Publications by authors named "Norie Sawada"

332 Publications

Reliability of self-reported questionnaire for epidemiological investigation of Helicobacter pylori eradication in a population-based cohort study.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 2;11(1):15605. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Cohort Research, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

General population-based cohort studies provide solid evidence on mass Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication effects. Self-reported questionnaires are occasionally used in such studies to ascertain the HP eradication history. However, reports on the reliability of these questionnaires are lacking. This general population-based cohort study included 899 individuals with HP infection at the baseline survey who were reported to have eradicated it at the 5-year follow-up survey. Of these, the medical records of 280 patients were available for investigation, and the HP eradication status of 93 individuals was ascertained. Their medical records were reviewed, and the reliability of the self-reported questionnaire responses was assessed. Of the 91 individuals who successfully eradicated HP based on the medical records, 90 (98.9%) answered the self-reported questionnaire correctly, with an unweighted kappa value of 0.661 (p < 0.001). The difference between the self-reported and medical records age at eradication was within a 1-year range in most participants (86.8%). Similarly, the HP eradication procedure and the outcomes were reasonably matched. In conclusion, the responses to the self-reported HP eradication questionnaire were almost consistent with the medical records. Thus, HP eradication history assessment by a self-reported questionnaire is reliable for an epidemiological study in the general population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95124-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Relation Between Body Mass Index and Dry Eye Disease: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation.

Eye Contact Lens 2021 Aug;47(8):449-455

Department of Ophthalmology (R.Y., A.H., M.U., M.K., K. Yuki, K. Tsubota), Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Epidemiology and Prevention Group (R.Y., N.S., A.H., T.S., T.Y., A.G., M. Inoue, M. Iwasaki, S.T.), Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan; Center for Education and Educational Research (T.K.), Faculty of Education, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Japan; Department of Public Health and Epidemiology (I.S.), Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan; Department of Public Health (K.A., S.M.), Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan; Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine (K. Tanno, K.S.), School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan; Department of Public Health Medicine (K. Yamagishi, H.I.), Faculty of Medicine, and Health Services Research and Development Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan; Ibaraki Western Medical Center (Kazumasa Yamagishi), Chikusei, Japan; Public Health (H.I.), Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan; and Department of Public Health (N.Y.), Kochi University Medical School, Kochi, Japan.

Objective: To investigate the relation between body mass index (BMI) and dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey in 85,264 Japanese men and women aged 40 to 74 years who participated in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT Study). Dry eye disease was defined as the presence of severe symptoms or clinical diagnosis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of DED associated with BMI and their two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We adjusted for age, cohort area, visual display terminal time, smoking status, alcohol intake, education status, income status, as well as history of hormone replacement therapy for women.

Results: Prevalence of DED was 23.4% (n = 19,985; 6,289 men, 13,696 women). Higher BMI was correlated with a lower prevalence of DED in a dose-response fashion, with an adjusted OR of DED (95% CI) per 1 kg/m2 increment of BMI of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97-0.99) for men and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.97-0.98) for women.

Conclusions: This large population-based study showed an inverse relationship between BMI and prevalence of DED in a Japanese population. Underestimation of DED is warned, especially for participants with high BMI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICL.0000000000000814DOI Listing
August 2021

Non-alcoholic beverages intake and risk of cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women: the JPHC study.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jul 21:1-20. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

The association between the intake of non-alcoholic beverages and cardiovascular disease in Asians is uncertain. The intake of non-alcoholic beverages was estimated in 77,407 participants of the Japan public health center-based cohort study aged 45-74 years. The Cox regression calculated the HRs and 95% CIs for incident cardiovascular disease according to sex-specific quintiles of intake of non-alcoholic beverages. A total of 4578 incident cardiovascular disease (3,751 strokes and 827 coronary heart disease) were diagnosed during a 13.6-year median follow-up. The risks of stroke and total cardiovascular disease were lower for the highest versus lowest intake quintiles of non-alcoholic beverages in men and women: the multivariable HRs (95%CIs) were 0.82 (0.71-0.93, p-trend=0.005) and 0.86 (0.76-0.97, p-trend=0.02), respectively in men, and were 0.73 (0.63-0.86, p-trend=0.003) and 0.75 (0.65-0.87, p-trend=0.005) respectively in women. The reduced risk was evident for both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes and was mainly attributable to green tea consumption. The intake of non-alcoholic beverages from coffee and other beverages was not associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease in both men and women. Also, there was no association between the intake of non-alcohol beverages and the risk of coronary heart disease in either sex. In conclusion, the risks of stroke and total cardiovascular disease were lower with a higher intake of non-alcoholic beverages in Japanese men and women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521002737DOI Listing
July 2021

Validation study on diabetes definitions using Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination data among hospitalized patients.

J Epidemiol 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center.

