Publications by authors named "Norbert Solymosi"

74 Publications

Fructose, glucose and fat interrelationships with metabolic pathway regulation and effects on the gut microbiota.

Acta Vet Hung 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

1Department of Animal Breeding, Nutrition and Laboratory Animal Science, University of Veterinary Medicine, P. O. Box 2, H-1400 Budapest, Hungary.

The purpose of this 30-day feeding study was to elucidate the changes, correlations, and mechanisms caused by the replacement of the starch content of the AIN-93G diet (St) with glucose (G), fructose (F) or lard (L) in body and organ weights, metabolic changes and caecal microbiota composition in rats (Wistar, SPF). The body weight gain of rats on the F diet was 12% less (P = 0.12) than in the St group. Rats on the L diet consumed 18.6% less feed, 31% more energy and gained 58.4% more than the animals on the St diet, indicating that, in addition to higher energy intake, better feed utilisation is a key factor in the obesogenic effect of diets of high nutrient and energy density. The G, F and L diets significantly increased the lipid content of the liver (St: 7.01 ± 1.48; G: 14.53 ± 8.77; F: 16.73 ± 8.77; L: 19.86 ± 4.92% of DM), suggesting that lipid accumulation in the liver is not a fructose-specific process. Relative to the St control, specific glucose effects were the decreasing serum glucagon (-41%) concentrations and glucagon/leptin ratio and the increasing serum leptin concentrations (+26%); specific fructose effects were the increased weights of the kidney, spleen, epididymal fat and the decreased weight of retroperitoneal fat and the lower immune response, as well as the increased insulin (+26%), glucagon (+26%) and decreased leptin (-25%) levels. This suggests a mild insulin resistance and catabolic metabolism in F rats. Specific lard effects were the decreased insulin (-9.14%) and increased glucagon (+40.44%) and leptin (+44.92%) levels. Relative to St, all diets increased the operational taxonomic units of the phylum Bacteroidetes. G and L decreased, while F increased the proportion of Firmicutes. F and L diets decreased the proportions of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Correlation and centrality analyses were conducted to ascertain the positive and negative correlations and relative weights of the 32 parameters studied in the metabolic network. These correlations and the underlying potential mechanisms are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/004.2021.00022DOI Listing
July 2021

The cryptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of human basal ganglia.

Elife 2021 Jun 15;10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Reproductive Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

Human reproduction is controlled by ~2000 hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of additional ~150,000-200,000 GnRH-synthesizing cells in the human basal ganglia and basal forebrain. Nearly all extrahypothalamic GnRH neurons expressed the cholinergic marker enzyme choline acetyltransferase. Similarly, hypothalamic GnRH neurons were also cholinergic both in embryonic and adult human brains. Whole-transcriptome analysis of cholinergic interneurons and medium spiny projection neurons laser-microdissected from the human putamen showed selective expression of and autoreceptors in the cholinergic cell population and uncovered the detailed transcriptome profile and molecular connectome of these two cell types. Higher-order non-reproductive functions regulated by GnRH under physiological conditions in the human basal ganglia and basal forebrain require clarification. The role and changes of GnRH/GnRHR1 signaling in neurodegenerative disorders affecting cholinergic neurocircuitries, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, need to be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.67714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245125PMC
June 2021

Ticks and Tick-Borne Infections of Dogs in Two Jordanian Shelters.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

Shelters in Jordan accommodate a huge number of dogs, which are rescued as stray dogs from different cities of the country, but their health receives almost no attention. The aim of this study was to examine tick infestation as well as tick-borne protozoa and bacteria of 80 randomly sampled dogs in two Jordanian shelters. Ticks identified as lato were found on 14 out of 27 animals in a shelter. No ticks were found on dogs in the other shelter. A total of 42 (52.5% [95% confidence interval: 41.7-63.1]) dogs were infected with one or two pathogens. The DNA of three protozoal (, , and ) and two bacterial ( and Bartonella merieuxii) species were detected in the blood samples. To the best of the authors' knowledge, except for , these species are reported for the first time from Jordan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2021.0026DOI Listing
June 2021

Gonadal Cycle-Dependent Expression of Genes Encoding Peptide-, Growth Factor-, and Orphan G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Gonadotropin- Releasing Hormone Neurons of Mice.

Front Mol Neurosci 2020 18;13:594119. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

Rising serum estradiol triggers the surge release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at late proestrus leading to ovulation. We hypothesized that proestrus evokes alterations in peptidergic signaling onto GnRH neurons inducing a differential expression of neuropeptide-, growth factor-, and orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes. Thus, we analyzed the transcriptome of GnRH neurons collected from intact, proestrous and metestrous GnRH-green fluorescent protein (GnRH-GFP) transgenic mice using Affymetrix microarray technique. Proestrus resulted in a differential expression of genes coding for peptide/neuropeptide receptors including , and . In this gene cluster, mRNA expression was upregulated and the others were downregulated. Expression of growth factor receptors and their related proteins was also altered showing upregulation of , and and downregulation of and genes. , an orphan GPCR, was upregulated during proestrus, while others were significantly downregulated (, and ). Further affected receptors included vomeronasal receptors (, and ) and platelet-activating factor receptor (), all with marked downregulation. Patch-clamp recordings from mouse GnRH-GFP neurons carried out at metestrus confirmed that the differentially expressed IGF-1, secretin, and GPR107 receptors were operational, as their activation by specific ligands evoked an increase in the frequency of miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs). These findings show the contribution of certain novel peptides, growth factors, and ligands of orphan GPCRs to regulation of GnRH neurons and their preparation for the surge release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2020.594119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863983PMC
January 2021

Efficient treatment of a preclinical inflammatory bowel disease model with engineered bacteria.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Mar 20;20:218-226. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.

