Publications by authors named "Noriko Doki"

153 Publications

Dasatinib-based Two-step Induction for Adults with Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

The standard treatment for adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) in Japan is imatinib-based chemotherapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, approximately 40% of patients cannot undergo HSCT in their first complete remission (CR1) because of chemotherapy-related toxicities and relapse before HSCT, and older age. We evaluated dasatinib-based two-step induction with the primary endpoint of 3-year event-free survival (EFS) in this study. The first induction (IND1) was dasatinib plus prednisolone to achieve CR and the second (IND2) was dasatinib plus intensive chemotherapy to achieve minimal residual disease (MRD)-negativity. Patients who achieved CR and had an appropriate donor were recommended to undergo HSCT during a consolidation phase later than the first consolidation, which included high-dose methotrexate. Prophylactic dasatinib after HSCT was assigned to patients with positive pre-transplant MRD. All 78 eligible patients achieved CR or incomplete CR after IND1, and 52.6% achieved MRD-negativity after IND2. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was not reported. T315I mutation was detected in all 4 hematological relapses before HSCT. Fifty-eight (74.4%) patients underwent HSCT in CR1 and 44 (75.9%) were negative with pre-transplant MRD. At a median follow-up of 4.0 years, the 3-year EFS and overall survival were 66.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.4-75.5) and 80.5% (95% CI, 69.7-87.7), respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse and NRM at 3 years from enrollment were 26.1% and 7.8%, respectively. Dasatinib-based two-step induction was demonstrated to improve the 3-year EFS. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry as #UMIN000012173.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004607DOI Listing
September 2021

The differential effect of disease status at allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation on outcomes in acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemia.

Ann Hematol 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

This study aimed to compare the effect of disease status at the time of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on post-transplant outcomes between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Japanese nationwide registry data for 6901 patients with AML and 2469 patients with ALL were analyzed. In this study, 2850 (41%), 937 (14%), 62 (1%), and 3052 (44%) AML patients and 1751 (71%), 265 (11%), 23 (1%), and 430 (17%) ALL patients underwent transplantation in first complete remission (CR1), second CR (CR2), third or subsequent CR (CR3 +), and non-CR, respectively. The probabilities of overall survival at 5 years for patients transplanted in CR1, CR2, CR3 + , and non-CR were 58%, 61%, 41%, and 26% for AML patients and 67%, 45%, 20%, and 21% for ALL patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that the risks of relapse and overall mortality were similar for AML patients transplanted in CR1 and CR2 (P = 0.672 and P = 0.703), whereas they were higher for ALL patients transplanted in CR2 than for those transplanted in CR1 (P < 0.001 for both). The risks of relapse and overall mortality for those transplanted in CR3 + and non-CR increased in a stepwise manner for both diseases, with the relevance being stronger for ALL than for AML patients. These results suggest a significant difference in the effect of disease status at HCT on post-transplant outcomes in AML and ALL. Further investigation to incorporate measurable residual disease data is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04661-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Prognostic impact of CEBPA bZIP domain mutation in acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo.

Mutations of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPAmu) are found in 10-15% of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. Double-mutated CEBPA (CEBPAdm) is associated with a favorable prognosis; however, single-mutated CEBPA (CEBPAsm) does not appear to improve prognosis. We investigated the CEBPAmu for prognosis in 1028 AML patients, registered in the Multi-center Collaborative Program for Gene Sequencing of Japanese AML. It was found that CEBPAmu in the basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) was strongly associated with a favorable prognosis, but CEBPAmu out of the bZIP domain was not. The presence of CEBPAmu in bZIP was a strong indicator of a higher chance of achieving complete remission (p<0.001), better overall survival (OS; p<0.001) and a lower risk of relapse (p<0.001). The prognostic significance of CEBPAmu in bZIP was also observed in the subgroup with CEBPAsm (all patients, OS: p=0.008; the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR): p=0.063. patients aged ≤70 years and with intermediate-risk karyotype, OS: p=0.008; CIR: p=0.026). Multivariate analysis of 744 patients aged ≤70 years showed that CEBPAmu in bZIP was the most potent predictor of OS (hazard ratio: 0.3287; p<0.001). CEBPAdm was validated as a cofounding factor, which was overlapping with CEBPAmu in bZIP. In summary, these findings indicate that CEBPAmu in bZIP is a potent marker for AML prognosis. It holds potential in the refinement of treatment stratification and the development of targeted therapeutic approaches in CEBPA mutated AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004292DOI Listing
August 2021

Pre-conditioning intervention in patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a KSGCT multicenter retrospective analysis.