BackgroundValidation studies on diabetes definitions using nationwide healthcare databases are scarce. We evaluated the validity of diabetes definitions using disease codes and antidiabetic drug prescriptions in the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) data via medical chart review.MethodsWe randomly selected 500 records among 15,334 patients who participated in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Yokote City and who had visited a general hospital in Akita between October 2011 and August 2018. Of the 500 patients, 98 were linked to DPC data; however, only 72 had sufficient information in the medical chart. Gold standard confirmation was performed by board-certified diabetologists. DPC-based diabetes definitions were based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes, and antidiabetic prescriptions. Sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) of DPC-based diabetes definitions were evaluated.ResultsOf 72 patients, 23 were diagnosed with diabetes by chart review; 19 had a diabetes code, and 13 had both a diabetes code and antidiabetic prescriptions. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 89.5% (95% confidence interval: 66.9-98.7), 96.2% (87.0-99.5), 89.5% (66.9-98.7), and 96.2% (87.0-99.5), respectively, for (i) diabetes codes alone; 89.5% (66.9-98.7), 94.3% (84.3-98.8), 85.0% (62.1-96.8), and 96.2 (86.8-99.5) for (ii) diabetes codes and/or prescriptions; 68.4% (43.4-87.4), 100% (93.3-100), 100% (75.3-100), and 89.8% (79.2-96.2) for (iii) both diabetes codes and prescriptions.ConclusionsOur results suggest that DPC data can accurately identify diabetes among inpatients using (i) diabetes codes alone or (ii) diabetes codes and/or prescriptions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20210024DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of serum levels of antibodies against ALDOA and FH4 with transient ischemic attack and cerebral infarction.

BMC Neurol 2021 Jul 9;21(1):274. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Background: Ischemic stroke, including transient ischemic attack (TIA) and acute-phase cerebral infarction (aCI), is a serious health problem in the aging society. Thus, this study aimed to identify TIA and aCI biomarkers.

Methods: In 19 patients with TIA, candidate antigens recognized by serum IgG autoantibodies were screened using a human aortic endothelial cell cDNA library. Through amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay-linked immunosorbent assay (AlphaLISA), serum antibody levels against the candidate antigens were examined in healthy donor (HD), TIA, and aCI cohorts (n = 285, 92, and 529). The plasma antibody levels in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study (1991-1993) were also examined.

Results: The candidate antigens were aldolase A (ALDOA) and fumarate hydratase (FH). In AlphaLISA, patients with TIA or aCI had higher anti-ALDOA antibody (ALDOA-Ab) and anti-FH antibody (FH-Ab) levels than the HDs (P < 0.05). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the ALDOA-Ab (odds ratio [OR]: 2.46, P = 0.0050) and FH-Ab (OR: 2.49, P = 0.0037) levels were independent predictors of TIA. According to the case-control study, the ALDOA-Ab (OR: 2.50, P < 0.01) and FH-Ab (OR: 2.60, P < 0.01) levels were associated with aCI risk. In a correlation analysis, both ALDOA-Abs and FH-Abs were well associated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, and habitual smoking. These antibody levels also correlated well with maximum intima-media thickness, which reflects atherosclerotic stenosis.

Conclusions: ALDOA-Abs and FH-Abs can be novel potential biomarkers for predicting atherosclerotic TIA and aCI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02301-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268454PMC
July 2021

Validity of dietary isothiocyanate intake estimates from a food frequency questionnaire using 24 h urinary isothiocyanate excretion as an objective biomarker: the JPHC-NEXT protocol area.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/objectives: Isothiocyanate (ITC) is formed via the hydrolysis of glucosinolates by myrosinase, found in cruciferous vegetables. Although myrosinase is inactivated by the cooking process, no studies have incorporated the effect of cooking into the estimation of dietary ITC intake or evaluated the validity. We evaluated the validity of dietary ITC intake estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and urinary ITC levels using 24 h urine samples or a WFR (weighed food record), and evaluated the reproducibility of dietary ITC in two FFQs administered at an interval of 1-year.

Subjects/methods: The JPHC-NEXT Protocol Area included a total of 255 middle-aged participants across Japan. We calculated dietary ITC intake from WFR and two FFQs by assuming that cooked cruciferous vegetables contain zero ITC. Urinary ITC excretion was measured at two points during summer and winter. The validity and reproducibility of dietary ITC intake estimated by FFQ were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients.

Results: Although we observed a moderate correlation between dietary ITC intake derived from a 12-day WFR and urinary ITC excretion, notwithstanding the cooking process, the correlation between dietary ITC intake estimated by FFQ and mean urinary ITC excretion was low. However, the correlation was improved when we compared urinary ITC excretion and a 3-day WFR or FFQ collected during winter. Our FFQ showed good reproducibility.

Conclusion: Although seasonality is a critical factor, dietary ITC intake estimated using an FFQ showed moderate validity and reproducibility and can be used in future epidemiological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00970-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Exploratory research on determinants of place of death in a large-scale cohort study: the JPHC study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center.

