455-460. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan.

3-Hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by episodes of ketoacidosis and a Leigh-like basal ganglia disease, without high concentrations of pyruvate and lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid. Only 4 cases of HIBCH deficiency have been reported. However, clinical-biochemical correlation in HIBCH deficiency by determining the detailed residual enzyme activities has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report a case of two Japanese siblings with HIBCH deficiency carrying a new homozygous missense mutation (c.287C > A, [p.A96D]) at the substrate-binding site. A transfection study using HIBCH expression vectors harboring wild type or 4 reported mutations, including the newly identified mutation (p.A96D, p.Y122C, p.G317E, and p.K74Lfs*13), revealed a correlation between residual HIBCH activities and the severity of the disease. All HIBCH mutants, except p.K74Lfs*13, showed residual enzyme activity and only the patient with p.K74Lfs*13 had congenital anomalies. p.G317E showed only low enzyme activity (~ 3%) of that of wild-type HIBCH. Although p.A96D had approximately 7 times higher enzyme activity than p.G317E, patients with p.A96D died during childhood. These findings are essential for clinical management, genetic counseling, and specific meal and concomitant drug considerations as part of the treatment for patients with HIBCH deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2014.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5121361PMC
October 2014

Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiencies: HPRT1 mutations in new Japanese families and PRPP concentration.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2014 ;33(4-6):218-22

a Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research , Aichi Human Service Center , Aichi , Japan.

Mutation of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gives rise to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, which is characterized by hyperuricemia, severe motor disability, and self-injurious behavior, or HPRT-related gout with hyperuricemia. Four mutations were detected in two Lesch-Nyhan families and two families with partial deficiency since our last report. A new mutation of G to TT (c.456delGinsTT) resulting in a frameshift (p.Q152Hfs*3) in exon 3 has been identified in one Lesch-Nyhan family. In the other Lesch-Nyhan family, a new point mutation in intron 7 (c.532+5G>T) causing splicing error (exon 7 excluded, p.L163Cfs*4) was detected. In the two partial deficiency cases with hyperuricemia, two missense mutations of p.D20V (c.59A>T) and p.H60R (c.179A>G) were found. An increase of erythrocyte PRPP concentration was observed in the respective phenotypes and seems to be correlated with disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15257770.2013.865743DOI Listing
February 2015

The spectrum of ZEB2 mutations causing the Mowat-Wilson syndrome in Japanese populations.

Am J Med Genet A 2014 Aug 8;164A(8):1899-908. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan.

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by moderate or severe intellectual disability, a characteristic facial appearance, microcephaly, epilepsy, agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, congenital heart defects, Hirschsprung disease, and urogenital/renal anomalies. It is caused by de novo heterozygous loss of function mutations including nonsense mutations, frameshift mutations, and deletions in ZEB2 at 2q22. ZEB2 encodes the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 protein consisting of 1,214 amino acids. Herein, we report 13 nonsense and 27 frameshift mutations from 40 newly identified MWS patients in Japan. Although the clinical findings of all the Japanese MWS patients with nonsense and frameshift mutations were quite similar to the previous review reports of MWS caused by nonsense mutations, frameshift mutations and deletions of ZEB2, the frequencies of microcephaly, Hirschsprung disease, and urogenital/renal anomalies were small. Patients harbored mutations spanning the region between the amino acids 55 and 1,204 in wild-type ZEB2. There was no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation among the patients. A transfection study demonstrated that the cellular level of the longest form of the mutant ZEB2 protein harboring the p.D1204Rfs*29 mutation was remarkably low. The results showed that the 3'-end frameshift mutation of ZEB2 causes MWS due to ZEB2 instability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36551DOI Listing
August 2014

Clinical characterization and identification of duplication breakpoints in a Japanese family with Xq28 duplication syndrome including MECP2.

Am J Med Genet A 2014 Apr 29;164A(4):924-33. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan.

