Publications by authors named "Norbert Arnold"

184 Publications

Breast and Prostate Cancer Risks for Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 Pathogenic Variant Carriers Using Polygenic Risk Scores.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Background: Recent population-based female breast cancer and prostate cancer polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been developed. We assessed the associations of these PRS with breast and prostate cancer risks for male BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

Methods: 483 BRCA1 and 1,318 BRCA2 European ancestry male carriers were available from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). A 147-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) prostate cancer PRS (PRSPC) and a 313-SNP breast cancer PRS were evaluated. There were three versions of the breast cancer PRS, optimized to predict overall (PRSBC), estrogen-receptor (ER) negative (PRSER-) or ER-positive (PRSER+) breast cancer risk.

Results: PRSER+ yielded the strongest association with breast cancer risk. The odds ratios (ORs) per PRSER+ standard deviation estimates were 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.07-1.83) for BRCA1 and 1.33 (95% CI = 1.16-1.52) for BRCA2 carriers. PRSPC was associated with prostate cancer risk for both BRCA1 (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.28-2.33) and BRCA2 (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34-1.91) carriers. The estimated breast cancer ORs were larger after adjusting for female relative breast cancer family history. By age 85 years, for BRCA2 carriers, the breast cancer risk varied from 7.7% to 18.4% and prostate cancer risk from 34.1% to 87.6% between the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS distributions.

Conclusions: Population-based prostate and female breast cancer PRS are associated with a wide range of absolute breast and prostate cancer risks for male BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. These findings warrant further investigation aimed at providing personalized cancer risks for male carriers and to inform clinical management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab147DOI Listing
July 2021

The predictive ability of the 313 variant-based polygenic risk score for contralateral breast cancer risk prediction in women of European ancestry with a heterozygous BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.

Genet Med 2021 09 10;23(9):1726-1737. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between a previously published 313 variant-based breast cancer (BC) polygenic risk score (PRS) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant heterozygotes.

Methods: We included women of European ancestry with a prevalent first primary invasive BC (BRCA1 = 6,591 with 1,402 prevalent CBC cases; BRCA2 = 4,208 with 647 prevalent CBC cases) from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA), a large international retrospective series. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the association between overall and ER-specific PRS and CBC risk.

Results: For BRCA1 heterozygotes the estrogen receptor (ER)-negative PRS showed the largest association with CBC risk, hazard ratio (HR) per SD = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.06-1.18), C-index = 0.53; for BRCA2 heterozygotes, this was the ER-positive PRS, HR = 1.15, 95% CI (1.07-1.25), C-index = 0.57. Adjusting for family history, age at diagnosis, treatment, or pathological characteristics for the first BC did not change association effect sizes. For women developing first BC < age 40 years, the cumulative PRS 5th and 95th percentile 10-year CBC risks were 22% and 32% for BRCA1 and 13% and 23% for BRCA2 heterozygotes, respectively.

Conclusion: The PRS can be used to refine individual CBC risks for BRCA1/2 heterozygotes of European ancestry, however the PRS needs to be considered in the context of a multifactorial risk model to evaluate whether it might influence clinical decision-making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01198-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8460445PMC
September 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Genes - Association Analysis in More than 113,000 Women.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):428-439. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