BackgroundThe place of death and related factor such as diseases, symptoms, family burden, and cost has been examined, but social background and lifestyle were not considered in most studies. Here, we assessed factors that are associated with the place of death using the largest cohort study in Japan.MethodsA total of 17,546 deaths from the cohort study were assessed. The study database was created from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) in which demographic data were collected by Japanese Vital Statistics. Adjusted odds ratios for home death were calculated by logistic regression.ResultsMultivariate analysis adjusted for various factors showed that unmarried status (OR 2.4, 95%CI:2.0-2.9), unemployed male (OR 1.3, 95%CI: 1.1-1.5), and high drinking level (OR 1.3, 95%CI:1.1-1.6) were associated with home death. Regarding the cause of death, cardiovascular disease (OR 3.3, 95%CI:2.9-3.8), cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.9, 95%CI:1.6-2.2) and external factors (OR 4.1, 95%CI:3.5-4.8) were significantly associated with home death, compared with cancer. The risk of death at home was significantly higher in unmarried status stratified by cause of death (OR: cardiovascular 3.2, 95%CI:2.2-4.7 / cerebrovascular 5.0, 95%CI:2.8-8.9 / respiratory 3.4, 95%CI:1.6-7.6/ external 2.3, 95%CI:1.4-3.7), but for cancer, the risk of death at home tended to be higher in married status.ConclusionsThis study indicated that various factors are associated with home death using the largest cohort study in Japan. There is a high possibility of home deaths in people with fewer social connections and in those with diseases leading to sudden death.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20210087DOI Listing
July 2021

Serum anti-AP3D1 antibodies are risk factors for acute ischemic stroke related with atherosclerosis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 29;11(1):13450. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Atherosclerosis has been considered as the main cause of morbidity, mortality, and disability worldwide. The first screening for antigen markers was conducted using the serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning, which has identified adaptor-related protein complex 3 subunit delta 1 (AP3D1) as an antigen recognized by serum IgG antibodies of patients with atherosclerosis. Serum antibody levels were examined using the amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay-linked immunosorbent assay (AlphaLISA) using a recombinant protein as an antigen. It was determined that the serum antibody levels against AP3D1 were higher in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), transient ischemic attack, diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and colorectal carcinoma than those in the healthy donors. The area under the curve values of DM, nephrosclerosis type of CKD, and ESCC calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were higher than those of other diseases. Correlation analysis showed that the anti-AP3D1 antibody levels were highly associated with maximum intima-media thickness, which indicates that this marker reflected the development of atherosclerosis. The results of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study indicated that this antibody marker is deemed useful as risk factors for AIS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92786-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242008PMC
June 2021

Body Mass Index, Height, Weight Change, and Subsequent Lung Cancer Risk: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with lung cancer risk, while residual confounding by smoking or weight change is controversial. Evidence on height and lung cancer is scarce.

Methods: We investigated the associations between anthropometrics, BMI, and height, and incidence of lung cancer among 92,098 study subjects (44,158 men and 47,940 women) in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed with adjustment for potential confounders and by cancer subtypes and smoking status. Information on weight and height was self-reported at baseline, and validated using measured health check-up data.

Results: During follow-up between 1990 and 2013 (average, 19.1 years), a total of 2,152 lung cancer cases were newly diagnosed. In a multivariate regression model, lower BMI was positively associated with overall lung cancer risk [<19 kg/m HR = 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-1.85 and 19-22.9 kg/m; HR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.05-1.35; = <0.001] in men. The risk estimate was also elevated for adenocarcinoma in the BMI <19 kg/m category and for squamous cell carcinoma among men in the 19-22.9 kg/m BMI category. An association was also observed between low BMI, weight decrease, and squamous cell carcinoma in women. No significant associations were observed for other weight categories, height, weight change and lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, squamous and small cell carcinoma.

Conclusions: Our prospective study suggests that lower BMI may be associated with an increased risk of smoking-related lung cancer in Japan, irrespective of gender.

Impact: This study highlights the association between lower BMI and the risk of lung cancer in men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0195DOI Listing
June 2021

Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and mortality: Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Long-term associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with mortality outcomes remain unclear.

Methods: The present analysis included 72,783 participants of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Participants who responded to the 5-year follow-up questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed-up until December 2015. We estimated the risk of total and cause-specific mortality associated with GI and GL using Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: During 1,244,553 person years of follow-up, 7535 men and 4913 women died. GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality. As compared with the lowest quartile, the multivariable HR for those who had the highest quartile of GI was 1.14 (95% CI 1.08-1.20). The HRs for death comparing the highest with the lowest quartile were 1.28 (95% CI 1.14-1.42) for circulatory system diseases, 1.33 (95% CI 1.14-1.55) for heart disease, 1.32 (95% CI 1.11-1.57) for cerebrovascular disease, and 1.45 (95% CI 1.18-1.78) for respiratory diseases. GI was not associated with mortality risks of cancer and digestive diseases. GL showed a null association with all-cause mortality (highest vs lowest quartile; HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.96-1.12). However, among those who had the highest quartile of GL, the HRs for death from circulatory system diseases was 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.46), cerebrovascular disease was 1.34 (95% CI 1.03-1.74), and respiratory diseases was 1.35 (95% CI 1.00-1.82), as compared with the lowest quartile.

Conclusion: In this large prospective cohort study, dietary GI and GL were associated with mortality risks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02621-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Serum anti-DIDO1, anti-CPSF2, and anti-FOXJ2 antibodies as predictive risk markers for acute ischemic stroke.

BMC Med 2021 Jun 9;19(1):131. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Endocrinology, Hematology and Gerontology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Background: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a serious cause of mortality and disability. AIS is a serious cause of mortality and disability. Early diagnosis of atherosclerosis, which is the major cause of AIS, allows therapeutic intervention before the onset, leading to prevention of AIS.