Xq28 duplication syndrome including MECP2 is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by axial hypotonia at infancy, severe intellectual disability, developmental delay, mild characteristic facial appearance, epilepsy, regression, and recurrent infections in males. We identified a Japanese family of Xq28 duplications, in which the patients presented with cerebellar ataxia, severe constipation, and small feet, in addition to the common clinical features. The 488-kb duplication spanned from L1CAM to EMD and contained 17 genes, two pseudo genes, and three microRNA-coding genes. FISH and nucleotide sequence analyses demonstrated that the duplication was tandem and in a forward orientation, and the duplication breakpoints were located in AluSc at the EMD side, with a 32-bp deletion, and LTR50 at the L1CAM side, with "tc" and "gc" microhomologies at the duplication breakpoints, respectively. The duplicated segment was completely segregated from the grandmother to the patients. These results suggest that the duplication was generated by fork-stalling and template-switching at the AluSc and LTR50 sites. This is the first report to determine the size and nucleotide sequences of the duplicated segments at Xq28 of three generations of a family and provides the genotype-phenotype correlation of the patients harboring the specific duplicated segment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36373DOI Listing
April 2014

Molecular analysis of X-linked inborn errors of purine metabolism: HPRT1 and PRPS1 mutations.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2011 Dec;30(12):1272-5

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Aichi, Japan.

Mutations of two enzyme genes, HPRT1 encoding hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and PRPS1 encoding a catalytic subunit (PRS-I) of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase, cause X-linked inborn errors of purine metabolism. Analyzing these two genes, we have identified three HPRT1 mutations in Lesch-Nyhan families following our last report. One of them, a new mutation involving the deletion of 4224 bp from intron 4 to intron 5 and the insertion of an unknown 28 bp, has been identified. This mutation resulted in an enzyme polypeptide with six amino acids deleted due to abnormal mRNA skipping exon 5. The other HPRT1 mutations, a single base deletion (548delT, 183fs189X), and a point mutation causing a splicing error (532+1G>A, 163fs165X) were detected first in Japanese patients but have been reported in European families. On the other hand, in the analysis of PRPS1, no mutation was identified in any patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15257770.2011.597369DOI Listing
December 2011

Identification and characterization of splicing variants of PLEKHA5 (Plekha5) during brain development.

Gene 2012 Jan 20;492(1):270-5. Epub 2011 Oct 20.

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Aichi, Japan.

PLEKHA5 (pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein family A, member 5) belongs to the PLEKHA family (PLEKHA1-6); however, the properties of this protein remain poorly characterized. We have identified and characterized two forms of PLEKHA5 mRNA. The long form of PLEKHA5 (L-PLEKHA5) contains 32 exons, encodes 1282 amino acids, and is specifically expressed in the brain; the short form of PLEKHA5 (S-PLEKHA5) is generated by alternative splicing of L-PLEKHA5, contains 26 exons, encodes 1116 amino acids, and is ubiquitously expressed. Both forms of the protein contain putative Trp-Trp (WW) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains and are located mainly in the cytosol. Developmental and age-dependent expression studies in the mouse brain have shown that Plekha5 is the most abundantly expressed protein at E13.5 with S-Plekha5 dominancy. L-Plekha5 levels increased gradually with the decrease in total Plekha5 levels; moreover, L-Plekha5 became the dominant protein at E17.5, maintaining its dominance throughout adulthood. Protein-lipid overlay assays have indicated that the PH domain of PLEKHA5 specifically interacts with PI3P, PI4P, PI5P, and PI(3,5)P2. These results suggest that the S- to L-conversion of PLEKHA5 (Plekha5) may play an important role in brain development through association with specific phosphoinositides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2011.10.018DOI Listing
January 2012

Characterization of a de novo balanced t(4;20)(q33;q12) translocation in a patient with mental retardation.

Am J Med Genet A 2010 Dec;152A(12):3057-67

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan.

CHD6 is an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzyme, which has been implicated as a crucial component for maintaining and regulating chromatin structure. CHD6 belongs to the largest subfamily, subfamily III (CHD6-9), of the chromodomain helicase DNA (CHD-binding protein) family of enzymes (CHD1-9). Here we report on a female patient with a balanced translocation t(4;20)(q33;q12) presenting with severe mental retardation and brachydactyly of the toes. We identified the translocation breakpoint in intron 27 of CHD6 at 20q12, while the 4q33 breakpoint was intergenic. Northern blot analysis demonstrated the CHD6 mRNA in the patient's lymphoblastoid cells was decreased to ∼50% of the control cells. To investigate the cellular mechanism of diseases resulting from decreased CHD subfamily III proteins, we knocked down CHD6 or CHD7 by RNA interference in HeLa cells and analyzed chromosome alignment. The both CHD6- and CHD7-knockdown cells showed increased frequency of misaligned chromosomes on metaphase plates. Moreover, an elevated frequency of aneuploidy, the major cause of miscarriages and mental retardation, was observed in patients with CHD6 and CHD7 haploinsufficiency. These results suggest that CHD6 and CHD7 play important roles in chromatin assembly during mitosis and that mitotic delay and/or impaired cell proliferation may be associated with pathogenesis of the diseases caused by CHD6 or CHD7 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.33174DOI Listing
December 2010