Ann Hematol 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The efficacy and clinical significance of pre-conditioning intervention (PCI) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) not in remission remain inconclusive. The purpose of this multicenter retrospective study was to clarify the clinical significance of PCI before HCT in patients with non-remission ALL. Patients with non-remission ALL who received HCT between 2005 and 2015 at 16 institutions were included. PCI was objectively defined and classified to three groups according to the intensity of PCI (no, intensive, or moderate). The study cohort consisted of 104 patients with a median age of 38 (range 17-68). A significant decrease of blast percentage in the peripheral blood (PB) was confirmed in both PCI groups, suggesting that PCIs were effective to stabilize the disease activity. The group with moderate PCI had higher nucleated cell count in the BM compared to the group with intensive PCI or the group without PCI. The overall survival (OS) rates of groups with intensive and no PCI showed comparable and significantly better compared to the group with moderate PCI (P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the OS of moderate PCI group was significantly worse compared to that of intensive PCI group (HR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.32-4.14, P = 0.004), while the OS of intensive PCI group was comparable to that of the group without PCI. These results suggest that the intensity of PCI rather than the response to PCI may contribute to improve the transplant outcome in patients with ALL not in remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04607-8DOI Listing
August 2021

Newly proposed threshold and validation of white blood cell count at diagnosis for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: risk assessment of relapse in patients with negative minimal residual disease at transplantation-a report from the Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Working Group of the JSTCT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

White blood cell count (WBC) at diagnosis is the conventional prognostic factor in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph ALL). Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of WBC at diagnosis considering the minimal residual disease (MRD) status at allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We evaluated adult patients with Ph ALL who achieved negative-MRD and received HCT in first complete remission between 2006 and 2018. The entire cohort was temporally divided into derivation (n = 258) and validation cohorts (n  =  366). Using a threshold of 15,000/μL, which was determined by a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in the derivation cohort, high WBC was associated with an increased risk of hematological relapse in both the derivation cohort (25.3% vs. 11.6% at 7 years, P = 0.004) and the validation cohort (16.2% vs. 8.5% at 3 years, P = 0.025). In multivariate analyses, high WBC was a strong predictor of hematological relapse in the derivation cohort (HR, 2.52, 95%CI 1.32-4.80, P = 0.005) and in the validation cohort (HR, 2.32, 95%CI, 1.18-4.55; P = 0.015). In conclusion, WBC at diagnosis with a new threshold of 15,000/μL should contribute to better risk stratification in patients with negative-MRD at HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01422-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Archival bone marrow smears are useful in targeted next-generation sequencing for diagnosing myeloid neoplasms.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(7):e0255257. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Clinical Research Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Gene abnormalities, including mutations and fusions, are important determinants in the molecular diagnosis of myeloid neoplasms. The use of bone marrow (BM) smears as a source of DNA and RNA for next-generation sequencing (NGS) enables molecular diagnosis to be done with small amounts of bone marrow and is especially useful for patients without stocked cells, DNA or RNA. The present study aimed to analyze the quality of DNA and RNA derived from smear samples and the utility of NGS for diagnosing myeloid neoplasms. Targeted DNA sequencing using paired BM cells and smears yielded sequencing data of adequate quality for variant calling. The detected variants were analyzed using the bioinformatics approach to detect mutations reliably and increase sensitivity. Noise deriving from variants with extremely low variant allele frequency (VAF) was detected in smear sample data and removed by filtering. Consequently, various driver gene mutations were detected across a wide range of allele frequencies in patients with myeloid neoplasms. Moreover, targeted RNA sequencing successfully detected fusion genes using smear-derived, very low-quality RNA, even in a patient with a normal karyotype. These findings demonstrated that smear samples can be used for clinical molecular diagnosis with adequate noise-reduction methods even if the DNA and RNA quality is inferior.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255257PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8301613PMC
July 2021

MPL overexpression induces a high level of mutant-CALR/MPL complex: a novel mechanism of ruxolitinib resistance in myeloproliferative neoplasms with CALR mutations.

Int J Hematol 2021 Oct 24;114(4):424-440. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Immunotherapy for Hematopoietic Disorders, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, TMDU, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510, Japan.