Methods: Serological identification by cDNA expression cDNA libraries and the protein array method were used for the screening of antigens recognized by serum IgG antibodies in patients with atherosclerosis. Recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides derived from candidate antigens were used as antigens to compare serum IgG levels between healthy donors (HDs) and patients with atherosclerosis-related disease using the amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: The first screening using the protein array method identified death-inducer obliterator 1 (DIDO1), forkhead box J2 (FOXJ2), and cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF2) as the target antigens of serum IgG antibodies in patients with AIS. Then, we prepared various antigens including glutathione S-transferase-fused DIDO1 protein as well as peptides of the amino acids 297-311 of DIDO1, 426-440 of FOXJ2, and 607-621 of CPSF2 to examine serum antibody levels. Compared with HDs, a significant increase in antibody levels of the DIDO1 protein and peptide in patients with AIS, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) but not in those with acute myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus (DM). Serum anti-FOXJ2 antibody levels were elevated in most patients with atherosclerosis-related diseases, whereas serum anti-CPSF2 antibody levels were associated with AIS, TIA, and DM. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that serum DIDO1 antibody levels were highly associated with CKD, and correlation analysis revealed that serum anti-FOXJ2 antibody levels were associated with hypertension. A prospective case-control study on ischemic stroke verified that the serum antibody levels of the DIDO1 protein and DIDO1, FOXJ2, and CPSF2 peptides showed significantly higher odds ratios with a risk of AIS in patients with the highest quartile than in those with the lowest quartile, indicating that these antibody markers are useful as risk factors for AIS.

Conclusions: Serum antibody levels of DIDO1, FOXJ2, and CPSF2 are useful in predicting the onset of atherosclerosis-related AIS caused by kidney failure, hypertension, and DM, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-02001-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188684PMC
June 2021

Validity of a food frequency questionnaire for the estimation of total polyphenol intake estimates and its major food sources in the Japanese population: the JPHC FFQ Validation Study.

J Nutr Sci 2021 11;10:e35. Epub 2021 May 11.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

We examine the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a subsample of participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study using a database of polyphenol-containing foods commonly consumed in the Japanese population. Participants of the validation study were recruited from two different cohorts. In Cohort I, 215 participants completed a 28-d dietary record (DR) and the FFQ, and in Cohort II, 350 participants completed DRs and the FFQ. The total polyphenol intake estimated from the 28-d DR and FFQ were log-transformed and adjusted for energy intake by the residual method. Spearman correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQ and 28-d DR as well as two FFQs administered at a 1-year interval were computed. Median intakes of dietary polyphenols calculated from the DRs were 1172 mg/d for men and 1024 mg/d for women in Cohort I, and 1061 mg/d for men and 942 mg/d for women in Cohort II. The de-attenuated CCs for polyphenol intake between the DR and FFQ were 0⋅47 for men and 0⋅37 for women in Cohort I and 0⋅44 for men and 0⋅50 for women in Cohort II. Non-alcoholic beverages were the main contributor to total polyphenol intake in both men and women, accounting for 50 % of total polyphenol intake regardless of cohort and gender, followed by alcoholic beverages and seasoning and spices in men, and seasoning and spices, fruits and other vegetables in women. The present study showed that this FFQ had moderate validity and reproducibility and is suitable for use in future epidemiological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jns.2021.25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143878PMC
May 2021

Smoking cessation, weight gain and risk of cardiovascular disease.

Heart 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: To examine whether the relationship between smoking cessation and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was modified by weight gain.

Methods: A total of 69 910 participants (29 650 men and 46 260 women) aged 45-74 years were grouped into six groups by smoking status in the first and 5-year surveys: sustained smokers, recent quitters according to postcessation weight gain (no weight gain, 0.1-5.0 kg, >5.0 kg), long-term quitters and never smokers. Quitting smoking within and longer than 5 years were defined as recent and long-term quitters, respectively. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the HR for incident CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke.

Results: We identified 4023 CVDs (889 CHDs and 3217 strokes) during a median of 14.8 years of follow-up. Compared with sustained smokers, the multivariable HR (95% CI) for CVD was 0.66 (0.52 to 0.83) for recent quitters without weight gain, 0.71 (0.55 to 0.90) for recent quitters with weight gain of 0.1-5.0 kg, 0.70 (0.44 to 1.10) for recent quitters with weight gain of >5.0 kg, 0.56 (0.49 to 0.64) for long-term quitters, and 0.60 (0.55 to 0.66) for never smokers. The analysis restricted to men showed a similar association. Prespecified analysis by age suggested that recent quitters overall had a lower HR for CVD among those aged <60 years vs ≥60 years. Similar patterns of association were observed in CHD and stroke.

Conclusions: Postcessation weight gain did not attenuate the protective association between smoking cessation and risk of CVD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2021-318972DOI Listing
June 2021

Effectiveness of screening using fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy on the risk of colorectal cancer: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center.

Background: Few cohort studies have used multiple surveys of screening attendance to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and colonoscopy.

Methods: We analyzed data of 30,381 middle-aged Japanese adults from a population-based prospective cohort study. Information on FOBT and colonoscopy was obtained from three questionnaire surveys (every 5 years). We classified the subjects into three groups-the FOBT (15,649 subjects), screening colonoscopy (2,407 subjects), and unscreened (12,325 subjects) groups. We used the unscreened group as reference group to compare the mortality and incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC).

