Publications by authors named "Norie Arai"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Trehalose-Induced Remodelling of the Human Microbiota Affects Infection Outcome in an Colonic Model: A Pilot Study.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 2;11:670935. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Healthcare Associated Infection Research Group, Molecular Gastroenterology, Leeds Institute of Medical Research, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Within the human intestinal tract, dietary, microbial- and host-derived compounds are used as signals by many pathogenic organisms, including . Trehalose has been reported to enhance virulence of certain ribotypes; however, such variants are widespread and not correlated with clinical outcomes for patients suffering from infection (CDI). Here, we make preliminary observations on how trehalose supplementation affects the microbiota in an model and show that trehalose-induced changes can reduce the outgrowth of , preventing simulated CDI. Three clinically reflective human gut models simulated the effects of sugar (trehalose or glucose) or saline ingestion on the microbiota. Models were instilled with sugar or saline and further exposed to spores. The recovery of the microbiota following antibiotic treatment and CDI induction was monitored in each model. The human microbiota remodelled to utilise the bioavailable trehalose. Clindamycin induction caused simulated CDI in models supplemented with either glucose or saline; however, trehalose supplementation did not result in CDI, although limited spore germination did occur. The absence of CDI in trehalose model was associated with enhanced abundances of , and , and reduced abundances of and spp., compared with the other models. Functional analysis of the microbiota in the trehalose model revealed differences in the metabolic pathways, such as amino acid metabolism, which could be attributed to prevention of CDI. Our data show that trehalose supplementation remodelled the microbiota, which prevented simulated CDI, potentially due to enhanced recovery of nutritionally competitive microbiota against .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.670935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284250PMC
July 2021

Single Ingestion of Trehalose Enhances Prolonged Exercise Performance by Effective Use of Glucose and Lipid in Healthy Men.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 24;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

R&D Division, Hayashibara, Co., Ltd., 675-1, Fujisaki, Naka-ku, Okayama 702-8006, Japan.

Trehalose increases blood glucose levels slowly and induces a slight insulin response. The present study aimed to study the effect of trehalose on prolonged exercise performance. The participants were 12 healthy men (age: 21.3 ± 0.9 y). After an overnight fast (12 h), they first exercised with a constant load (intensity: 40% V˙Opeak) for 60 min using a bicycle ergometer. They continued to exercise with a constant load (40% V˙Opeak) for 30 min between four sets of the 30-s Wingate test. After the 1st set, each participant ingested 500 mL water (control), 8% glucose, or 8% trehalose in three trials. These three trials were at least one week apart and were conducted in a double-blind and randomized crossover manner. Blood was collected for seven biochemical parameters at 12 time points during the experiment. The area under the curve of adrenaline after ingestion of trehalose was significantly lower than that for water and tended to be lower than that for glucose in the later stage of the exercise. Lower secretion of adrenaline after a single dose of 8% trehalose during prolonged exercise reflected the preservation of carbohydrates in the body in the later stage of the exercise. In conclusion, a single ingestion of trehalose helped to maintain prolonged exercise performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145241PMC
April 2021

Daily consumption of one teaspoon of trehalose can help maintain glucose homeostasis: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial conducted in healthy volunteers.

Nutr J 2020 07 9;19(1):68. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Hayashibara Co. Ltd., 675 Fujisaki, Naka-ku, Okayama, 702-8006, Japan.

Background: Trehalose is a natural disaccharide that is widely distributed. A previous study has shown that daily consumption of 10 g of trehalose improves glucose tolerance in individuals with signs of metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we determined whether a lower dose (3.3 g/day) of trehalose improves glucose tolerance in healthy Japanese volunteers.

Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of healthy Japanese participants (n = 50). Each consumed 3.3 g of trehalose (n = 25) or sucrose (n = 25) daily for 78 days. Their body compositions were assessed following 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks; and serum biochemical parameters were assayed and oral 75-g glucose tolerance tests were performed at baseline and after 12 weeks.

Results: There were similar changes in body composition and serum biochemistry consistent with established seasonal variations in both groups, but there were no differences in any of these parameters between the two groups. However, whereas after 12 weeks of sucrose consumption, the plasma glucose concentration 2 h after a 75-g glucose load was significantly higher than the fasting concentration, after 12 weeks of trehalose consumption the fasting and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations were similar. Furthermore, an analysis of the participants with relatively high postprandial blood glucose showed that the plasma glucose concentration 2 h after a 75-g glucose load was significantly lower in the trehalose group than in the sucrose group.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that trehalose helps lower postprandial blood glucose in healthy humans with higher postprandial glucose levels within the normal range, and may therefore contribute to the prevention of pathologies that are predisposed to by postprandial hyperglycemia,, even if the daily intake of trehalose is only 3.3 g, an amount that is easily incorporated into a meal.