Ruxolitinib (RUX), a JAK1/2-inhibitor, is effective for myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) with both JAK2V617 F and calreticulin (CALR) mutations. However, many MPN patients develop resistance to RUX. Although mechanisms of RUX-resistance in cells with JAK2V617 F have already been characterized, those in cells with CALR mutations remain to be elucidated. In this study, we established RUX-resistant human cell lines with CALR mutations and characterized mechanisms of RUX-resistance. Here, we found that RUX-resistant cells had high levels of MPL transcripts, overexpression of both MPL and JAK2, and increased phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT5. We also found that mature MPL proteins were more stable in RUX-resistant cells. Knockdown of MPL in RUX-resistant cells by shRNAs decreased JAK/STAT signaling. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that binding of mutant CALR to MPL was increased in RUX-resistant cells. Reduction of mutated CALR decreased proliferation of the resistant cells. When resistant cells were cultured in the absence of RUX, the RUX-resistance was reversed, with reduction of the mutant-CALR/MPL complex. In conclusion, MPL overexpression induces higher levels of a mutant-CALR/MPL complex, which may cause RUX-resistance in cells with CALR mutations. This mechanism may be a new therapeutic target to overcome RUX-resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03180-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Residual disease is a strong prognostic marker in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with chemotherapy-refractory or relapsed disease prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jul 22;194(2):403-413. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is one of the curative treatment options for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, the outcomes in patients transplanted without complete remission (non-CR) have not yet been fully reported, and detailed analyses are required to identify subgroups in which optimal prognosis is expected and to optimize pre-transplant therapeutic strategies. Hence, we performed a multicentred retrospective cohort study including a total of 663 adult ALL patients transplanted at non-CR status; the median bone marrow (BM) blast counts at HSCT was 13·2%, and 203 patients (30·6%) were treated at primary induction failure status. The overall survival (OS) was 31·1% at two years, and the multivariate analyses identified five prognostic risk factors, including older age (≥50 years), increased BM blasts (≥10%), poor performance status, high haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-comorbidity index, and relapsed disease status, among which BM blast was the most significantly related. A predictive scoring system composed of these risk factors clearly stratified OS (15·6-59·5% at two years). In conclusion, this is the first large-scale study to analyze the correlation of patient characteristics with post-transplant prognosis in ALL transplanted at non-CR status. The importance of blast control before HSCT should be focused on for better patient prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17646DOI Listing
July 2021

Differential Effect of Graft-versus-Host Disease on Survival in Acute Leukemia according to Donor Type.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Sep 22;27(17):4825-4835. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Hematology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan.

Purpose: The anti-leukemic activity of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) depends on both the intensity of conditioning regimen and the strength of the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. However, it is unclear whether the sensitivity of the GVL effects differs between donor type and graft source.

Experimental Design: We retrospectively evaluated the effect of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on transplant outcomes for adults with acute leukemia ( = 6,548) between 2007 and 2017 using a Japanese database. In all analyses, we separately evaluated three distinct cohorts based on donor type [(8/8 allele-matched sibling donor, 8/8 allele-matched unrelated donor, and unrelated single-cord blood (UCB)].

Results: The multivariate analysis, in which the development of GVHD was treated as a time-dependent covariate, showed a reductive effect of grade I-II acute GVHD on treatment failure (defined as 1-leukemia-free survival; < 0.001), overall mortality (OM; < 0.001), relapse ( < 0.001), and non-relapse mortality (NRM; < 0.001) in patients receiving from UCB. A reductive effect of limited chronic GVHD on treatment failure ( < 0.001), OM ( < 0.001), and NRM ( < 0.001) was also shown in patients receiving from UCB. However, these effects were not always shown in patients receiving from other donors. The beneficial effects of mild acute and chronic GVHD after UCB transplantation on treatment failure were noted relatively in subgroups of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and a non-remission status.

Conclusions: These data suggested that the development of mild GVHD could improve survival after UCB transplantation for acute leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4856DOI Listing
September 2021

CT classification of acute myeloid leukemia with pulmonary infiltration.

Jpn J Radiol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8677, Japan.

Purpose: To characterize and categorize the CT findings of pulmonary leukemic infiltration (PLI) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Materials And Methods: Among 435 patients with AML, 20 patients with PLI were retrospectively selected, and clinical characteristics and CT findings were analyzed. PLI was categorized into four patterns according to CT findings: type A, multiple nodules and/or masses; type B, bilateral perihilar airspace opacities (GGA or consolidation) without any nodules or masses; type C, mixture of type A and B; and type D, PLI without visible abnormal lung opacity. The difference in overall survival among four CT patterns was also examined.

Results: The frequency of complex karyotypes was higher in AML patients with PLI than in whole AML patients. Percentages of patients with CT findings of type A, B, C, and D were 35%, 20%, 35%, and 10%, respectively. There was a clear difference in the localization of opacities according to the type of infiltrates, i.e., nodules/masses were mainly detected in the lower/peripheral portion. Conversely, GGA was mainly located in the upper/central portion. The median overall survival from diagnosis of PLI was 262 days (range 12-1148). The CT pattern was not significantly associated with survival (p = 0.3), with the exception of patients with type C tending to have significantly better outcomes compared to patients with type B (p = 0.05).