We developed an orally administered, engineered, bacterium-based, RNA interference-mediated therapeutic method to significantly reduce the symptoms in the most frequently used animal model of inflammatory bowel disease. This bacterium-mediated RNA interference strategy was based on the genomically stable, non-pathogenic MDS42 strain, which was engineered to constitutively produce invasin and the listeriolysin O cytolysin. These proteins enabled the bacteria first to invade the colon epithelium and then degrade in the phagosome. This allowed the delivery of a plasmid encoding small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF) into the cytoplasm of the target cells. The expression levels of TNF and other cytokines significantly decreased upon this treatment in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and the degree of inflammation was significantly reduced. With further safety modifications this method could serve as a safe and side effect-free alternative to biologicals targeting TNF or other inflammatory mediators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2020.11.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782194PMC
March 2021

A glimpse of antimicrobial resistance gene diversity in kefir and yoghurt.

Sci Rep 2020 12 31;10(1):22458. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Centre for Bioinformatics, University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest, Budapest, 1078, Hungary.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat gaining more and more practical significance every year. The main determinants of AMR are the antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). Since bacteria can share genetic components via horizontal gene transfer, even non-pathogenic bacteria may provide ARG to any pathogens which they become physically close to (e.g. in the human gut). In addition, fermented food naturally contains bacteria in high amounts. In this study, we examined the diversity of ARG content in various kefir and yoghurt samples (products, grains, bacterial strains) using a unified metagenomic approach. We found numerous ARGs of commonly used fermenting bacteria. Even with the strictest filter restrictions, we identified ARGs undermining the efficacy of aminocoumarins, aminoglycosides, carbapenems, cephalosporins, cephamycins, diaminopyrimidines, elfamycins, fluoroquinolones, fosfomycins, glycylcyclines, lincosamides, macrolides, monobactams, nitrofurans, nitroimidazoles, penams, penems, peptides, phenicols, rifamycins, tetracyclines and triclosan. In the case of gene lmrD, we detected genetic environment providing mobility of this ARG. Our findings support the theory that during the fermentation process, the ARG content of foods can grow due to bacterial multiplication. The results presented suggest that the starting culture strains of fermented foods should be monitored and selected in order to decrease the intake of ARGs via foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80444-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775456PMC
December 2020

Multiple SARS-CoV-2 Introductions Shaped the Early Outbreak in Central Eastern Europe: Comparing Hungarian Data to a Worldwide Sequence Data-Matrix.

Viruses 2020 12 6;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 6.

National Laboratory of Virology, Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Hungary.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 is the third highly pathogenic human coronavirus in history. Since the emergence in Hubei province, China, during late 2019, the situation evolved to pandemic level. Following China, Europe was the second epicenter of the pandemic. To better comprehend the detailed founder mechanisms of the epidemic evolution in Central-Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, we determined the full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes from 32 clinical samples collected from laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients over the first month of disease in Hungary. We applied a haplotype network analysis on all available complete genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from GISAID database as of 21 April 2020. We performed additional phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses to achieve the recognition of multiple and parallel introductory events into our region. Here, we present a publicly available network imaging of the worldwide haplotype relations of SARS-CoV-2 sequences and conclude the founder mechanisms of the outbreak in Central-Eastern Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12121401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762115PMC
December 2020

Experimental assessment of three electrosurgical tissue-sealing devices in a porcine model.

Acta Vet Hung 2020 09 30;68(3):318-322. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

3Department of General Surgery, County Teaching Hospital, Kecskemét, Hungary.

Three electrosurgical tissue-sealing devices (EnSeal ETSDRC-01, LigaSure LS1500 and Thunderbeat TB-0535PC) were compared regarding sealing time (ST), maximum working temperature (WTmax) and the total (MTZtotal) as well as the collateral microscopic thermal injury zone (MTZcollat) using laparoscopic handpieces 5 mm in diameter on four types of tissue (liver, mesentery, cross striated muscle and spleen) in an in vivo porcine model. LigaSure had the lowest mean ST in spleen, mesentery, muscle and liver, followed by Thunderbeat and EnSeal with significant differences between all types of tissues and devices. The significantly lowest mean WTmax was obtained for EnSeal in mesentery, muscle and liver. LigaSure and EnSeal operated at the lowest temperature in spleen without a significant difference between them. Thunderbeat produced significantly higher temperature peaks in all cases. The lowest mean MTZtotal was caused by LigaSure and EnSeal in spleen, mesentery and muscle without significant differences between them, followed by the significantly higher values of Thunderbeat. Nevertheless, Thunderbeat produced the significantly lowest mean MTZtotal in the liver. EnSeal produced the lowest mean MTZcollat in the liver, followed by LigaSure and Thunderbeat showing significant differences. EnSeal and LigaSure produced the lowest mean MTZcollat in the spleen, mesentery and muscle without significant differences between them, followed by the significantly higher values of Thunderbeat. Based on the results of this study, Thunderbeat seems to be more invasive to tissue integrity (even without the activation of the ultrasonic scissor function) than EnSeal or LigaSure, that operate at lower temperatures and were found to cause negligible collateral thermal damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/004.2020.00051DOI Listing
September 2020

Family aggregation analysis shows a possible heritable background of equine grass sickness (dysautonomia) in a Hungarian stud population.