Trial Registration: UMIN, UMIN000033536 . Registered 27 July 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00586-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7350577PMC
July 2020

Trehalose itself plays a critical role on lipid metabolism: Trehalose increases jejunum cytoplasmic lipid droplets which negatively correlated with mesenteric adipocyte size in both HFD-fed trehalase KO and WT mice.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2020 18;17:22. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Hayashibara Co., Ltd., 675-1 Fujisaki, Naka-ku, Okayama, 702-8006 Japan.

Background: Trehalose is a functional disaccharide that has anti-metabolic activities such as suppression of adipocyte hypertrophy in mice and alleviation of impaired glucose tolerance in humans. Trehalase hydrolyzes trehalose in the small intestine into two glucose molecules. In this study, we investigated whether trehalose can suppress adipocyte hypertrophy in mice in the presence or absence of trehalase.

Methods: Trehalase knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) and administered water with 0.3% (w/v) or without trehalose for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, mesenteric adipose tissues and the small intestine were collected and the adipocyte size and proportion of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs, %) in jejunum epithelium were measured by image analysis.

Results: Trehalose treatment was associated with suppressed adipocyte hypertrophy in both trehalase KO and WT mice. The rate of CLDs in the jejunal epithelium was increased in both trehalase KO and WT mice given water containing trehalose relative to untreated control mice. There was a negative correlation between jejunal epithelial lipid droplet volume and mesenteric adipocyte size. Chylomicron-TG tended to be decreased in both trehalose-treated trehalase KO and WT mice. Addition of trehalose to differentiated Caco-2 cells in vitro increased intracytoplasmic lipid droplets and decreased secretion of the chylomicron marker ApoB-48. Moreover, the jejunal epithelium containing lipid droplets falled into the intestinal lumen, and triglyceride (TG) levels in feces tended to be higher in the KO/HFD/Tre group than in the KO/HFD/Water group. Since then, the accumulation of CLDs has been reported to suppress CM secretion, and along with our results, the effect of trehalose to increase jejunum CLDs may induce adipocyte hypertrophy.

Conclusions: The suppression of adipocyte hypertrophy in the presence and absence of trehalase indicates that trehalose mediates effects prior to being hydrolyzed into glucose. In both trehalase KO and WT mice, trehalose treatment increased the rate of CLDs in jejunal epithelium, reduced chylomicron migration from the intestinal epithelium to the periphery, and suppressed adipocyte hypertrophy. Thus, trehalose ingestion could prevent metabolic syndrome by trapping fat droplets in the intestinal epithelium and suppressing rapid increases in chylomicrons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-020-00443-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081596PMC
March 2020

Continuous intake of Trehalose induces white adipose tissue Browning and Enhances energy metabolism.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2019 16;16:45. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

HAYASHIBARA CO. LTD, 675-1 Fujisaki, Naka-ku, Okayama, 702-8006 Japan.

Background: Trehalose is well known as a functional disaccharide with anti-metabolic activities such as suppression of adipocyte hypertrophy in mice and alleviation of impaired glucose tolerance in humans. Recently, a new type of adipocyte beige cells, involved in so-called white adipocyte tissue (WAT) browning, has received much attention as a target for adaptive thermogenesis. To clarify the relationship between adipocyte hypertrophy suppression and beige cells involved in thermogenesis, we examined the effect of trehalose on the changes in beige adipocytes in mice under normal dietary conditions.

Methods: Mice fed a normal diet were administered water containing 0.3% (W/V) trehalose for 16 weeks, 0.3% (W/V) maltose, or water without saccharide (controls). Body temperature and non-fasting blood glucose levels were measured every 3 weeks. After 16 weeks of these treatments, mesenteric and inguinal adipose tissues were collected for measuring adipocyte size, counting the number of UCP1 positive cells by image analysis, and preparing mRNA to analyze beige adipocyte-related gene expression.

Results: Mice administered a continuous intake of trehalose exhibited a thermogenic ability as represented by an increase in rectal temperature, which was maintained at a relatively high level from 3 to 9 weeks and was significantly higher at 15 weeks in comparison with that of the maltose group. In addition to the reduced hypertrophy of mesenteric and inguinal adipose tissues, the trehalose group showed a significant increase in the rates of beige adipocytes in each WAT in comparison with those of the maltose and the water groups. Interestingly, a negative correlation was found between the mean cell sizes of adipocytes and the rates of beige adipocytes in the WAT. Furthermore, real-time PCR showed that the expression of and mRNAs, which are markers for beige adipocytes in the inguinal adipose tissue, increased in the trehalose group.