Results: During the 14-year follow-up, 64, 12, and 104 CRC deaths were identified in the FOBT, screening colonoscopy, and unscreened groups, respectively. The risk of CRC death reduced with increasing the number of FOBTs (p for trend=0.02) and reduced by 44% in the subjects screened twice or thrice using FOBT (HR=0.56 95% CI, 0.33-0.94). Significant decreases were seen for the incidence of CRC, but not seen for the incidence of non-advanced CRC in the FOBT group. Concerning the screening colonoscopy, subjects screened at the start of follow-up showed a 69% reduced risk of CRC death (HR=0.31, 95% CI, 0.10-0.9996). Significant decreases were also seen for the incidence of CRC and non-advanced CRC in the subjects screened at the start of follow-up.

Conclusion: FOBT, depending on the number of FOBTs, and colonoscopy, depending on recency, reduced the risk of death due to CRC and the incidence of CRC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20210057DOI Listing
May 2021

Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

Cancer Sci 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Evidence supporting the association of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with the risk of endometrial cancer is controversial and reports from Asia were limited. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association in Japanese women. We evaluated 52 460 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study aged 45-74 years who responded to the 5-year follow-up survey. GI and GL were calculated from a validated food frequency questionnaire, and the participants were divided into three groups by GI and GL. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for potential confounding factors. As a result, within 15.5 years of follow-up, 166 new cases of endometrial cancer were identified. Compared with the lowest GI and GL tertile groups, the HR of the risk of endometrial cancer in the highest GI tertile group was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.53-1.20; P  = .33), and that of the highest GL tertile group was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.52-1.19; P  = .82). The results were unchanged after stratification by body mass index, coffee consumption, and history of diabetes. In conclusion, we did not find any significant association between GI and GL with the risk of endometrial cancer. Further research is required to clarify the association.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14997DOI Listing
May 2021

Prediagnostic circulating inflammation-related biomarkers and gastric cancer: A case-cohort study in Japan.

Cytokine 2021 Aug 10;144:155558. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Gastric cancer is preceded by a chronic inflammatory process. Circulating levels of inflammation-related markers may reveal molecular pathways contributing to cancer development. Our study evaluated risk associations of gastric cancer with a wide range of systemic soluble inflammation and immune-response proteins. We performed a case-cohort analysis within the JPHC Study II, including a subcohort of 410 participants selected randomly within defined age and sex groups, and 414 individuals with incident gastric cancer. Ninety-two biomarkers were measured in baseline plasma using proximity extension assays. Gastric cancer multivariable hazard ratios were calculated for two to four quantiles used as ordinal variables of each biomarker by Cox proportional hazards regression models with age as the time metric. Of 73 evaluable biomarkers, three (CCL11, CCL20 and IL17C) were associated with increased gastric cancer risk and two (CCL23 and MMP1) with reduced cancer risk (P < 0.05). However, no association was statistically significant after a false discovery rate correction. This study largely expands the range of inflammation molecules evaluated for gastric cancer risk but failed to identify novel associations with this neoplasia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155558DOI Listing
August 2021

Dairy foods, calcium, and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor status: a pooled analysis of 21 cohort studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Aug;114(2):450-461

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Epidemiologic studies examining the relations between dairy product and calcium intakes and breast cancer have been inconclusive, especially for tumor subtypes.

Objective: To evaluate the associations between intakes of specific dairy products and calcium and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) status.

Method: We pooled the individual-level data of over 1 million women who were followed for a maximum of 8-20 years across studies. Associations were evaluated for dairy product and calcium intakes and risk of incident invasive breast cancer overall (n = 37,861 cases) and by subtypes defined by ER status. Study-specific multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated and then combined using random-effects models.

Results: Overall, no clear association was observed between the consumption of specific dairy foods, dietary (from foods only) calcium, and total (from foods and supplements) calcium, and risk of overall breast cancer. Although each dairy product showed a null or very weak inverse association with risk of overall breast cancer (P, test for trend >0.05 for all), differences by ER status were suggested for yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese with associations observed for ER-negative tumors only (pooled HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98 comparing ≥60 g/d with <1 g/d of yogurt and 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95 comparing ≥25 g/d with <1 g/d of cottage/ricotta cheese). Dietary calcium intake was only weakly associated with breast cancer risk (pooled HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 0.99 per 350 mg/d).

Conclusion: Our study shows that adult dairy or calcium consumption is unlikely to associate with a higher risk of breast cancer and that higher yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative breast cancer, a less hormonally dependent subtype with poor prognosis. Future studies on fermented dairy products, earlier life exposures, ER-negative breast cancer, and different racial/ethnic populations may further elucidate the relation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326053PMC
August 2021

Heterogeneity of Associations between Total and Types of Fish Intake and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Federated Meta-Analysis of 28 Prospective Studies Including 956,122 Participants.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 7;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90040-060, Brazil.