Acta Vet Hung 2020 09 30;68(3):263-268. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

5Centre for Bioinformatics, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

Equine grass sickness (also known as dysautonomia) is a life-threatening polyneuropathic disease affecting horses with approx. 80% mortality. Since its first description over a century ago, several factors, such as the phenotype, intestinal microbiome, environment, management and climate, have been supposed to be associated with the increased risk of dysautonomia. In this retrospective study, we examined the possible involvement of genetic factors. Medical and pedigree datasets regarding 1,233 horses with 49 affected animals born during a 23-year period were used in the analysis. Among the descendants of some stallions, the proportion of animals diagnosed with dysautonomia was unexpectedly high. Among males, the odds of dysautonomia were found to be higher, albeit not significantly, than among females. Significant familial clustering (genealogical index of familiality, P = 0.001) was observed among the affected animals. Further subgroups were identified with significant (P < 0.001) aggregation among close relatives using kinship-based methods. Our analysis, along with the slightly higher disease frequency in males, suggests that dysautonomia may have a genetic causal factor with an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. This is the first study providing ancestry data and suggesting a heritable component in the likely multifactorial aetiology of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/004.2020.00038DOI Listing
September 2020

First report of porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (species Porcine respirovirus 1) in Europe.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 17;68(4):1731-1735. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

Porcine respirovirus 1, also known as Porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV-1) was first identified in Hong Kong in 2013, later in the USA and most recently in Chile. Here, we report the first detection of PPIV-1 outside these three regions. We screened 22 farms in Hungary by testing 15 nasal swab samples obtained from 3-week-old piglets (3 randomly chosen piglets from 5 litters in each farm). Only one farm was found to be positive. We subsequently sampled the positive farm by taking cross-sectional 20 nasal swab samples from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-week-old piglets. Virus detection by qRT-PCR showed that although all investigated age groups were positive to PPIV-1, a higher number of infected animals and higher viral loads were found among 4-week-old animals. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of partial F and L genes, the 3 Hungarian strains are genetically closely related to the very first PPIV-1 strain identified in Hong Kong in 2013, whereas the overall genetic difference compared to the recently described North American isolates was around 10%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13869DOI Listing
July 2021

Antimicrobial resistance genes in raw milk for human consumption.

Sci Rep 2020 05 4;10(1):7464. Epub 2020 May 4.

University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest, Centre for Bioinformatics, Budapest, 1078, Hungary.

The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a significant threat to global health. More and more multi-drug-resistant bacterial strains cause life-threatening infections and the death of thousands of people each year. Beyond disease control animals are often given antibiotics for growth promotion or increased feed efficiency, which further increase the chance of the development of multi-resistant strains. After the consumption of unprocessed animal products, these strains may meet the human bacteriota. Among the foodborne and the human populations, antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) may be shared by horizontal gene transfer. This study aims to test the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in milk metagenome, investigate their genetic position and their linkage to mobile genetic elements. We have analyzed raw milk samples from public markets sold for human consumption. The milk samples contained genetic material from various bacterial species and the in-depth analysis uncovered the presence of several antimicrobial resistance genes. The samples contained complete ARGs influencing the effectiveness of acridine dye, cephalosporin, cephamycin, fluoroquinolone, penam, peptide antibiotics and tetracycline. One of the ARGs, PC1 beta-lactamase may also be a mobile element that facilitates the transfer of resistance genes to other bacteria, e.g. to the ones living in the human gut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63675-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198526PMC
May 2020

Detection of Flea-Borne Pathogens from Cats and Fleas in a Maltese Shelter.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 07 8;20(7):529-534. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

In a sanctuary located on the island of Malta, 23 clinically healthy cats randomly selected were sampled for blood and fleas. Only fleas were collected from 35 cats. All fleas were identified as , except for one specimen of . To the best of the authors' knowledge, this may be the first time to establish the occurrence of and , as well as of Mycoplasma haemominutum in the blood samples of 11 cats (47.82% [95% CI: 29.33-67.04]) with conventional PCR assays. One or more pathogens were found in 54 (96.42% [95% CI: 86.74-99.70]) out of 56 pooled flea samples, the most prevalent was . The DNA of , the commonest etiological agent of cat scratch disease, was detected first time in a pooled flea sample of a cat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2553DOI Listing
July 2020

The current situation of canine dirofilariosis in Hungary.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jan 21;119(1):129-135. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Centre for Bioinformatics, University of Veterinary Medicine, István u. 2, Budapest, H-1078, Hungary.

Between April and September 2017, blood samples were collected from 344 randomly selected dogs older than 1 year in 180 settlements of 19 counties in Hungary. The dogs lived exclusively outdoors, had never travelled and had neither been examined for Dirofilaria infection nor treated against mosquitoes with insecticides or/and filarioid worms with macrocyclic lactones. Dirofilaria infection was examined with a modified Knott's test for microfilariae, DiroCHEK®, for the presence of D. immitis antigen, as well as by multiplex and conventional PCR. Altogether, 77 (22.4%) dogs living in 58 settlements of 17 counties were found to be infected with one or both Dirofilaria species based on the PCR techniques. Twenty-eight (8.1%) and 38 (11.1%) dogs were infected with D. immitis and D. repens, respectively. Coinfections were recorded in 11 samples (3.2%) collected in 11 locations of 8 counties. The results confirmed that both dirofilarioses are endemic in dogs and the eastern areas of the country are hyperendemic for heartworm disease. Temperature showed a significant association with the prevalence of D. immitis (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.24-4.86, p = 0.012) but not with that of D. repens (OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.78-2.47, p = 0.286). The prevalence of neither D. immitis (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.00, p = 0.213) nor D. repens (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99-1.01, p = 0.094) showed a significant correlation with precipitation. The number of yearly growing degree days (GDD) based on the lifecycle of Dirofilaria in mosquitoes ranged between 3.73 and 7.57 for the Hungarian districts. The GDD showed a significant positive association with the prevalence of D. immitis (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.43-4.15, p = 0.001) and a non-significant positive relationship with that of D. repens (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.83-1.95, p = 0.291).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06478-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942023PMC
January 2020

Survey of lungworm infection of domestic cats in Hungary.