Conclusions: Continuous administration of trehalose to mice fed a normal diet induced WAT browning accompanied by suppression of white adipocyte hypertrophy, elevated body temperature and decreased blood glucose levels, which resulted in enhancement of energy metabolism. Therefore, we propose trehalose as a new type of thermogenic dietary component to prevent obesity by promoting WAT browning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-019-0373-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6636151PMC
July 2019

Adenosine N1-Oxide Exerts Anti-inflammatory Effects through the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling Pathway and Promotes Osteogenic and Adipocyte Differentiation.

Biol Pharm Bull 2019 ;42(6):968-976

Research and Development Division, Hayashibara Co., Ltd.

Previously, we reported that adenosine N1-oxide (ANO), which is found in royal jelly, inhibited the secretion of inflammatory mediators by activated macrophages and reduced lethality in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock. Here, we examined the regulatory mechanisms of ANO on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with a focus on the signaling pathways activated by toll-like receptor (TLR)4 in response to LPS. ANO inhibited both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells without affecting cell proliferation. In this response, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members (extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 and SAPK/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 was not affected by treatment with ANO. In contrast, phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and its downstream molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) (Ser9) was up-regulated by ANO, suggesting that ANO stimulated GSK-3β phosphorylation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. The phosphorylation of GSK-3β on Ser9 has been shown to negatively regulate the LPS-induced inflammatory response. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has also been implicated in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes. As expected, ANO induced alkaline phosphatase activity and promoted calcium deposition in a mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. The ANO-induced differentiation into osteoblasts was abrogated by coincubation with Wortmannin. Furthermore, ANO promoted insulin/dexamethasone-induced differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes at much lower concentrations than adenosine. The protective roles of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway in inflammatory disorders have been well documented. Our data suggest that ANO may serve as a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Promotion of osteogenic and adipocyte differentiation further suggests its application for regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b18-00988DOI Listing
November 2019

Effects of a Single Ingestion of Trehalose during Prolonged Exercise.

Sports (Basel) 2019 Apr 29;7(5). Epub 2019 Apr 29.

R&D Division, Hayashibara Co., Ltd., Okayama-shi 702-8006, Japan..

Trehalose (TRE), a disaccharide, is absorbed slowly and gradually increases the blood glucose (GLU) level along with reducing insulin secretion. The aim of this study was twofold. First, we examined exercise performance following ingestions of either GLU, TRE, or water (WAT). The second purpose was to investigate the effects of TRE energy metabolism during prolonged exercise. We examined exercise performance using the Wingate test, with 30-min constant load exercise at 40% VOpeak after exercising for 60 min at 40% VOpeak, by using an electromagnetic brake-type bicycle ergometer (Part 1). The power values, blood glucose and lactate, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured. In addition, we investigated the energy metabolism after a single ingestion of TRE, by measuring the RER and estimating the lipid oxidation for 60 min at 40% VOpeak (Part 2). Healthy college male students performed three trials-(1) placebo (WAT), (2) GLU, and (3) TRE. Repeated two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for a comparison of the data among the three trial groups. A multiple comparison test was performed using post hoc Bonferroni correction. The TRE ingestion significantly increased the average and maximum power values ( < 0.01). The TRE ingestion showed significantly higher lipid utilization than the GLU lipid oxidation values the in TRE, 12.5 ± 6.1 g/h; GLU, 9.3 ± 4.7 g/h; and WAT, 15.0 ± 4.4 g/h; ( < 0.01). In conclusion, we provide novel data that a single TRE ingestion was effective in improving prolonged exercise performance by effective use of glucose and lipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports7050100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572148PMC
April 2019

Daily Intake of Trehalose Is Effective in the Prevention of Lifestyle-Related Diseases in Individuals with Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2016 ;62(6):380-387

Hayashibara Co. Ltd.

We previously performed animal studies that suggested that trehalose potentially prevents the development of metabolic syndrome in humans. To evaluate this possibility, we examined whether trehalose suppressed the progression of insulin resistance in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in 34 subjects with a body mass index (BMI) ≥23. The subjects were divided into two groups and were assigned to ingest either 10 g/d of trehalose or sucrose with meals for 12 wk. During the study, body composition and blood biochemical parameters were measured at week 0, 8, and 12. These parameters were also measured 4 wk after the end of intake to confirm the washout of test substances. In the trehalose group, blood glucose concentrations after a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test significantly decreased following 12 wk of intake in comparison with baseline values (0 wk). When a stratified analysis was performed in the subjects whose percentage of truncal fat approached the high end of the normal range, the change in body weight, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure were significantly lower in the trehalose group than in the sucrose group. Our data indicated that a daily intake of 10 g of trehalose improved glucose tolerance and progress to insulin resistance. Furthermore, these results suggested that trehalose can potentially reduce the development of metabolic syndrome and associated lifestyle-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.62.380DOI Listing
August 2017

Glycemic, insulinemic and incretin responses after oral trehalose ingestion in healthy subjects.