Molecular analysis of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiencies: novel mutations and the spectrum of Japanese mutations.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2008 Jun;27(6):570-4

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai Aichi, Japan.

Inherited mutation of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, (HPRT) gives rise to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome or HPRT-related gout. We have identified a number of HPRT mutations in patients manifesting different clinical phenotypes, by analyzing all nine exons of the HPRT gene (HPRT1) from genomic DNA and reverse transcribed mRNA using the PCR technique coupled with direct sequencing. Recently, we detected two novel mutations: a single nucleotide substitution (430C > T) resulting in a nonsense mutation Q144X, and a deletion of HPRT1 exon 1 expressing no mRNA of HPRT. Furthermore, we summarized the spectrum of 56 Japanese HPRT mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15257770802135869DOI Listing
June 2008

Molecular analysis of HPRT deficiencies: an update of the spectrum of Asian mutations with novel mutations.

Mol Genet Metab 2007 Jan 4;90(1):70-6. Epub 2006 Oct 4.

Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi 480-0392, Japan.

Inherited mutations of a purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, EC 2.4.2.8), give rise to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome or HPRT-related gout. We have identified a number of HPRT mutations in Asian patients manifesting different clinical phenotypes, by analyzing all nine exons of the HPRT gene (HPRT1) from genomic DNA and reverse-transcribed mRNA using the PCR technique coupled with direct sequencing. In this study, we update the spectrum of mutations with nine novel mutations. Two missense mutations (T124P and D185G) were detected in patients with HRH (HPRT-related hyperuricemia). In a patient having a severe partial deficiency of HPRT with neurological dysfunction (HRND: HPRT-related neurological dysfunction), a single nucleotide substitution (27+5G > A) causing a splicing error was found in intron 1. The mutation resulted in a remarkably decreased level of normal mRNA, and production of an abnormal mRNA with a 49-bp insert at the 5'-end of intron 1, which caused the frame-shift of an amino acid codon (10fs27X). In six typical Lesch-Nyhan families, we found two 3-bp deletions responsible for single amino acid deletions (V8del and Y28del), two 1-bp deletions (440delA and 635delG) generating a frame-shift, an insertion of two amino acids (159insKV), and a 4,131-bp deletion from introns 4 to 6 resulting in two types of abnormal mRNA. Including these nine mutations, 42 HPRT1 mutations have been identified among 47 Asian families with deficiency of HPRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2006.08.013DOI Listing
January 2007

Clinical variability in a Japanese hereditary lymphedema type I family with an FLT4 mutation.

Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 2005 Jun;45(2):59-61

Department of Pediatrics, Central Hospital, Aichi Human Service Center, Aichi 480-0392, Japan.

Hereditary lymphedema type I (Milroy disease) is a rare autosomal dominant disease resulting from mutations of FLT4 encoding the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3. Patients develop edema of the legs and feet, resulting in chronic swelling of the lower extremities from the neonatal period. Here we report a Japanese family with 10 affected members of five generations of hereditary lymphedema type I. We identified a previously reported missense mutation of G857R in one allele of FLT4 from three affected individuals of three generations, the mother of whom presented only hemi-lymphedema of the left foot. Thus, the clinical features of hereditary lymphedema type I caused by a FLT4 mutation are heterogeneous and it would be appropriate to consider FLT4 mutations even in a patient with hemi-lymphedema of the foot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-4520.2005.00064.xDOI Listing
June 2005

Metastatic low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the sigmoid colon three years after hysterectomy.

World J Gastroenterol 2005 Apr;11(15):2367-9

Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, Japan.