Conclusion: This classification can contribute in accurate non-invasive diagnosis and possibly in the estimation of prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-021-01151-3DOI Listing
June 2021

An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Multicenter Study of Ibrutinib in Japanese Patients With Steroid-dependent/Refractory Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K., Tokyo, Japan.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a serious complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. There are no well-established treatment options for cGVHD after primary steroid-based treatment. Ibrutinib showed clinical benefit with an acceptable safety profile in steroid-dependent/refractory cGVHD patients in a Phase 1b/2 study (PCYC-1129-CA, NCT02195869), with which it was approved in the United States for adult cGVHD patients after failure of ≥1 systemic treatments. This open-label, single-arm, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ibrutinib in Japanese patients ≥12 years of age with steroid-dependent/refractory cGVHD (NCT03474679). Patients were assessed on the basis of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Project Criteria for Clinical Trials in cGVHD (2014). All patients received ibrutinib at a dose of 420 mg orally once daily, with a dose reduction to 280 mg/d on the concomitant use of voriconazole. Nineteen patients, including 1 adolescent, were enrolled and treated with ibrutinib in the study. At the time of clinical data cutoff (when the last patient completed the efficacy assessment at week 37), 10 of 19 patients (52.6%) remained on treatment whereas 9 of 19 patients (47.4%) had discontinued ibrutinib. The median duration of ibrutinib treatment was 9.63 (range 0.6 to 16.7+) months. The best overall response rate was 73.7%, and the rate of sustained response for ≥20 weeks was 71.4% for the responders (52.6% of all patients). Responses were seen across all the involved organs for cGVHD. Median daily corticosteroid dose requirement decreased by 0.06 mg/kg/d from baseline to week 36, whereas an improvement in the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale score was observed in 42.1% of patients. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were pneumonia and stomatitis (36.8% each), upper respiratory tract infection (31.6%), cellulitis and platelet count decreased (26.3% each), and nausea (21.1%). Furthermore, 11 of 19 patients (57.9%) were reported with ≥1 treatment-emergent serious adverse events; the most common being pneumonia (26.3%) and cellulitis (15.8%). In total, 4 of 19 patients (21.1%) died during the study, of which 3 of 19 patients (15.8%) had TEAEs leading to death whereas 1 patient died of peritonitis, which occurred >30 days after the last dose of ibrutinib. Treatment-emergent adverse events leading to ibrutinib discontinuation were reported in 3 of 19 patients (15.8%). Ibrutinib was rapidly absorbed with a median time to reach maximum plasma concentration (t) of ~4.0 hours. Steady-state exposures were ~3.0- and ~1.4-fold higher for the patients receiving fluconazole (n = 8) and voriconazole (n = 4) with ibrutinib, respectively, as compared with patients not receiving CYP3A inhibitors (n = 7). Mean Bruton's tyrosine kinase occupancy was 88.1% at 4 hours after dose on day 1, and occupancy levels were maintained throughout the assessment period, regardless of the ibrutinib daily dose. Ibrutinib showed a clinically meaningful response and an acceptable safety profile in Japanese patients with steroid-dependent/refractory cGVHD; the safety profile was consistent with the known safety profile of ibrutinib in adults and with that seen in cGVHD patients receiving concomitant steroid treatment. Overall, the results were generally consistent with findings observed in the PCYC-1129-CA study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.019DOI Listing
June 2021

Successful Cord Blood Transplantation for Idiopathic CD4+ Lymphocytopenia.

Acta Haematol 2021 Jun 1:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is the depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes to <300 cells/mm3 without human immunodeficiency virus infection or other causes of lymphocytopenia. ICL causes fatal infections; its etiology remains unclear and it lacks consensus regarding therapeutic options. We report the first patient with ICL who had a successful clinical course following a cord blood transplant (CBT). A 45-year-old woman was diagnosed with ICL and underwent partial hepatectomy for an abscess caused by the Mycobacterium avium complex. No specific gene alterations were detected through next generation sequencing-based evaluation. Following a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen consisting of fludarabine, busulfan, and 4 Gy total body irradiation, a single-unit CBT was performed. Neutrophils were engrafted on day +14. CD4+ lymphocyte counts increased to over 300 cells/mm3 on day +436. After 75 months, she was alive without any sequelae. CBT with an RIC regimen could be a curable treatment option for ICL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516347DOI Listing
June 2021

Outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma: A single-center study.

Leuk Res 2021 09 18;108:106627. Epub 2021 May 18.