Acta Vet Hung 2019 09;67(3):407-417

Department of Parasitology and Zoology and Centre for Bioinformatics, University of Veterinary Medicine, István u. 2, H-1078 Budapest, Hungary.

From 61 settlements of 12 Hungarian counties, 303 domestic cats were included in this survey. Between autumn 2016 and spring 2018, fresh faecal samples were randomly collected and examined by flotation and by the Baermann-Wetzel method for the presence of lungworm infection. No eggs of were detected. Morphological identification of first instar larvae (L1) was also carried out. In the faeces of 60 cats (19.8%) from 17 settlements and Budapest, L1 of were found. More than half of the cats were from the western part of the country. The average number of larvae per gram of faeces was 190.2 ± 304.88. These results are in line with the former findings on the prevalence of aelurostrongylosis of domestic cats in Hungary. In addition, was also found for the first time in the faecal samples of three cats from the eastern part of the country, infected also with The average age (2.51 ± 1.26 years) of infected cats indicates that lungworm infection is more common among younger cats. No relationship was found between the lung-worm infection and the sex of cats. Non-neutered cats had a significantly higher proportion of lungworm infections. Two-thirds of the infected cats were apparently healthy, and only 19 individuals showed clinical signs of respiratory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/004.2019.041DOI Listing
September 2019

[Comparison of the traditional triple and a new bismuth-containing quadruple therapy in the first-line eradication of ].

Orv Hetil 2019 Aug;160(34):1340-1345

Gasztroenterológiai és Belgyógyászati Osztály, Markusovszky Egyetemi Oktatókórház Szombathely, Markusovszky L. u. 5., 9700.

As the efficacy of the first-line traditional treatment used to eradicate decreased below 75% in Hungary, a new protocol had to be created. Supposing the success rate of the traditional therapy (14-day double dose of proton pump inhibitor [PPI], 1000 mg amoxicillin b.i.d., 500 mg clarithromycin b.i.d. [PAC]) to be 75% and the efficacy of the new protocol (10-day 120 mg bismuth dicitrate q.i.d., double dose PPI b.i.d., 500 mg tetracycline q.i.d. and 500 mg tinidazole b.i.d. [BQT]) to be 90%, we calculated 109 patients on each arm. Patients were recruited after upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from 5 endoscopic units in Vas county. The heterogeneity of groups, success rate and side effects of both therapies were evaluated by Fisher exact test; p<0.05 was considered significant. 110 patients were included in the BQT and 109 patients in the PAC group. There was no heterogeneity between the two groups in age, gender and indication of eradication. eradication was successful in 103/110 (93.6%) in the BQT and 81/109 (74.3%) in the PAC group (p<0.001). The odds ratio in the BQT group for successful eradication was 5.05 (95% confidence interval: 2.02-14.42) as compared to the PAC group (p<0.001). The side effects of the two groups were similar, in the BQT group the frequency was 34.5%. 10 day-long BQT containing double dose PPI with 120 mg bismuth dicitrate q.i.d., 500 mg tetracycline q.i.d. and 500 mg tinidazole b.i.d. is recommended as the first-line treatment for the eradication of because of its high efficacy and tolerable side effects. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(34): 1340-1345.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/650.2019.31477DOI Listing
August 2019

Proestrus Differentially Regulates Expression of Ion Channel and Calcium Homeostasis Genes in GnRH Neurons of Mice.

Front Mol Neurosci 2019 31;12:137. Epub 2019 May 31.

Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.

In proestrus, the changing gonadal hormone milieu alters the physiological properties of GnRH neurons and contributes to the development of the GnRH surge. We hypothesized that proestrus also influences the expression of different ion channel genes in mouse GnRH neurons. Therefore, we performed gene expression profiling of GnRH neurons collected from intact, proestrous and metestrous GnRH-GFP transgenic mice, respectively. Proestrus changed the expression of 37 ion channel and 8 calcium homeostasis-regulating genes. Voltage-gated sodium channels responded with upregulation of three alpha subunits (, , and ). Within the voltage-gated potassium channel class, , , , and were upregulated, while others (, , , and ) underwent downregulation. Proestrus also had impact on inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunits manifested in enhanced expression of and genes, whereas , , and subunit genes were downregulated. The two-pore domain potassium channels also showed differential expression with upregulation of and reduced expression of three subunit genes (, , and ). Changes in expression of chloride channels involved both the voltage-gated ( and ) and the intracellular () subtypes. Regarding the pore-forming alpha-1 subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels, two ( and ) were upregulated, while showed downregulation. The ancillary subunits were also differentially regulated (, , , , , , , and ). In addition, ryanodine receptor 1 () gene was downregulated, while a transient receptor potential cation channel () gene showed enhanced expression. Genes encoding proteins regulating the intracellular calcium homeostasis were also influenced (, , , , , , and ). The differential expression of genes coding for ion channel proteins in GnRH neurons at late proestrus indicates that the altering hormone milieu contributes to remodeling of different kinds of ion channels of GnRH neurons, which might be a prerequisite of enhanced cellular activity of GnRH neurons and the subsequent surge release of the neurohormone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2019.00137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6554425PMC
May 2019

release of MVB-like small extracellular vesicle clusters by colorectal carcinoma cells.