Nutr J 2017 Feb 6;16(1). Epub 2017 Feb 6.

HAYASHIBARA CO. LTD., 675 Fujisaki, Naka-ku, Okayama, 702-8006, Japan.

Background: Trehalose is hydrolyzed by a specific intestinal brush-border disaccharidase (trehalase) into two glucose molecules. In animal studies, trehalose has been shown to prevent adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigate insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Recently, we found that trehalose improved glucose tolerance in human subjects. However, the underlying metabolic responses after trehalose ingestion in humans are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the glycemic, insulinemic and incretin responses after trehalose ingestion in healthy Japanese volunteers.

Methods: In a crossover study, 20 fasted healthy volunteers consumed 25 g trehalose or glucose in 100 mL water. Blood samples were taken frequently over the following 3 h, and blood glucose, insulin, active gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured.

Results: Trehalose ingestion did not evoke rapid increases in blood glucose levels, and had a lower stimulatory potency of insulin and active GIP secretion compared with glucose ingestion. Conversely, active GLP-1 showed higher levels from 45 to 180 min after trehalose ingestion as compared with glucose ingestion. Specifically, active GIP secretion, which induces fat accumulation, was markedly lower after trehalose ingestion.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that trehalose may be a useful saccharide for good health because of properties that do not stimulate rapid increases in blood glucose and excessive secretion of insulin and GIP promoting fat accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-017-0233-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5292800PMC
February 2017

Anti-inflammatory effects of adenosine N1-oxide.

J Inflamm (Lond) 2015 20;12(1). Epub 2015 Jan 20.

Core Technology Division, Research and Development Center, Hayashibara Co., Ltd, Okayama, Japan.

Background: Adenosine is a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory molecule. Despite its promise, adenosine's extremely short half-life in blood limits its clinical application. Here, we examined adenosine N1-oxide (ANO), which is found in royal jelly. ANO is an oxidized product of adenosine at the N1 position of the adenine base moiety. We found that it is refractory to adenosine deaminase-mediated conversion to inosine. We further examined the anti-inflammatory activities of ANO in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: The effect of ANO on pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion was examined in mouse peritoneal macrophages and the human monocytic cell line THP-1, and compared with that of adenosine, synthetic adenosine receptor (AR)-selective agonists and dipotassium glycyrrhizate (GK2). The anti-inflammatory activity of ANO in vivo was examined in an LPS-induced endotoxin shock model in mice.

Results: ANO inhibited secretion of inflammatory mediators at much lower concentrations than adenosine and GK2 when used with peritoneal macrophages and THP-1 cells that were stimulated by LPS plus IFN-γ. The potent anti-inflammatory activity of ANO could not be solely accounted for by its refractoriness to adenosine deaminase. ANO was superior to the synthetic A1 AR-selective agonist, 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), A2A AR-selective agonist, 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine hydrochloride (CGS21680), and A3 AR-selective agonist, N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA), in suppressing the secretion of a broad spectrum of pro-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages. The capacities of ANO to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production by THP-1 cells were comparable with those of CCPA and IB-MECA. Reflecting its potent anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, intravenous administration of ANO significantly reduced lethality of LPS-induced endotoxin shock. A significant increase in survival rate was also observed by oral administration of ANO. Mechanistic analysis suggested that the up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor c-Fos was, at least in part, involved in the ANO-induced suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that ANO, a naturally occurring molecule that is structurally close to adenosine but is functionally more potent, presents potential strategies for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12950-014-0045-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4308844PMC
January 2015

Anti-oxidative and anti-aging activities of 2-O-α-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid on human dermal fibroblasts.

Eur J Pharmacol 2012 Jan 21;674(2-3):126-31. Epub 2011 Nov 21.

Biomedical Institute, Research Center, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., 675-1 Fujisaki, Naka-Ku, Okayama 702-8006, Japan.