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Although the indications for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) as a treatment for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL/LBL) and Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) are similar, few studies have compared its outcomes for T-ALL/LBL and Ph-negative B-ALL. The clinical data of 28 patients with T-ALL, 16 with T-LBL, and 99 with Ph-negative B-ALL who underwent the first allo-HSCT from 2000 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Complete remission (CR) rates at allo-HSCT were 79 %, 63 %, and 75 % for T-ALL, T-LBL, and B-ALL, respectively; the 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 55.7 %, 56.2 %, and 58.6 %, respectively (p = 0.92). Univariate analysis revealed that disease subtypes were not significantly associated with OS (B-ALL vs. T-ALL: hazard ratio [HR]=0.89, p = 0.70; T-LBL vs. T-ALL: HR=0.87, p = 0.75), and CR at allo-HSCT was the only prognostic factor for OS (HR=0.25, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CR at allo-HSCT was the only predictor of OS (HR=0.24, p < 0.001). In all three disease subtypes, patients in CR at allo-HSCT tended to have a lower cumulative incidence of relapse than did those in non-CR (T-ALL: 13.6 % vs. 50.0 %, p = 0.10; T-LBL: 20.0 % vs. 50.0 %, p = 0.21; B-ALL: 10.0 % vs. 56.0 %, p < 0.01). Thus, the outcomes of allo-HSCT for T-ALL/LBL were comparable to those of Ph-negative B-ALL. Irrespective of the disease subtypes, achieving CR before allo-HSCT was associated with a favorable OS. Further advances in chemotherapy before allo-HSCT and defining the optimal timing of allo-HSCT would improve the prognosis of patients with T-ALL/LBL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2021.106627DOI Listing
September 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome in adolescent and young adult patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Hematology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curable treatment option for adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The study aim was to evaluate epidemiological data and identify prognostic factors for AYA patients with MDS undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Here, 645 patients were selected from patients enrolled in a multicenter prospective registry for HSCT from 2000 to 2015. The primary endpoint was 3-year overall survival (OS). Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were identified using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. The 3-year OS was 71.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 67.4-74.6%). In multivariable analysis, active disease status (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.18, p = 0.016), poor cytogenetic risk (1.62, 1.12-2.36, p = 0.011), poor performance status (2.01, 1.13-3.56, p = 0.016), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated donors (2.23, 1.39-3.59, p < 0.001), HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (2.16, 1.09-4.28, p = 0.027), and cord blood transplantation (2.44, 1.43-4.17, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with poor 3-year OS. In conclusion, in AYA patients with MDS the 3-year OS following allogeneic HSCT was 71.2%. Active disease status, poor cytogenetic risk, poor performance status, and donor sources other than related donors were associated with poor 3-year OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01324-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with high hyperdiploidy: a retrospective nationwide study.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 May 12:1-7. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

We compared the transplant outcomes of adult patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia characterized by high hyperdiploidy (HeH; 51-65 chromosomes) ( = 29) and those with a normal karyotype ( = 87) by propensity score-matched analysis. There were no significant differences among groups in 3-year probabilities of overall survival (OS, 63.5% vs. 55.3%,  = .553), cumulative relapse incidence (28.6% vs. 28.7%,  = .982), and non-relapse mortality (10.9% vs. 21.4%,  = .303). Three-year OS was significantly worse in HeH patients with third or later complete remission (CR) or non-CR compared with those in first CR (19.0% vs. 69.9%,  = .010). Frequently gained chromosomes +21 (75.9%), +4 (69.0%), +6 (69.0%), +10 (69.0%), and +1 (69.0%) had no significant prognostic impact on the OS of patients with HeH in multivariate analyses. Patients with HeH who may benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be further analyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1924374DOI Listing
May 2021

Off-the-shelf bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease: real-world evidence.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Hematology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medical Science, Sapporo, Japan.

Temcell is a cryopreserved, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) product approved for the treatment of patients of all ages with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Initial experience with Temcell in a real-world setting from a cellular therapy registry in Japan is presented. A total of 381 consecutive patients were enrolled since its approval in 2016. The median cell number infused was 2.00 × 10/kg. The most common number of infusions was 8 in 100 patients. Of the 306 evaluable patients, the overall response rate (ORR) on day 28 after the start of MSC therapy was 56%. Of the 151 evaluable patients who received it as second-line therapy following first-line steroid therapy for classic acute GVHD, the ORR was 61%. Liver involvement of GVHD and ≥14 days from first-line steroid therapy to second-line MSC therapy was associated with a lower ORR. Day 28 ORR, patient age, GVHD grade, GVHD organ involvement, and a number of GVHD therapies before MSC therapy were associated with nonrelapse mortality. Overall survival at 6 months in 381 patients was 40%. This study suggests that Temcell is one of the treatment options for steroid-refractory acute GVHD until a new treatment with survival benefit is developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01304-yDOI Listing
May 2021

[Clinical features of tuberculosis among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2021 ;62(4):239-244

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital.