A 49-year-old woman, who had undergone hysterectomy for low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) 3 years ago, presented with a 2-wk history of lower abdominal pain. Barium enema and sigmoidoscopy disclosed a polypoid submucosal tumor. Histopathologic features of biopsy specimens from the lesion were similar to those of the resected uterine ESS. Under the diagnosis of metastatic ESS of the sigmoid colon, sigmoidectomy was performed. Microscopic examination demonstrated dense proliferation of spindle cells with little nuclear atypia, which were sometimes arranged in whorled pattern around abundant arterioles. Mitotic count is below 1 in 10 high-power fields. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for vimentin, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor but negative for alpha-smooth muscle actin, S-100 protein and CD34. Thus, a final diagnosis of low-grade ESS metastasis to the sigmoid colon was made. Her postoperative course was uneventful and hormonal therapy with progestational agents is entertained.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4305830PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v11.i15.2367DOI Listing
April 2005

Identification of suberization-associated anionic peroxidase as a possible allergenic protein from tomato.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2003 Jun;67(6):1299-304

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan.

A 45 kDa protein, which is recognized by IgE antibodies in sera of food-allergic patients, was purified and characterized as an allergenic protein from the tomato. The IgE-binding protein purified from tomato extract was found to be a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 45,000, an isoelectric point of 4.2, and no free N-terminal amino group. Furthermore, it was shown that the purified protein had peroxidase activity. From the amino acid sequence of a peptide fragment prepared by lysylendopeptidase digestion, the allergenic protein was identified to be the tomato suberization-associated anionic peroxidase 1 known as one of the pathogenesis-related proteins widely distributed in plants. These properties suggested the protein isolated from tomato to be a new allergenic protein in plant foodstuffs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.67.1299DOI Listing
June 2003

Plasma adiponectin plays an important role in improving insulin resistance with glimepiride in elderly type 2 diabetic subjects.

Diabetes Care 2003 Feb;26(2):285-9

Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Objective: We investigated the effect of glimepiride, a third-generation sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent, on insulin resistance in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, in connection with plasma adiponectin and 8-epi-prostagrandin F2alpha (8-epi-PGF2alpha), an oxidative stress marker.

Research Design And Methods: A total of 17 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes received 12 weeks of treatment with glimepiride. Homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis assessment model of beta-cell function, HbA(1c), C-peptide in 24-h pooled urine (urine CPR), and plasma concentrations of 8-epi-PGF2alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin were measured at various times. The metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCR-g) was also assessed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.

Results: After 8 weeks of glimepiride treatment, significant reductions were observed in HbA(1c) (from 8.4 +/- 1.9 to 6.9 +/- 1.0%), HOMA-IR (from 2.54 +/- 2.25 to 1.69 +/- 0.95%), and plasma TNF-alpha concentrations (from 4.0 +/- 2.0 to 2.6 +/- 2.5 pg/ml). MCR-g was significantly increased from 3.92 +/- 1.09 to 5.73 +/- 1.47 mg. kg(-1). min(-1). Plasma adiponectin increased from 6.61 +/- 3.06 to 10.2 +/- 7.14 micro g/ml. In control subjects, who maintained conventional treatment, no significant changes were observed in any of these markers.

Conclusions: Glimepiride remarkably improved insulin resistance, suggested by a significant reduction in HOMA-IR, an increase in MCR-g, and a reduction in HbA(1c) without changing extrapancreatic beta-cell function and urine CPR. Increased plasma adiponectin and decreased plasma TNF-alpha may underlie the improvement of insulin resistance with glimepiride.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.26.2.285DOI Listing
February 2003

[Occurrence of upper gastrointestinal tract disease after Helicobacter pylori eradication].

Nihon Rinsho 2002 Aug;60(8):1639-43

Department of General Medicine, Oita Medical University.

Helicobacter pylori infection is recognized to be a pathogen of various gastroduodenal disease. Eradication therapy of H. pylori reduces the recurrence of gastro-duodenal ulcer, improves histological gastritis, and is suggested to act a certain role in protection against gastric carcinogenesis. Although, several studies show uncomfortable results arise after H. pylori infection was cured. These studies suggest that gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastro-duodenal erosion may increase after successful eradication of H. pylori. Recently, adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia and esophagus increase in incidence. Reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus are recognized as precancerous lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is uncertain the association of newly occurrence of GERD after H. pylori eradication and increase of esophageal adenocarcinoma. GERD may cause adenocarcinoma development, though long term observations is necessary after H. pylori eradication.
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August 2002