A stable ascorbic acid derivative, 2-O-α-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), was evaluated and compared with ascorbic acid for its protective effect against cellular damage and senescence induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Pretreatment with AA-2G for 72 h promoted the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and protected against cell damage induced by H(2)O(2). In contrast, ascorbic acid increased the proliferation and protected against cell damage, only when culture medium containing ascorbic acid was replaced every 24 h during the pretreatment period. These results suggest that the effect of AA-2G is longer-lasting compared to that of ascorbic acid. Senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, was increased in H(2)O(2)-exposed NHDF cells, but pretreatment or posttreatment with ascorbic acid or AA-2G significantly inhibited the increase in SA-β-gal levels. AA-2G was more potent than ascorbic acid in down-regulating SA-β-gal activity. Expression of SIRT1, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, was significantly decreased in H(2)O(2)-exposed NHDF cells compared to untreated cells. However, pretreatment NHDF cells with AA-2G before H(2)O(2) exposure significantly inhibited this decrease in SIRT1 expression, whereas ascorbic acid had no effect. After H(2)O(2) exposure, the expression levels of p53 and p21 were increased in NHDF cells and pretreatment with AA-2G inhibited this increase. Together, these results suggest that AA-2G protects dermal fibroblasts from oxidative stress and cellular senescence. These characteristics indicate that AA-2G could become a promising material for its anti-aging properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.11.013DOI Listing
January 2012

Tryptanthrin inhibits Th2 development, and IgE-mediated degranulation and IL-4 production by rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells.

J Ethnopharmacol 2011 Mar 7;134(2):450-9. Epub 2011 Jan 7.

Drugs, Cosmetics and Chemicals Development Center, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., Japan.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tryptanthrin is a compound isolated from Polygonum tinctorium, which is a known folk medicine with various biological activities.

Aim Of The Study: Allergic diseases are initiated by the development of allergen-specific T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and amplified by the degranulation of and cytokine release from basophils and mast cells during an effector phase. We found that Tryptanthrin could down-regulate IL-4 production by Th2 cells, while IFN-γ production by Th1 cells was not affected. Since IL-4 produced by basophils and effector Th2 cells has been shown to play important roles in the development and amplification of Th2-dominated allergic responses, we examined the effects of Tryptanthrin on the initiation and effector phase responses of Type I allergy in vitro.

Materials And Methods: To determine the mechanisms of Tryptanthrin-induced down-regulation of IL-4 production, the expression of Th2-specific transcription factors, c-Maf and GATA-3, was analyzed by RT-PCR. The effects of Tryptanthrin on Th cell differentiation were evaluated using CD4(+) T cells purified from spleen cells of Sugi basic protein (SBP)-immunized BALB/c mice. In primary cultures, cells were stimulated with SBP and antigen-presenting cells under neutral or Th2-skewing conditions in the presence or absence of Tryptanthrin. Cytokines produced by differentiated Th cells in secondary cultures were analyzed by ELISA. The effects of Tryptanthrin on IgE-mediated degranulation and IL-4 production were determined using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in Tryptanthrin-treated RBL-2H3 cells was analyzed to determine the mechanism of Tryptanthrin actions.

Results: Tryptanthrin suppressed c-Maf mRNA expression in Th2 clone cells, and even under Th2-skewing conditions, Tryptanthrin inhibited differentiation toward the Th2 phenotype, which is an essential event for the initiation phase of allergic diseases. Tryptanthrin also inhibited the IgE-mediated degranulation of and IL-4 production by RBL-2H3 cells, probably due to inhibiting IgE-mediated signaling pathways, including the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that Tryptanthrin effectively inhibits the effector and exacerbation responses, as well as the initiator responses, of Type I allergy. Thus, Tryptanthrin may have beneficial effects for immediate-type allergic responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.041DOI Listing
March 2011

Trehalose prevents adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigates insulin resistance.

Nutr Res 2010 Dec;30(12):840-8

Biomedical Institute, Research Center, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., 675-1 Fujisaki, Okayama 702-8006, Japan.

Trehalose has been shown to evoke lower insulin secretion than glucose in oral saccharide tolerance tests in humans. Given this hypoinsulinemic effect of trehalose, we hypothesized that trehalose suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy by reducing storage of triglyceride and mitigates insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were fed an HFD and given drinking water containing 2.5% saccharide (glucose [Glc], trehalose [Tre], maltose [Mal], high-fructose corn syrup, or fructose [Fru]) ad libitum. After 7 weeks of HFD and saccharide intake, fasting serum insulin levels in the Tre/HFD group were significantly lower than in the Mal/HFD and Glc/HFD groups (P < .05). Furthermore, the Tre/HFD group showed a significantly suppressed elevation of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance compared with the Mal/HFD group (P < .05) and showed a trend toward lower homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance than the Glc/HFD group. After 8 weeks of feeding, mesenteric adipocyte size in the Tre/HFD group showed significantly less hypertrophy than the Glc/HFD, Mal/HFD, high-fructose corn syrup/HFD, or Fru/HFD group. Analysis of gene expression in mesenteric adipocytes showed that no statistically significant difference in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) was observed between the Tre/HFD group and the distilled water/standard diet group, whereas a significant increase in the MCP-1 mRNA expression was observed in the Glc/HFD, Mal/HFD, Fru/HFD, and distilled water/HFD groups. Thus, our data indicate that trehalose prevents adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigates insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by reducing insulin secretion and down-regulating mRNA expression of MCP-1. These findings further suggest that trehalose is a functional saccharide that mitigates insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2010.10.009DOI Listing
December 2010

Propolis prevents diet-induced hyperlipidemia and mitigates weight gain in diet-induced obesity in mice.