The association between fish consumption and new-onset type 2 diabetes is inconsistent and differs according to geographical location. We examined the association between the total and types of fish consumption and type 2 diabetes using individual participant data from 28 prospective cohort studies from the Americas (6), Europe (15), the Western Pacific (6), and the Eastern Mediterranean (1) comprising 956,122 participants and 48,084 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for associations of total fish, shellfish, fatty, lean, fried, freshwater, and saltwater fish intake and type 2 diabetes were derived for each study, adjusting for a consistent set of confounders and combined across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. We stratified all analyses by sex due to observed interaction ( = 0.002) on the association between fish and type 2 diabetes. In women, for each 100 g/week higher intake the IRRs (95% CIs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.02 (1.01-1.03, = 61%) for total fish, 1.04 (1.01-1.07, = 46%) for fatty fish, and 1.02 (1.00-1.04, = 33%) for lean fish. In men, all associations were null. In women, we observed variation by geographical location: IRRs for total fish were 1.03 (1.02-1.04, = 0%) in the Americas and null in other regions. In conclusion, we found evidence of a neutral association between total fish intake and type 2 diabetes in men, but there was a modest positive association among women with heterogeneity across studies, which was partly explained by geographical location and types of fish intake. Future research should investigate the role of cooking methods, accompanying foods and environmental pollutants, but meanwhile, existing dietary regional, national, or international guidelines should continue to guide fish consumption within overall healthy dietary patterns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068031PMC
April 2021

Long-term response of Helicobacter pylori antibody titer after eradication treatment in middle-aged Japanese: JPHC-NEXT Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center.

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an established causative factor of gastric cancer. Although the expansion of insurance coverage has led to an increase in the number of patients treated for H. pylori, the population impact of eradication treatment for H.pylori has been scarcely investigated. This study aimed to clarify the long-term responses of H. pylori antibody titer after eradication treatment using large scale cross-sectional data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT Study).

Methods: A total of 55,282 Japanese participants aged 40 to 74 years residing in 16 areas provided blood samples between 2011 and 2016. From these, treated (n=6,276) and untreated subjects who were seropositive for H. pylori or had serological atrophy (n= 22,420) formed the study population (n=28,696). Seropositivity was defined as an anti-H. pylori IgG titer of ≥10 U/mL. Antibody level was compared among subjects according to self-reported treatment history as untreated, and treated for less than one year (<1Y), one to five years (1-5Y), and more than six years ago (6Y+).

Results: Median serum antibody titer was 34.0 U/mL, 7.9 U/mL, 4.0 U/mL, and 2.9 U/mL for the Untreated, <1Y, 1-5Y, and 6Y+ groups, respectively. While those treated for H.pylori within the previous year had a 76.8% lower antibody titer compared to untreated subjects, approximately 41% of subjects were still seropositive.

Conclusions: A significant reduction in H.pylori antibody titer occurs within one year after eradication treatment, but that a long period is needed to achieve complete negative conversion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200618DOI Listing
April 2021

Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated With Inflammation in Japanese Men.

Front Nutr 2021 9;8:604296. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Dietary components are known to affect chronic low-grade inflammation status. The dietary inflammatory index (DII®) was developed to measure the potential impact of a diet on an individual's inflammatory status, and it has been validated mainly in Western countries. This study aimed to examine the validity of the energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) using high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration in Japanese men and women. In total, 6,474 volunteers from a cancer-screening program (3,825 men and 2,649 women) completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and their hs-CRP concentrations were evaluated. E-DII scores were calculated on the basis of 30 food parameters derived from the FFQ. Higher E-DII scores reflect a greater pro-inflammatory potential of the diet. The associations between E-DII quartiles and hs-CRP concentration were assessed using regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, and amount of physical activity. Mean E-DII in men and women was + 0.62 ± 1.93 and -1.01 ± 2.25, respectively. The proportion of men and women who had hs-CRP concentration >3 mg/L was 4.7 and 3.1%, respectively. A significant positive association was observed between E-DII score and hs-CRP concentration in men; geometric mean of hs-CRP concentration in the lowest and highest E-DII quartiles was 0.56 mg/L and 0.67 mg/L ( < 0.01), respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of having an elevated hs-CRP concentration (>3 mg/L) was 1.72 (1.10-2.67) in the highest E-DII quartile ( = 0.03) in men. However, no association was observed between E-DII score and hs-CRP concentration in women, except in those not taking prescription medications. DII was associated with inflammation status in Japanese men, but the association was limited in Japanese women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.604296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062774PMC
April 2021

Effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric cancer incidence in the Japanese population: a systematic evidence review.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul;51(7):1158-1170

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: In Japan, there are ongoing efforts to shift the gastric cancer prevention and control policy priorities from barium-based screening to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-oriented primary prevention. A comprehensive summary of the evidence regarding the effects of H. pylori eradication on the risk of gastric cancer could inform policy decisions.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies evaluating the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication for the prevention of gastric cancer in otherwise healthy individuals (primary prevention) and early gastric cancer patients (tertiary prevention).

Results: In total, 19 studies were included. Three moderate-quality observational cohort studies showed that H. pylori eradication may be associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer in healthy asymptomatic Japanese people. There is moderate certainty regarding the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication in patients with gastrointestinal diseases, such as peptic ulcers. A meta-analysis of 10 observational studies with otherwise healthy individuals (mainly peptic ulcer patients) yielded an overall odds ratio of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.25-0.46). Regarding tertiary prevention, the overall odds ratio for developing metachronous gastric cancer was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35-0.51) in the eradication group in a meta-analysis of nine studies involving early gastric cancer patients who underwent endoscopic resection.