J Extracell Vesicles 2019 8;8(1):1596668. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Molecular Medicine Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Small extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane enclosed structures that are usually released from cells upon exocytosis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) as a collection of separate, free EVs. In this study, we analysed paraffin embedded sections of archived human colorectal cancer samples. We studied 3D reconstructions of confocal microscopic images complemented by HyVolution and STED imaging. Unexpectedly, we found evidence that large, MVB-like aggregates of ALIX/CD63 positive EV clusters were released by migrating tumour cells. These structures were often captured with partial or complete extra-cytoplasmic localization at the interface of the plasma membrane of the tumour cell and the stroma. Their diameter ranged between 0.62 and 1.94 μm (mean±S.D.: 1.17 ± 0.34 μm). High-resolution 3D reconstruction showed that these extracellular MVB-like EV clusters were composed of distinguishable internal particles of small EV size (mean±S.D.: 128.96 ± 16.73 nm). , HT29 colorectal cancer cells also showed the release of similar structures as confirmed by immunohistochemistry and immune electron microscopy. Our results provide evidence for an transmission of MVB-like EV clusters through the plasma membrane. Immunofluorescent-based detection of the MVB like small EV clusters in archived pathological samples may represent a novel and unique opportunity which enables analysis of EV release in human tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20013078.2019.1596668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461071PMC
April 2019

Prognostic Value of Chest-Tube Amylase Versus C-Reactive Protein as Screening Tool for Detection of Early Anastomotic Leaks After Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2019 Feb 28;29(2):192-197. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

1 Department of Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University Nuremberg, Nuremberg, Germany.

Introduction: Intrathoracic anastomotic leaks after esophagectomy are a significant cause of morbidity and death. Early detection and timely management are crucial. This study evaluates the effectiveness of daily drain amylase levels in detecting early leaks after esophagectomy compared with C-reactive protein (CRP).

Materials And Methods: Between June 2015 and September 2017, 126 esophagectomies were performed in our department. Amylase levels were collected in 80 of these patients, as long right-sided chest tubes were in place. Mostly, chest tubes were removed before postoperative day (POD) 5. CRP levels were measured daily. Early leaks were defined as occurring with the chest tubes in place. According to the obtained receiver operating characteristics curves, amylase levels >335 U/L, and CRP >30 mg/dL were considered positive. Sensitivity and specificity for both drain amylase and CRP were calculated.

Results: Overall anastomotic leak rate was 7.5% (6/80). An early disruption occurred in 4 of 80 patients (5%). Three patients had a positive amylase level and none a positive CRP on POD 1. These 3 patients had on POD 2 a positive CRP. The fourth patient presented at POD 2 bilious secretion in the chest tubes. He showed normal amylase and CRP levels on POD 1. Sensitivity and specificity for amylase level and CRP within the first 3 PODs were 0.75 and 0.98 versus 0.75 and 0.85, respectively. The patients with leak were reoperated at POD 2. They were all discharged between PODs 15 and 19.

Conclusions: Amylase level after esophagectomy is a more accurate screening tool for detection of early leaks than CRP. It could facilitate their detection up to 24 hours earlier than CRP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2018.0656DOI Listing
February 2019

Assessment of equine alpha-fetoprotein levels in mares and newborn foals in the periparturient period.

Theriogenology 2018 Dec 8;122:53-60. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

MTA-SZIE Large Animal Clinical Research Group, Üllő, Hungary.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is best known in human obstetrics for its association with fetal anomalies recognized in the 1970s. Although this fetal protein had been shown to be present in the sera of many mammalian species, its possible diagnostic role in the detection of abnormalities was evaluated only later, when a research laboratory published variable levels of AFP in different groups of mares with pregnancy problems (twins, conception failure, placentitis, embryonic loss), and subsequently differences were demonstrated in its serum levels between aborted and healthy mares. In this study, peri- and intrapartal AFP levels were measured in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, neonatal blood, and umbilical blood samples. The mean levels of AFP were lower in umbilical blood and amniotic fluid samples than in foal and maternal blood. Older mares had lower AFP levels correlated with their age in years. The time remaining until foaling had a significant, non-linear effect on AFP levels: an elevation could be detected in the last two weeks of pregnancy, followed by a decline after foaling. Also, AFP levels were found to be elevated in the hot summer months. There was a significant individual variation in AFP levels in the population studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.08.026DOI Listing
December 2018

Prediction of stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle by measuring metabolic and endocrine parameters during the peripartal period.

Reprod Domest Anim 2018 Dec 4;53(6):1434-1441. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Department and Clinic of Obstetrics and Reproduction, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

The aim of this study was to determine whether measurements of certain metabolic (non-esterified fatty acid, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, total protein, albumin, urea-nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, total calcium, inorganic phosphate and magnesium) and endocrine (cortisol, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, insulin and insulin-like growth factor) parameters in the peripartal period (2 months and 3 weeks before expected calving and within 1 hr after calving) were related to the prevalence of stillbirth in a Holstein-Friesian farm in Hungary. All together 155 dairy cattle (n = 22 primiparous, n = 133 multiparous cows) were monitored in two separate years selected randomly on the same farm. Overall, the prevalence of stillbirth was 11% (n = 17). Significantly higher stillbirth rate was detected in case of heifer calvings (OR = 8.5), and when ≥3 assistants (severe dystocia; OR = 8.9) were needed to assist at calving while the body condition score of the dams, the bodyweight and gender of the newborn calves, the percentage of posterior presentations had no significant effect on stillbirth rate. There were no significant differences between cows without and with stillbirth in case of any measured metabolic and endocrine parameters during the examined time periods. At the same time, some of the metabolic parameters (TP, AST and inorg.P) showed some significant differences among the stillbirth groups, but stillbirth could not be predicted by the measured parameters and therefore the role of metabolic and/or endocrine changes on the prevalence of stillbirth needs further elucidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.13276DOI Listing
December 2018

A Somatically Acquired Enhancer of the Androgen Receptor Is a Noncoding Driver in Advanced Prostate Cancer.