Biol Pharm Bull 2009 Dec;32(12):2022-8

Biomedical Institute, Research Center, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., 675-1 Fujisaki, Naka-ku, Okayama 702-8006, Japan.

We examined the hypolipidemic effect of propolis in a mouse obesity model induced by a high fat-diet. C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum and given propolis extract intragastrically at 0 mg/kg (control), 5 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg twice daily for 10 d. Compared with mice in the control group, mice in the propolis extract-administrated groups displayed a reduction in all of the following parameters: body weight gain, weight of visceral adipose tissue, liver and serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of the liver showed down-regulation of mRNA expression associated with fatty acid biosynthesis, including fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha, and sterol regulatory element binding protein in the propolis-administrated mice. Subsequently, obese C57BL/6N mice that had been administered a high-fat diet were given propolis extract at 0 mg/kg (control), 2.5 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The propolis extract treated mice showed a decrease in weight gain, a reduction of serum non-esterified fatty acids, and lipid accumulation in the liver. These results suggest that propolis extract prevented and mitigated high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia by down-regulating the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.32.2022DOI Listing
December 2009

Creation of interferon-alpha8 mutants with amino acid substitutions against interferon-alpha receptor-2 binding sites using phage display system and evaluation of their biologic properties.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2009 Mar;29(3):161-70

Biomedical Institute, Research Center, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., Fujisaki, Okayama, Japan.

In this study, we describe the creation of three interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha)8 mutants with markedly higher antiviral and antiproliferative activities in comparison with those of the wild-type (wt)IFN-alpha8, wtIFN-alpha2, and IFN-con1 using a phage display system. Sequence analysis showed that three out of the six hot-spot amino acid residues of wtIFN-alpha8 known to be important for the interaction with the IFN-alpha receptor-2 (IFNAR-2)-binding sites were substituted to other amino acids and the others remained. Although affinity analysis revealed that the dissociation constant (K(D)) of IFN-alpha8 mutants was almost the same with that of wtIFN-alpha8, furthermore, the rates of association (k(a)) and dissociation (k(d)) were relatively lower. These results suggest that changes in the surface electronic charge of amino acid residues lead to changes in binding affinity and kinetics (prolonged dissociation time) toward the IFNAR-2, resulting in the modification of the biological activity. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the molecular engineering of the IFN-alpha8 provides important insight into action of IFN and also it would be useful in the development of therapeutically prominent IFN preparations than those used in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2008.0038DOI Listing
March 2009

Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one.

Biol Pharm Bull 2008 Oct;31(10):1938-45

Biomedical Institute, Research Center, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc, 675-1 Fujisaki, Okayama 702-8006, Japan.

Accumulating evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) are involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. During the course of a screening program to identify natural anti-inflammatory substances, we isolated the compound 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one (APO) from an extract of the edible brown mushroom Agaricus bisporus IMBACH. APO inhibited NO production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in response to the pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-gamma (LPS/IFN-gamma) at low concentrations (IC(50)=1.5 microM) through reduced inducible NO synthase protein expression. PGE(2) production by LPS/IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages was inhibited by APO at much lower concentrations (IC(50)=0.27 microM) than those required for the inhibition of NO production. Mechanistic analysis showed that APO inhibited both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities with almost equal selectivity. Secretion of NO and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 by IFN-gamma-activated RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage-like cell line, was also dose-dependently reduced by APO. Furthermore, APO increased the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 by antigen-stimulated T cells and promoted the polarization of CD4(+) Th cells toward the anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype at equimolar concentrations that inhibited NO production. Our results suggested that APO induced polarization toward the Th2 subset, at least in part through the down-regulation of IL-12 production. Thus, APO appears to have potent anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties that may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of T cell-mediated inflammatory autoimmune diseases as well as for bacteria-induced chronic-inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.31.1938DOI Listing
October 2008

Role of p53 in the inhibitory effects of interferon-alpha subtypes on proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Biomed Res 2006 Oct;27(5):219-26

Biomedical Institute, Research Center, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., Fujisaki, Okayama, Japan.

While interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) subtypes share a common specific receptor composed of two subunits, interferon-alpha receptor (IFNAR)-1 and IFNAR-2, their subtype activities are exhibited via several intracellular signaling pathways and thus subsequently show different biological effects. Anti-proliferative effects of single treatment with IFN-alpha subtypes or 5-fluorouracil (FU), and of combined treatment with each IFN-alpha subtype and 5-FU were examined on three hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, HepG2, HLE and PLC/PRF/5. HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells were susceptible to the combination treatment, but HLE cells were not. Proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells was also inhibited by the IFN-alpha subtypes singly. In addition, apoptosis was observed in HepG2 cells upon treatment with 5-FU alone and with the combination treatment, and in PLC/PRF/5 cells after single treatment with the IFN-alpha subtypes and after the combination treatment. IFN-alpha subtypes induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. Analyses by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation revealed increased p53 phosphorylation in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells but not in HLE cells after combined treatment. Single treatment with IFN-alpha subtypes promoted p53 activation only in PLC/PRF/5 cells. These results propose that IFN-alpha subtypes induce cells to undergo apoptosis through p53 activation directly and indirectly, in collaboration with 5-FU, further suggesting the presence of distinct signal pathways for IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2220/biomedres.27.219DOI Listing
October 2006

Suppression of apolipoprotein B secretion from HepG2 cells by glucosyl hesperidin.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2006 Jun;52(3):223-31

Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., 1-2-3 Shimoishii, Okayama 700-0907, Japan.

Our previous study has shown that a soluble hesperidin derivative, glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin), preferentially lowers serum triglyceride (TG) level in hypertriglyceridemic subjects through the improvement of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolic abnormality. G-Hesperidin has also been found to decrease an elevated serum apolipoprotein B (apo B) level in the hypertriglyceridemic subjects, suggesting a possibility that this compound suppresses excess VLDL secretion in the liver. In the present study, to gain a better understanding of possible mechanisms by which G-hesperidin lowers serum TG, we examined whether this derivative affects apo B secretion from HepG2 human hepatoma cells, a model of hepatic VLDL secretion. As a result, G-hesperidin significantly reduced apo B secretion from the oleate-stimulated HepG2 cells. Furthermore, G-hesperidin significantly suppressed apo B secretion only in the oleate-stimulated cells and failed to act on the cells incubated without oleate. In the oleate-stimulated cells, G-hesperidin significantly decreased cellular cholesteryl ester (CE), although it had no effect on cellular TG or free cholesterol amounts. Moreover, the oleate-stimulated cells had a decrease in cellular apo B amounts by G-hesperidin exposure. These findings indicate that G-hesperidin down-regulates the assembly of apo B-containing lipoproteins via the reduction of CE synthesis augmented with oleate and results in suppressing excess apo B secretion from the cells. This effect is speculated to be associated with the improvement of VLDL metabolic abnormality in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and considered as a mechanism of lowering serum TG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.52.223DOI Listing
June 2006

Bioavailability of glucosyl hesperidin in rats.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2006 Jun;70(6):1386-94

Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., Okayama.

Glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin) is a water-soluble derivative of hesperidin. We compared the absorption and metabolism of G-hesperidin with those of hesperidin in rats. After oral administration of G-hesperidin or hesperidin to rats, hesperetin was detected in sera hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase, but it was not detectable in unhydrolyzed sera. Serum hesperetin was found more rapidly in rats administered G-hesperidin than in those administered hesperidin. The area under the concentration-time curve for hesperetin in the sera of rats administered G-hesperidin was approximately 3.7-fold greater than that of rats administered hesperidin. In the urine of both administration groups, hesperetin and its glucuronide were found. Urinary excretion of metabolites was higher in rats administered G-hesperidin than in those administered hesperidin. These results indicate that G-hesperidin presents the same metabolic profile as hesperidin. Moreover, it was concluded that G-hesperidin is absorbed more rapidly and efficiently than hesperidin, because of its high water solubility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.50657DOI Listing
June 2006

Royal jelly inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004 Jan;68(1):138-45

Fujisaki Institute, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., Okayama, Japan.