The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients is 10-40 times higher than that in the general population, which ranges from 0.1% to 5.5%. However, the clinical features of TB among allo-HSCT recipients in Japan remain unknown. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of TB and the clinical features of culture-positive TB among allo-HSCT recipients at our hospital between 2002 and 2018. Of 1,047 recipients, 5 (0.4%) developed pulmonary TB (with an incidence rate of 472 per 100,000 population) at a median of 1,730 (range: 586-2,526) days after allo-HSCT. Three patients had chronic graft-versus-host disease upon the onset of TB, which was well-controlled with tacrolimus and/or steroid. Three of five patients completed TB treatment, and the disease did not flare up after therapy completion. The incidence of TB was higher in allo-HSCT recipients than in the general population (0.01%, with an incidence rate of 12.3 per 100,000 population). Therefore, TB should be considered a late complication among allo-HSCT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.62.239DOI Listing
May 2021

Low-dose antithymocyte globulin inhibits chronic graft-versus-host disease in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Sep 7;56(9):2231-2240. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Hematology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been shown to reduce chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) particularly in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from unrelated donors; however, anti-GVHD effects of lower doses of ATG remains to be elucidated. We conducted a nationwide retrospective study to compare the outcomes of unrelated PBSCT with or without rabbit ATG (thymoglobulin) in 287 patients. A median ATG dose was 2.0 mg/kg. The primary endpoint, the cumulative incidence of moderate-severe chronic GVHD at 2 years was 22.1% in the ATG group, which was significantly less than that in the non-ATG group (36.3%, P = 0.025). The ATG group had a higher incidence of immunosuppressant discontinuation, GVHD-free, relapse-free survival, and moderate-severe chronic GVHD-free, relapse-free survival at 2 years compared to the non-ATG group. The incidences of grade III-IV aGVHD and moderate-severe chronic GVHD were significantly higher in patients with high absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) before the administration of ATG, whereas relapse rate was significantly higher in patients with low ALC before ATG. In conclusion, low-dose ATG effectively suppresses chronic GVHD in unrelated PBSCT, and ALC before ATG may be a potential predictor for GVHD and relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01314-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Changes in vaccination strategies contribute to the development of invasive pneumococcal disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: a retrospective study for promoting vaccination.

Int J Hematol 2021 Aug 12;114(2):263-270. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients are at high risk of developing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) with substantial morbidity and mortality. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) are the primary prevention strategy. The difference between the Japanese and international guidelines is limited except when to start PCV13. However, Japanese data regarding the incidence of IPD after allo-HSCT that include vaccination status are limited. Therefore, we aimed to study the clinical characteristics of patients with IPD following allo-HSCT, focusing on unvaccinated patients. We retrospectively reviewed allo-HSCT recipients between April 2005 and December 2018 at Komagome Hospital. Among 1,091 recipients, 11 (1008/100,000 recipients) developed 13 episodes of IPD. The median period from the first allo-HSCT to the first IPD episode was 686 days (10-3040 days). Ten patients developed IPD before vaccination, and seven of these unvaccinated patients with late-onset IPD were ineligible for vaccination based on domestic guidelines. Although appropriate treatments resulted in a good short-term prognosis, most episodes of IPD developed in unvaccinated allo-HSCT recipients. Our data support the promotion of better adherence to the current guidelines and the importance of pneumococcal vaccination even years after allo-HSCT to protect against late-onset IPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03146-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Single Cord Blood Transplantation Versus Unmanipulated Haploidentical Transplantation for Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Complete Remission.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 04 28;27(4):334.e1-334.e11. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a potentially curative post-remission therapy for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in complete remission (CR). The availability of alternative human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched donors, such as cord blood and haploidentical related donors, could allow patients to receive allogeneic HCT who are without an HLA-matched sibling or unrelated donor. The use of these alternative donors is preferable for patients with advanced disease due to the rapid availability. However, comparative data for cord blood transplantation (CBT) and haploidentical related donor transplantation (haplo-HCT) are limited for adult patients with AML in CR. We sought to compare overall survival (OS); leukemia-free survival (LFS); graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS); and chronic GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (CRFS) between single-unit CBT (SCBT) and haplo-HCT recipients for adult patients with intermediate- or poor-risk AML in CR. We retrospectively analyzed and compared the results of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in 1313 adult patients with intermediate- or poor-risk AML in CR who received either SCBT (n = 1102) or unmanipulated haplo-HCT (n = 211) between 2007 and 2018 in Japan. Among the whole cohort, the cumulative incidences of neutrophil and platelet recovery were significantly lower in SCBT recipients compared with those in haplo-HCT recipients (P < .001 for neutrophil, P < .001 for platelet). SCBT was significantly associated with a higher incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD and lower incidence of extensive chronic GVHD compared to haplo-HCT (P = .013 for grades II to IV acute GVHD; P = .006 for extensive chronic GVHD). Haplo-HCT recipients developed a higher incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia compared to SCBT recipients (P = .004). In the multivariate analysis, there were no significant differences for grades III or IV acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], .88 to 1.57; P = .26), relapse incidence (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, .76 to 1.58; P = .61), non-relapse mortality (HR, .83; 95% CI, .58 to 1.18; P = .32), OS (HR, .92; 95% CI, .70 to 1.20; P = .56), LFS (HR, .94; 95% CI, .73 to 1.21; P = .67), GRFS (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, .90 to 1.40; P = .27), or CRFS (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, .92 to 1.44; P = .19) between the two donor types. In the propensity score matching analysis, which identified 180 patients in each cohort, there were no significant differences in transplant outcomes between the two donor types, except for delayed neutrophil (P < .001) and platelet recovery (P < .001) and a higher incidence of grades II to IV acute GVHD (P = .052) in SCBT. SCBT and unmanipulated haplo-HCT had similar survival outcomes for adult patients with AML in CR despite the lower hematopoietic recovery and higher grade II to IV acute GVHD in SCBT recipients and the higher CMV antigenemia in haplo-HCT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.01.023DOI Listing
April 2021

[Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation during the COVID-19 pandemic with reference to EBMT recommendation].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2021 ;62(2):106-114

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread worldwide and was classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. However, its clinical manifestations and optimal management in immunosuppressed patients, including recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), are unknown. There have been some international guidelines for the management of COVID-19 in HSCT recipients. In this issue, we describe the Japanese real-world clinical condition and careful points, explaining those international guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.62.106DOI Listing
March 2021

Donor UNC-93 Homolog B1 genetic polymorphism predicts survival outcomes after unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

Genes Immun 2021 05 24;22(1):35-43. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Japan.

UNC-93 homolog B1 (UNC93B1) is a key regulator of toll-like receptors (TLRs), pattern recognition receptors that sense invading pathogens and manage the innate immune response and deliver them from the endoplasmic reticulum to their respective endosomal signaling compartments. Several types of TLRs are known to contribute to the inflammatory process after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT), so UNC93B1 might play integral roles there. We investigated the influence of the UNC93B1 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs308328 (T>C) on transplant outcomes in a cohort of 237 patients undergoing unrelated HLA-matched bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for hematologic malignancies through the Japan Marrow Donor Program. The donor UNC93B1 C/C genotype was associated with a better 3-year overall survival than the donor UNC93B1 C/T or T/T genotype. An analysis of the UNC93B1 rs308328 genotype may therefore be useful for selecting the donor, estimating the prognosis, and creating therapeutic strategies after allogeneic SCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41435-021-00122-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903020PMC
May 2021

A multicenter phase II study of intrabone single-unit cord blood transplantation without antithymocyte globulin.

Ann Hematol 2021 Mar 11;100(3):743-752. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi, 466-8550, Japan.

To overcome the delayed or failed engraftment after unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT), we conducted a multicenter phase II study of intrabone single-unit CBT without antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for adult patients with hematological malignancies (UMIN-CTR, UMIN000020997). Sixty-four patients received an intrabone injection of unwashed (n = 61) or washed (n = 3) cord blood after local anesthesia. All injection-related adverse events were mild and resolved spontaneously. Sixty-two patients were evaluable for the efficacy of intrabone CBT of serological HLA-A, -B, and -DR ≥ 4/6 matched cord blood with a median number of 2.57 × 10/kg cryopreserved total nucleated cells. The probability of survival with neutrophil engraftment on day 28 was 77.4% (95% confidence interval, 67.0-85.8%), which exceeded the threshold value. The cumulative incidences of neutrophils ≥ 0.5 × 10/L on day 60 was 80.6% (68.2-88.6%), with a median time to recovery of 21 days after transplantation. The cumulative incidences of platelets ≥ 20 × 10/L and platelets ≥ 50 × 10/L on day 100 were 75.8% (62.6-84.9%) and 72.6% (59.4-82.1%), respectively, with median time to platelets ≥ 20 × 10/L and platelets ≥ 50 × 10/L of 38 and 45 days after transplantation, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease were 29.0% and 6.5%, respectively. All responded to steroid therapy, and secondary treatments were not required. The present study suggests the efficacy of intrabone single-unit CBT without ATG in terms of early engraftment and controllable acute graft-versus-host disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04365-zDOI Listing
March 2021

T-cell receptor repertoire of cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T-cells after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Sci Rep 2020 12 17;10(1):22218. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8677, Japan.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major complication during allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, mechanisms of adaptive immunity that drive this remain unclear. To define early immunological responses to CMV after transplantation, we using next-generation sequencing to examine the repertoire of T-cell receptors in CD8/CMV pp65 tetramer cells (CMV-CTLs) in peripheral blood samples obtained from 16 allo-SCT recipients with HLA-A*24:02 at the time of CMV reactivation. In most patients, TCR beta repertoire of CMV-CTLs was highly skewed (median Inverse Simpson's index: 1.595) and, 15 of 16 patients shared at least one TCR-beta clonotype with ≥ 2 patients. The shared TCRs were dominant in 12 patients and, two clonotypes were shared by about half of the patients. Similarity analysis showed that CDR3 sequences of shared TCRs were more similar than unshared TCRs. TCR beta repertoires of CMV-CTLs in 12 patients were also analyzed after 2-4 weeks to characterize the short-term dynamics of TCR repertoires. In ten patients, we observed persistence of prevailing clones. In the other two patients, TCR repertoires became more diverse, major clones declined, and new private clones subsequently emerged. These results provided the substantive clue to understand the immunological behavior against CMV reactivation after allo-SCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79363-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747720PMC
December 2020

[Vacuolar myelopathy after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2020 ;61(11):1625-1627

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital.