Conclusion: H. pylori eradication is effective in preventing gastric cancer in the Japanese population, regardless of symptoms. Well-designed, large cohort studies are warranted to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of H. pylori eradication in the context of reducing the gastric cancer burden through population-based screening and treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyab055DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of sugary drink consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

Prev Med 2021 07 15;148:106561. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Few epidemiologic studies have assessed the associations of sugary drink consumption with mortality outcomes among Asian populations.

Methods: This study included 70,486 participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study at the age of 45-74 years in 1995-1999. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the consumption of sugary drinks. We estimated the risk of total and cause-specific mortality associated with sugary drink consumption using Cox proportional hazards regression model.

Results: Mean follow-up was 17.1 years, during which 11,811 deaths were documented. Sugary drink consumption was associated with higher total mortality, with multivariate HR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.00-1.13) for quintile 3, 1.07 (95% CI 1.01-1.13) for quintile 4, and 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for quintile 5, compared with quintile 1 (P < 0.001 for trend). Additionally, positive associations with cause-specific mortality were observed, including death from circulatory system diseases (quintile 5 vs quintile 1; HR, 1.23; 95% CI 1.09-1.38) and heart disease (quintile 5 vs quintile 1; HR, 1.35; 95% CI 1.14-1.60).

Conclusion: In this large Japanese prospective study, sugary drink consumption was associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106561DOI Listing
July 2021

Association Between Birth Weight and Risk of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension and Gestational Diabetes in Japanese Women: JPHC-NEXT Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health and Sciences, National Cancer Center.

Background: Although prevalence of low birth weight has increased in the last 3 decades in Japan, no studies in Japanese women have investigated whether birth weight is associated with the risk of pregnancy complications, such as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Methods: We used data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT), a population-based cohort study in Japan that launched in 2011. In the main analysis, we included 46,365 women who had been pregnant at least once, for whom information on birth weight and events during their pregnancy was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Women were divided into five categories according to their birth weight, and the relationship between birth weight and risk of PIH and GDM was examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses with place of residence as a random effect.

Results: Compared to women born with birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, the risk of PIH was significantly higher among women born <1,500 grams (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.21), 1,500-2,499 grams (aOR 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30), and 2,500-2,999 grams (aOR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22). The risk of GDM was significantly higher among women born 1,500-2,499 grams (aOR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.42), albeit non-significant association among women in other birthweight categories.

Conclusions: We observed an increased risk of PIH among women born with lower birth weight albeit non-significant increased risk of GDM among Japanese women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200302DOI Listing
April 2021

Relationship between unhealthy sleep status and dry eye symptoms in a Japanese population: The JPHC-NEXT study.

Ocul Surf 2021 Jul 18;21:306-312. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate whether and how unhealthy sleep habits (i.e., the frequency of difficulty falling or staying asleep, and the frequency of waking up tired) and the duration of sleep are related to the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) in a general population.

Methods: This study included a total of 106,282 subjects aged 40-74 years who participated in a baseline survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. DED was defined as the presence of clinically diagnosed DED or severe symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships of various components of sleep status with DED.

Results: Higher frequencies of having difficulty falling or staying asleep, and waking up tired were significantly related to increased DED in both sexes (P<0.001). Compared with those with 8 h/day of sleep, shorter sleepers had an increased prevalence of DED in both sexes, although DED was increased among men who slept ≥10 h/day. By comparing participants with the greatest vs. the least difficulty of falling asleep, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.99-2.49) for men and 1.91 (95% CI, 1.76-2.07) for women. When analyzed separately, the magnitude of each relationship was stronger with severe DED symptoms than with clinically diagnosed DED.

Conclusions: Sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality were significantly related to DED in a Japanese population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtos.2021.04.001DOI Listing
July 2021

Reproductive Factors and Lung Cancer Risk among Never-Smoking Japanese Women with 21 Years of Follow-Up: A Cohort Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jun 7;30(6):1185-1192. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Previous studies have reported inconsistent associations between reproductive factors and lung cancer.

Methods: We used data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, which included 400 incident lung cancer cases (305 adenocarcinoma) among 42,615 never-smoking women followed for a median of 21 years, to examine the associations of reproductive and hormonal factors with lung cancer by histological type using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Longer fertility span (≥36 years vs. ≤32 years) was associated with increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.07-2.06, = 0.01) but not with all lung cancer or nonadenocarcinoma. Similarly, late age at menopause (≥ 50 years) was associated with increased adenocarcinoma risk (vs. ≤ 47 years, HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.96, 0.04). Compared with premenopausal women, women with natural menopause (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.02-3.88) or surgical menopause (HR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.33-5.67) were at increased risk of adenocarcinoma. In contrast, breastfeeding was associated with reduced risk of nonadenocarcinoma (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28-0.92). No significant association with parity, age at first birth, exogenous hormone use, or length of menstrual cycle was detected.