Cell 2018 07 14;174(2):422-432.e13. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA; The Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Center for Functional Cancer Epigenetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address:

Increased androgen receptor (AR) activity drives therapeutic resistance in advanced prostate cancer. The most common resistance mechanism is amplification of this locus presumably targeting the AR gene. Here, we identify and characterize a somatically acquired AR enhancer located 650 kb centromeric to the AR. Systematic perturbation of this enhancer using genome editing decreased proliferation by suppressing AR levels. Insertion of an additional copy of this region sufficed to increase proliferation under low androgen conditions and to decrease sensitivity to enzalutamide. Epigenetic data generated in localized prostate tumors and benign specimens support the notion that this region is a developmental enhancer. Collectively, these observations underscore the importance of epigenomic profiling in primary specimens and the value of deploying genome editing to functionally characterize noncoding elements. More broadly, this work identifies a therapeutic vulnerability for targeting the AR and emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements as highly recurrent oncogenic drivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.05.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046260PMC
July 2018

The first feline and new canine cases of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida: Thelaziidae) infection in Hungary.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Jun 8;11(1):338. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Népkerti Veterinary Clinic, Miskolc, Hungary.

Background: In Europe, the first Thelazia callipaeda infections were found in the eyes of some dogs in Italy three decades ago. Since that time, this vector-borne nematode species has been diagnosed in domestic and wild carnivores and humans in some western European countries. During the last few years, autochthonous thelaziosis of dogs, red foxes, cats and humans has also been reported from eastern Europe. The first cases of ocular infections caused by T. callipaeda have been described in dogs living in the eastern and southern part of Slovakia and Hungary.

Methods: Whitish parasites found in the conjuctival sac and/or under the third eyelid of one or both eyes of animals were removed and morphologically identified according to species and sex. To confirm the morphological identification with molecular analysis a single step conventional PCR was carried out.

Results: A total of 116 adult worms (1-37 per dog, median: 7, IQR: 14.5 and 7 from a cat) were collected from the eyes of 11 animals. Nematodes were identified as T. callipaeda according to the morphological keys and molecular analysis. The sequences of a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were identical to those representing T. callipaeda haplotype 1, previously reported in neighbouring and other European countries. Since the infected cat and dogs had never travelled abroad, all of the cases were autochthonous thelaziosis.

Conclusions: The present study reports the first case of thelaziosis in a cat and new cases in 10 dogs found in the southern and northern region of Hungary, respectively. Further studies are needed to clarify whether wild carnivores (e.g. red foxes, golden jackals) may act as reservoirs of this eyeworm species in the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2925-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5993998PMC
June 2018

Predictors of Outcome in Modern Surgery for Lung Abscess.

Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2017 Oct 1;65(7):535-541. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Department of Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University Nuremberg, Nuremberg, Germany.

 Surgery for lung abscess is a challenging task. Timing and indications for surgery are not well established. Identification of predictors of outcome could help to clarify the role of surgery.  Patients who underwent major thoracic surgery for infectious lung abscess were identified at six centers for general thoracic surgery in Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Study period was 2000 to 2016.  There were 91 patients. Pulmonary sepsis (48), pleural empyema (43), persistent air leakage (25), acute renal failure (12), and respiratory failure with mechanical ventilation (25) were already preoperatively present. The mean Charlson index of comorbidity was 3.0 (median: 2.0; interquartile range: 3). Procedures were segmentectomy (18), lobectomy (58), and pneumonectomy (15). The 30-day mortality following surgery was 13/91.Preoperative sepsis (odds ratio [OR]: 13.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86-610.53;  < 0.01), preoperative persistent air leak (OR: 13.46, 95% CI: 3.00-85.37,  < 0.01), respiratory failure (OR: 5.60; 95% CI: 1.41-24.84;  < 0.01), acute renal failure (OR: 6.15 ; 95% CI: 1.24-29.56 ;  = 0.01), and Charlson index of comorbidity ≥ 3 (OR: 7.19 ; 95% CI: 1.43-71.21 ;  < 0.01) are associated with higher mortality, whereas age > 70 years ( = 0.46) and the extent of pulmonary resection (segmentectomy, lobectomy, pneumonectomy) have no significant influence on mortality. Patients with fatal outcome have significantly higher Charlson index of comorbidity ( < 0.01).  Delayed referral for surgery is common. Significant predictors for fatal outcome are pulmonary sepsis, septic complications (air leak, pleural empyema), septic organ failure (respiratory, acute renal failure), and preexisting comorbidity (Charlson index of comorbidity ≥ 3). The extent of surgical resection shows no significant influence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1598113DOI Listing
October 2017

Indomethacin and diclofenac in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective controlled trials.

Gastrointest Endosc 2017 Jun 4;85(6):1144-1156.e1. Epub 2017 Feb 4.

2nd Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Background And Aims: Diclofenac and indomethacin are the most studied drugs for preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). However, there are no prospective, randomized multicenter trials with a sufficient number of patients for correct evaluation of their efficacy. Our aim was to evaluate all prospective trials published in full text that studied the efficacy of diclofenac or indomethacin and were controlled with placebo or non-treatment for the prevention of PEP in adult patients undergoing ERCP.

Methods: Systematic search of databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane) for relevant studies published from inception to 30 June 2016.