Vacuolar myelopathy (VM) is known to be a neurological complication in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In autopsy-based studies, VM was reported in approximately 20-50% of patients with AIDS. It manifests in various says, mainly presenting as a painless spastic paraparesis with a sensory ataxia. We present a rare case of VM after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in a patient without AIDS. A 50-year-old man developed weakness in the lower legs, leg muscle atrophy, and difficulty in walking 86 days after BMT. The patient died from septic shock on day 309. The autopsy revealed intralamellar vacuolation in the spinal white matter, which was compatible with VM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.61.1625DOI Listing
February 2021

Individual HLAs influence immunological events in allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 03 9;56(3):646-654. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Central Japan Cord Blood Bank, Seto, Japan.

In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the effects of patient and donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching status on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have been extensively elucidated, but the effects of specific HLAs on acute GVHD remain unclear. Using data from a Japanese registry, we retrospectively analyzed 4392 patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received transplants from HLA-identical sibling donors to investigate the effects of HLAs on acute GVHD. From unbiased searches of HLA-A, -B, and -DR, HLA-B60 was significantly associated with an increased risk of grades II-IV acute GVHD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13-1.59; P = 0.001). In contrast, HLA-B62 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of grades II-IV (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62-0.87; P < 0.001) and III-IV acute GVHD (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46-0.87; P = 0.005). The risk of leukemia relapse was significantly higher in HLA-B62-positive patients than in HLA-B62-negative patients (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43; P = 0.01). Both HLA-B60 and -B62 did not affect overall survival. The findings of this study may by implication suggest the possibility that the effects of specific HLAs on transplant outcomes may reflect inherent biological features, and thus consideration of specific HLAs may be helpful to predict transplant outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01070-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical Benefits of Preconditioning Intervention in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Who Underwent Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Kanto Study of Group for Cell Therapy Multicenter Analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 01 30;27(1):70.e1-70.e8. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

A multicenter retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the clinical significance of preconditioning intervention (PCI) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) not in remission. The study cohort consisted of 519 patients classified according to the intensity (intensive/moderate) of PCI and their response to PCI. The group treated with PCI had higher blast counts in the peripheral blood (PB) and had a lower overall survival (OS) rate (P < .001) and higher nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate (P = .035) compared with those without PCI (no PCI group). Approximately 40% of the patients (68 of 236) achieved a good response to PCI (good PCI group), and those patients had lower blast counts in the PB compared with the group with poor response to PCI (poor PCI group). OS in the good PCI group was comparable to that in the no PCI group and significantly better than that in the poor PCI group (hazard ratio, .54; 95% confidence interval, .39 to .77; P < .001). However, OS was significantly lower in patients with intensive/moderate PCI compared with the no PCI group. These results suggest that PCI increases NRM without decreasing the post-transplantation relapse rate, but may be beneficial for patients with lower blast counts in PB irrespective of its intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.025DOI Listing
January 2021

Prebiotics protect against acute graft-versus-host disease and preserve the gut microbiota in stem cell transplantation.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(19):4607-4617

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Therefore, management of aGVHD is important for successful transplantation. Mucosal damage and alteration of the gut microbiota after allo-HSCT are key factors in the development of aGVHD. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the ability of prebiotics, which can alleviate mucosal damage and manipulate the gut microbiota, to mitigate posttransplantation complications, including aGVHD. Resistant starch (RS) and a commercially available prebiotics mixture, GFO, were administered to allo-HSCT recipients from pretransplantation conditioning to day 28 after allo-HSCT. Prebiotic intake mitigated mucosal injury and reduced the incidence of all aGVHD grades combined and of aGVHD grades 2 to 4. The cumulative incidence of skin aGVHD was markedly decreased by prebiotics intake. Furthermore, the gut microbial diversity was well maintained and butyrate-producing bacterial population were preserved by prebiotics intake. In addition, the posttransplantation fecal butyrate concentration was maintained or increased more frequently in the prebiotics group. These observations indicate that prebiotic intake may be an effective strategy for preventing aGVHD in allo-HSCT, thereby improving treatment outcomes and the clinical utility of stem cell transplantation approaches. This study was registered on the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) clinical trials registry (https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm) as #UMIN000027563.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556149PMC
October 2020
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