In this study, we have examined the anti-inflammatory actions of royal jelly (RJ) at a cytokine level. When supernatants of RJ suspensions were added to a culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and IFN-gamma, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1, was efficiently inhibited in a dose-dependent manner without having cytotoxic effects on macrophages. This suggests that RJ contains factor(s) responsible for the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. We named the factor for honeybees RJ-derived anti-inflammatory factor (HBRJ-AIF), and further investigated the molecular aspects of it. Size fractionation study showed that HBRJ-AIF is composed of substances of low (< 5 kDa) and high (> 30 kDa) molecular weights, with the former being a major component. Chromatographic analysis showed that MRJP3 is one candidate for the HBRJ-AIF with high molecular weights. Thus, our results suggest that RJ has anti-inflammatory actions through inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by activated macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.68.138DOI Listing
January 2004

Oral administration of royal jelly inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

Int Immunopharmacol 2003 Sep;3(9):1313-24

Fujisaki Institute, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc, Fujisaki 675-1, Okayama 702-8006, Japan.

We have shown previously that in addition to IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by spleen cells from ovalbumin (OVA)/Alum-immunized mice is inhibited by the administration of royal jelly (RJ). Since it has been shown that both Th1 and Th2 cytokines play pathogenic roles in the generation of atopic dermatitis (AD), we have examined whether RJ suppresses the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by repeated application of picryl chloride (PiCl) under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions. Oral administration of RJ to the PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions in these mice as exemplified by the significant decrease in the total skin severity scores and the decrease in hypertrophy, hyperkeratosis, and infiltration of the epidermis and corium by inflammatory cells. IFN-gamma production by spleen cells from PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice in response to TNP-KLH was partially but significantly inhibited by the oral administration of RJ, while IFN-gamma production by Con A-stimulated spleen cells was not affected. Since inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)-derived NO has been suggested as an important immunoregulatory mediator in inflammatory autoimmune diseases, we have also examined the expression of iNOS in the dorsal skin lesions of PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice. Interestingly, the expression of iNOS was significantly increased in the skin lesions of RJ-administered mice compared with those of control PBS-administered mice. Thus, our results suggest that RJ suppresses the development of AD-like skin lesions in PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice, possibly by a combination of down-regulating TNP-specific IFN-gamma production and up-regulating iNOS expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1567-5769(03)00132-2DOI Listing
September 2003

Promoting effect of kaempferol on the differentiation and mineralization of murine pre-osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2003 Jun;67(6):1199-205

Fujisaki Institute, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories Inc.. 675 Fujisaki, Okayama 702-8006, Japan.

A number of agents have been reported to influence osteoblastic differentiation and to prevent and treat bone loss. We found that kaempferol, a flavonoid identified in extracts of the medicinal plant, Polygonum tinctorium. Lour, had stimulatory effects on the differentiation and mineralization of the murine pre-osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1. After enhancing the alkaline phosphatase activity, significant augmentation of calcification by kaempferol was observed between concentrations of 10 and 20 microM, without any marked effect on cell proliferation. When kaempferol was combined with ipriflavone, which is clinically applied to treat bone loss, calcification was synergistically augmented, suggesting that these two flavonoids may have different mechanisms of action. These results suggest that kaempferol may be a promising agent for the prevention or treatment of bone loss, especially when combined with ipriflavone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.67.1199DOI Listing
June 2003

Antitumor activity of interleukin-18 against the murine T-cell leukemia/lymphoma EL-4 in syngeneic mice.

J Immunother 2002 Mar-Apr;25 Suppl 1:S28-34

Fujisaki Institute, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., Okayama, Japan.

Interleukin (IL)-18 induces interferon (IFN)-gamma production by T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, and augments NK cell activity in mouse spleen cell cultures. It has recently been demonstrated that in vivo administration of IL-18 to mice results in considerable antitumor effects against syngeneic Meth A sarcoma. In this study, the antitumor effects of IL-18 against murine T-cell leukemia (EL-4) were evaluated. EL-4 proliferation was resistant in vitro to IL-18 and IFN-gamma. When 4 x 10(6) EL-4 cells were transplanted intravenously, the antitumor effects of IL-18 were not pronounced, and only a slight prolongation of the mean survival times was observed. The antitumor effects of IFN-gamma were even less apparent than those of IL-18. However, when mice were transplanted intravenously with 5 x 10(5) EL-4 cells, the extent of experimental visceral dissemination of EL-4 was markedly reduced in mice treated subcutaneously with IL-18, resulting in an increase in survival time with some mice even cured. Although IL-18 was highly effective at inhibiting the development of EL-4 lymphoma dissemination in C57BL/6 mice, it could not inhibit the development of dissemination in mutant C57BL/6 beige (bg/bg) mice lacking NK cell activity. The efficacy of IL-18 was also significantly reduced in nude mice lacking T cells. These results suggest that antitumor efficacy of IL-18 is mediated primarily by NK cells, but that T cells are also required for the complete antitumor efficacy of IL-18.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002371-200203001-00005DOI Listing
October 2002
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