Results: Our meta-analysis of 4741 patients from 17 trials showed that diclofenac or indomethacin significantly decreased the risk ratio (RR) of PEP to 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.78; P = .0001), number needed to treat (NNT) was 20, and the reduction of RR of moderate to severe PEP was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97; P = .0339). The efficacy of indomethacin compared with diclofenac was similar (P = .98). The efficacy of indomethacin or diclofenac did not differ according to timing (P = .99) or between patients with average-risk and high-risk for PEP (P = .6923). The effect of non-rectal administration of indomethacin or diclofenac was not significant (P = .1507), but the rectal route was very effective (P = .0005) with an NNT of 19. The administration of indomethacin or diclofenac was avoided in patients with renal failure. Substantial adverse events were not detected.

Conclusions: The use of rectally administered diclofenac or indomethacin before or closely after ERCP is inexpensive and safe and is recommended in every patient (without renal failure) undergoing ERCP. (Registration number: CRD42016042726, http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2017.01.033DOI Listing
June 2017

First detection of tick-borne pathogens of dogs from Malta.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 03 18;8(3):396-399. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

Department of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary H-1078 Budapest István u 2., Hungary. Electronic address:

The knowledge about the vector-borne infections in domestic dogs has been increasing worldwide. However no studies have been done on hard tick infestation and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) of dogs present in Malta. Therefore, a total of 99 dogs was selected and inspected between March and July 2013 in 18 urban and 17 rural areas on the islands of Malta and Gozo. All ticks were removed from the dogs and identified. Blood samples were taken and tested for protozoa (Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp.) and bacteria (Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp.) by conventional PCR. All of the ticks collected from 34 (34.3%; 95% CI: 26-44) dogs belong to the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Tick infestation on the farm dogs was significantly higher than that of dogs kept outdoors as pets (OR: 15.19, 95% CI: 2.72-118.92, p<0.001) or in a sanctuary (OR: 35.11, 95% CI: 3.20-1986.67, p<0.001). Altogether 22 animals were infected with one or two TBPs, most of them with Hepatozoon canis (16/22; 72.7%). Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli were detected in 5 and 4 dogs, respectively. Three dogs had co-infections caused by H. canis and A. platys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on tick infestation and TBPs of dogs in Malta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2017.01.002DOI Listing
March 2017

Ovariectomy Alters Gene Expression of the Hippocampal Formation in Middle-Aged Rats.

Endocrinology 2017 01;158(1):69-83

Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1083 Budapest, Hungary.

Ovarian hormones regulate the transcriptome of the hippocampus and modulate its functions. During menopause this complex signaling declines, leading to impaired learning and memory. This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of long-term, surgical ovariectomy (OVX) on the rat hippocampal transcriptome. At age of 13 months, intact control and ovariectomized groups were formed. All animals were killed 5 weeks after gonadectomy; hippocampal formations were dissected and processed for transcriptome analysis. Microarray and polymerase chain reaction studies identified 252 and 61 genes, respectively, whose expression was altered in the lack of ovarian hormones. Pathway analysis revealed impact on neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, endocannabinoid, and estrogen signaling, among others. Network and interaction analyses of proteins encoded by OVX-regulated genes revealed upregulation of growth/troph/transcription factor signaling assembly (Mdk, Fgf1, Igf2, Ngf, Ngfr, Ntf3, Ntrk1, Otx2, Hif1a, Esr1, Nr4a3), peptides/peptide receptors (Cartpt, Kl, Ttr, Gnrhr), neurotransmission (Grm1, Gria4, Gls, Slc18a2, Kcnj6), and genes serving immune functions (C3, Ccl2, Itgam, Il1b). Downregulated clusters included neuropeptides and their receptors (Adcyap1, Cbln2, Cck, Cckbr, Crhr1 and 2, Oprd1, Nts, Penk, Sstr1, Vip), neurotransmitter signaling (Htr2c, Chrna3, Chrm4, Grm8, Hrh3, Slc17a6), and potassium channels (Kcnk9, Kcnj9, Kcnma1, Kcnc2). Several transcription factors (Rxra, Thrb), solute carriers and defense molecules (Apitd1, Bcl2, C1ql3, Ilr3a, Sod1, Sncb) also underwent downregulation. The findings indicate that surgical gonadectomy carried out at middle-age robustly changes the hippocampal transcriptome that alters neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, immune modulation, causing cognitive dysfunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2016-1516DOI Listing
January 2017

Altered Expression of Genes Encoding Neurotransmitter Receptors in GnRH Neurons of Proestrous Mice.

Front Cell Neurosci 2016 7;10:230. Epub 2016 Oct 7.

Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of SciencesBudapest, Hungary; Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic UniversityBudapest, Hungary.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a key role in the central regulation of reproduction. In proestrous female mice, estradiol triggers the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge, however, its impact on the expression of neurotransmitter receptor genes in GnRH neurons has not been explored yet. We hypothesized that proestrus is accompanied by substantial changes in the expression profile of genes coding for neurotransmitter receptors in GnRH neurons. We compared the transcriptome of GnRH neurons obtained from intact, proestrous, and metestrous female GnRH-GFP transgenic mice, respectively. About 1500 individual GnRH neurons were sampled from both groups and their transcriptome was analyzed using microarray hybridization and real-time PCR. In this study, changes in mRNA expression of genes involved in neurotransmitter signaling were investigated. Differential gene expression was most apparent in GABA-ergic (), glutamatergic (), cholinergic () and dopaminergic (), adrenergic (), adenosinergic (), glycinergic (), purinergic (), and serotonergic () receptors. In concert with these events, expression of genes in the signaling pathways downstream to the receptors, i.e., G-proteins (), adenylate-cyclases (), protein kinase A () protein kinase C () and certain transporters () were also changed. The marked differences found in the expression of genes involved in neurotransmitter signaling of GnRH neurons at pro- and metestrous stages of the ovarian cycle indicate the differential contribution of these neurotransmitter systems to the induction of the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge, the known prerequisite of the subsequent hormonal cascade inducing ovulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2016.00230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5054603PMC
October 2016

Long-Term Estrogen Receptor Beta Agonist Treatment Modifies the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats.