Conclusions: Reproductive factors may play a role in lung carcinogenesis. Future studies that include estrogen and progesterone biomarkers may help clarify the role of endogenous hormones in lung carcinogenesis.

Impact: Fertility span and age at menopause may be useful variables in developing risk prediction models for lung adenocarcinoma among nonsmoking women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1399DOI Listing
June 2021

Weight change during middle age and risk of stroke and coronary heart disease: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

Atherosclerosis 2021 04 23;322:67-73. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Background And Aims: The impact of weight changes in middle age on the incidence of cardiovascular disease has not been well elucidated. We investigated whether a 5-year weight change was associated with risk of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) in middle-aged individuals.

Methods: We analyzed data of 74,928 participants aged 40-69 years who provided responses to the baseline and 5-year follow-up questionnaires in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Weight change was calculated by subtracting self-reported weight at baseline from that at 5-year follow-up. Stroke and CHD events were confirmed by reviewing hospital records.

Results: During 997,406 person-years of follow-up, we documented 3,975 stroke and 914 CHD events. The multivariable HRs of stroke for losing ≥5 kg compared to stable weight (change ≤2 kg) was 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01-1.37) in men versus 1.33 (1.13-1.57) for losing ≥5 kg and 1.61 (1.36-1.92) for gaining ≥5 kg in women (U-shaped association). These associations did not change after the exclusion of early events. The multivariable HR of CHD for gaining ≥5 kg was 1.22 (0.95-1.58) in men. After exclusion of early events within another 5 years, that positive association became stronger [multivariable HR 1.34 (1.00-1.82)].

Conclusions: Weight gain during middle age was associated with an increased risk of stroke in women and an increased risk of CHD in men. Weight loss was associated with an increased risk of stroke in both men and women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.02.017DOI Listing
April 2021

Myopia, corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in a Japanese population-based cross-sectional study: the JPHC-NEXT Eye Study.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 18;11(1):6366. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

This population-based cross-sectional study was performed to determine the mean corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), coefficient of variation (CV), and hexagonality (HEX), and their associations with myopia in Japanese adults living in Chikusei city. Of 7109 participants with available data, 5713 (2331 male and 3382 female) participants were eligible for analysis. After assessing the relationship between participant characteristics and spherical equivalent refraction (SER), the association of SER with the abnormal value of ECD (< 2000 cells/mm), CV (≥ 0.40), and HEX (≤ 50%) were determined using the logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders (age, intraocular pressure, keratometric power, height, and antihypertensive drug use). In male participants, there was no statistically significant relationships between SER and endothelial parameters. In female participants, compared to emmetropia, SER ≤ - 6 D had significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of having the abnormal value of CV (OR = 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.10) and HEX (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.29-3.23), adjusted for potential confounders, indicating that the high myopia was associated with the abnormal values of CV and HEX. Further adjustment for contact lenses wear partly attenuated these associations. Association between the SER and ECD was not detected.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85617-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973534PMC
March 2021

Risk of stroke in cancer survivors using a propensity score-matched cohort analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 10;11(1):5599. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Little is known about the risk of cerebrovascular disease in cancer survivors. We aimed to assess the association between incident cancer and the subsequent risk of stroke using a large-scale, population-based prospective study. 74,530 Japanese aged between 40 and 69 years at baseline study were matched by the status of cancer diagnosis during follow-up using propensity score nearest-neighbor matching with allowance for replacement. A total of 2242 strokes were reported during 557,885 person-years of follow-up. Associations between incident cancer and the subsequent risk of all strokes, cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on the propensity score-matched pairs. No significant association was observed between the status of cancer diagnosis of all types, gastric, colorectal and lung cancer, and subsequent occurrence of all strokes, cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage. However, analysis by discrete time periods suggested an elevated risk in cancer patients for one to three months after a cancer diagnosis in all stroke (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06, 4.74) and cerebral infarction (HR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.05, 6.53). This prospective cohort study found no association between the status of cancer diagnosis and the subsequent occurrence of all strokes and its subtypes during the entire follow-up period but suggested an increase in stroke risk during the active phase of malignancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83368-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946896PMC
March 2021

Dietary Acrylamide Intake and the Risks of Renal Cell, Prostate, and Bladder Cancers: A Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 27;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.

Acrylamide can be carcinogenic to humans. However, the association between the acrylamide and the risks of renal cell, prostate, and bladder cancers in Asians has not been assessed. We aimed to investigate this association in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study data in 88,818 Japanese people (41,534 men and 47,284 women) who completed a food frequency questionnaire in the five-year follow-up survey in 1995 and 1998. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary acrylamide intake. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a mean follow-up of 15.5 years (15.2 years of prostate cancer), 208 renal cell cancers, 1195 prostate cancers, and 392 bladder cancers were diagnosed. Compared to the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake, the multivariate hazard ratios for the highest quintile were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.38-1.34, for trend = 0.294), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.75-1.22, for trend = 0.726), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59-1.29, for trend = 0.491) for renal cell, prostate, and bladder cancers, respectively, in the multivariate-adjusted model. No significant associations were observed in the stratified analyses based on smoking. Dietary acrylamide intake was not associated with the risk of renal cell, prostate, and bladder cancers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997346PMC
February 2021
-->