Front Cell Neurosci 2016 10;10:149. Epub 2016 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of SciencesBudapest, Hungary; Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic UniversityBudapest, Hungary.

Estradiol (E2) robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER). Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc.) on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month) rats. Isolated hippocampal formations were analyzed by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Four hundred ninety-seven genes fulfilled the absolute fold change higher than 2 (FC > 2) selection criterion. Among them 370 genes were activated. Pathway analysis identified terms including glutamatergic and cholinergic synapse, RNA transport, endocytosis, thyroid hormone signaling, RNA degradation, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, and mRNA surveillance. PCR studies showed transcriptional regulation of 58 genes encoding growth factors (Igf2, Igfb2, Igf1r, Fgf1, Mdk, Ntf3, Bdnf), transcription factors (Otx2, Msx1), potassium channels (Kcne2), neuropeptides (Cck, Pdyn), peptide receptors (Crhr2, Oprm1, Gnrhr, Galr2, Sstr1, Sstr3), neurotransmitter receptors (Htr1a, Htr2c, Htr2a, Gria2, Gria3, Grm5, Gabra1, Chrm5, Adrb1), and vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (Slc32a1, Slc17a7). Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed networking of clusters associated with the regulation of growth/troph factor signaling, transcription, translation, neurotransmitter and neurohormone signaling mechanisms and potassium channels. Collectively, the results reveal the contribution of ERβ-mediated processes to the regulation of transcription, translation, neurogenesis, neuromodulation, and neuroprotection in the hippocampal formation of ovariectomized, middle-aged rats and elucidate regulatory channels responsible for DPN-altered functional patterns. These findings support the notion that selective activation of ERβ may be a viable approach for treating the neural symptoms of E2 deficiency in menopause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2016.00149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4901073PMC
July 2016

Spotlight on esophageal perforation: A multinational study using the Pittsburgh esophageal perforation severity scoring system.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016 Apr 13;151(4):1002-9. Epub 2015 Dec 13.

Klinikum Nuremberg, Nuremberg, Germany.

Objective: The Pittsburgh group has suggested a perforation severity score (PSS) for better decision making in the management of esophageal perforation. Our study aim was to determine whether the PSS can be used to stratify patients with esophageal perforation into distinct subgroups with differential outcomes in an independent study population.

Methods: In a retrospective study cases of esophageal perforation were collected (study-period, 1990-2014). The PSS was analyzed using logistic regression as a continuous variable and stratified into low, intermediate, and high score groups.

Results: Data for 288 patients (mean age, 59.9 years) presenting with esophageal perforation (during the period 1990-2014) were abstracted. Etiology was spontaneous (Boerhaave; n = 119), iatrogenic (instrumentation; n = 85), and traumatic perforation (n = 84). Forty-three patients had coexisting esophageal cancer. The mean PSS was 5.82, and was significantly higher in patients with fatal outcome (n = 57; 19.8%; mean PSS, 9.79 vs 4.84; P < .001). Mean PSS was also significantly higher in patients receiving operative management (n = 200; 69%; mean PSS, 6.44 vs 4.40; P < .001). Using the Pittsburgh strata, patients were assigned to low PSS (≤2; n = 63), intermediate PSS (3-5; n = 86), and high PSS (>5; n = 120) groups. Perforation-related morbidity, length of stay, frequency of operative treatment, and mortality increased with increasing PSS strata. Patients with high PSS were 3.37 times more likely to have operative management compared with low PSS.

Conclusions: The Pittsburgh PSS reliably reflects the seriousness of esophageal perforation and stratifies patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups with differential morbidity and mortality outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.11.055DOI Listing
April 2016

Characteristics of urolithiasis in the dog population of Hungary from 2001 to 2012.

Acta Vet Hung 2015 Sep;63(3):323-36

Department and Clinic of Surgery and Ophthalmology, Veterinary Ethology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent István University , Budapest , Hungary.

The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of canine urolithiasis in Hungary in order to determine the annual incidence of urolithiasis and to identify breeds at risk for different types of urolithiasis. Data of a total of 2,543 canine uroliths analysed in the laboratory of the Budapest Urolith Centre were evaluated retrospectively from 2001 to 2012. Logistic regression was used to assess odds ratios for the proportion of each affected breed compared to those of crossbreeds. The annual incidence of urolithiasis was evaluated by the number of submissions compared to the estimated number of dogs in the population from which the samples originated. Epidemiologic data revealed a relatively high and increasing proportion of struvite urolithiasis. Statistical analysis of breed predispositions resulted in the detection of breeds not having been reported at risk (e.g. Bernese Mountain dog - struvite, Bichon Frise, Bolognese, Tibetan Terrier - purine, French Bulldog - cystine). Conflicting results were revealed for some other breeds previously described as being affected by certain types of urolithiasis (Chihuahua, Pekingese, Shih Tzu, English Cocker Spaniel). Regardless of the type of urolithiasis, its average cumulative incidence in the dog population of Hungary was found to be 1.76/10,000/year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/004.2015.030DOI Listing
September 2015
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