The authors' affiliations are as follows: the Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Departments of Public Health and Primary Care (L.D., S. Carvalho, J.A., K.A.P., Q.W., M.K.B., J.D., B.D., N. Mavaddat, K. Michailidou, A.C.A., P.D.P.P., D.F.E.) and Oncology (C.L., P.A.H., C. Baynes, D.M.C., L.F., V.R., M. Shah, P.D.P.P., A.M.D., D.F.E.), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, the Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine (A. Campbell, D.J.P.), and the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology (D.J.P.), University of Edinburgh, the Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre (D.A.C., J.F.), and the Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh Medical School (A. Campbell, J.F.), Edinburgh, the Divisions of Informatics, Imaging, and Data Sciences (E.F.H.), Cancer Sciences (A. Howell), Population Health, Health Services Research, and Primary Care (A. Lophatananon, K. Muir), and Evolution and Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), University of Manchester, the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Unit (E.F.H.) and the Nightingale Breast Screening Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital (E.F.H., H.I.), Academic Health Science Centre and North West Genomics Laboratory Hub, and the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), Manchester, the School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London (E.J.S.), the Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (I.T.), and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford (I.T.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Human Genotyping-CEGEN Unit, Human Cancer Genetic Program (A.G.-N., M.R.A., N.Á., B.H., R.N.-T.), and the Human Genetics Group (V.F., A.O., J.B.), Spanish National Cancer Research Center, Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras (A.O., J.B.), Servicio de Oncología Médica, Hospital Universitario La Paz (M.P.Z.), and Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (M. de la Hoya), Madrid, the Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (A. Carracedo, M.G.-D.), and Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras y Centro Nacional de Genotipado, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (A. Carracedo), Santiago de Compostela, the Oncology and Genetics Unit, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Galicia Sur, Xerencia de Xestion Integrada de Vigo-Servizo Galeo de Saúde, Vigo (J.E.C.), and Servicio de Cirugía General y Especialidades, Hospital Monte Naranco, Oviedo (J.I.A.P.) - all in Spain; the Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund (C. Wahlström, J.V., M.L., T. Törngren, Å.B., A.K.), the Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro (C. Blomqvist), and the Departments of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (K.C., M.E., M.G., P. Hall, W.H., K.H.), Oncology, Södersjukhuset (P. Hall, S. Margolin), Molecular Medicine and Surgery (A. Lindblom), and Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset (S. Margolin, C. Wendt), Karolinska Institutet, and the Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital (A. Lindblom), Stockholm - all in Sweden; the Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD (M.T.P., C.F., G.C.-T., A.B.S.), the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), the Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), and the Department of Clinical Pathology (M.C.S.), University of Melbourne, Anatomical Pathology, Alfred Hospital (C.M.), and the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (M.C.S.), Melbourne, VIC, and Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (G.G.G., M.C.S., R.L.M.) - all in Australia; the Division of Molecular Pathology (R.K., S. Cornelissen, M.K.S.), Family Cancer Clinic (F.B.L.H., L.E.K.), Department of Epidemiology (M.A.R.), and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology (M.K.S.), the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Division Laboratories, Pharmacy and Biomedical Genetics, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center, Utrecht (M.G.E.M.A.), the Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center (J.M.C., A.M.W.O.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Family Cancer Clinic, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute (B.A.M.H.-G., A. Hollestelle, M.J.H.), Rotterdam, the Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (E.B.G.G.), the Departments of Human Genetics (I.M.M.L., M.P.G.V., P.D.), Clinical Genetics (C.J.A.), and Pathology (P.D.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (A.R.M.), and the Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (J.C.O.) - all in the Netherlands; the Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute (B.D.), and the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (T.A., S.J.C., X.R.Y., M.G.-C.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; the Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (B.D.), and the Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (R.M.V.D.), Boston; the Departments of Clinical Genetics (K.A.), Oncology (C. Blomqvist), and Obstetrics and Gynecology (H.N., M. Suvanto), Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, and the Unit of Clinical Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital (P. Auvinen), the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oncology (P. Auvinen), the Translational Cancer Research Area (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology, and Forensic Medicine (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), University of Eastern Finland, and the Biobank of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital (V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), Kuopio - both in Finland; the N.N. Alexandrov Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Minsk, Belarus (N.N.A., N.V.B.); the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel (N.A.), the Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology (H. Becher) and Cancer Epidemiology Group (T.M., J.C.-C.), University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (M.W.B., P.A.F., L.H.) and Institute of Human Genetics (A.B.E.), University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Region of Nuremberg, Erlangen, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology (S.B., A. Jung, P.M.K., J.C.-C.), Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080 (B. Burwinkel, H.S.), Division of Pediatric Neurooncology (A.F.), and Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer (U.H., M.M., M.U.R., D.T.), German Cancer Research Center, Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer, University Women's Clinic Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg (B. Burwinkel, A.S., H.S.), Hopp Children's Cancer Center (A.F.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg (P.M.K.), and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital and German Cancer Research Center (A.S., C.S.), Heidelberg, the Department of Radiation Oncology (N.V.B., M. Bremer, H.C.) and the Gynecology Research Unit (N.V.B., T.D., P. Hillemanns, T.-W.P.-S., P.S.), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Münster, Münster (N.B.-M.), Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart (H. Brauch, W.-Y.L.), iFIT-Cluster of Excellence, University of Tübingen, and the German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center, Partner Site Tübingen (H. Brauch), and the University of Tübingen (W.-Y.L.), Tübingen, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum (T.B.), Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (C.E.), Center for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (E.H., R.K.S.) and Center for Integrated Oncology (E.H., R.K.S.), Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, the Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn (Y.-D.K.), the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Munich, Campus Großhadern, Munich (A. Meindl), and the Institute of Pathology, Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (T.R.) - all in Germany; the Gynecological Cancer Registry, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (P. Arveux), and the Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Team Exposome and Heredity, INSERM, University Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (E.C.-D., P.G., T. Truong) - both in France; the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (M. Bermisheva, E.K.), the Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University (E.K., D.P., Y.V.), and the Ufa Research Institute of Occupational Health and Human Ecology (Y.V.), Ufa, Russia; the Department of Genetics and Pathology (K.B., A. Jakubowska, J. Lubiński, K.P.) and the Independent Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Diagnostics (A. Jakubowska), Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (S.E.B., B.G.N.), and the Department of Breast Surgery (H.F.), Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (S.E.B., B.G.N.) - both in Denmark; the Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) (B. Bonanni), the Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano (S. Manoukian), the Genome Diagnostics Program, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (P.P.), and the Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (P.R.), Milan; the Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital-Radiumhospitalet (A.-L.B.-D., G.I.G.A., V.N.K.), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo (A.-L.B.-D., V.N.K.), Oslo; Medical Faculty, Universidad de La Sabana (I.B.), and the Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department (F.G.) and Institute of Human Genetics (D.T.), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia; the Department of Internal Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah (N.J.C., M.J.M., J.A.W.), and the Intermountain Healthcare Biorepository and Department of Pathology, Intermountain Healthcare (M.H.C.), Salt Lake City; the David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles (P.A.F.), and Moores Cancer Center (M.G.-D., M.E.M.) and the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (M.E.M.), University of California San Diego, La Jolla; the Departments of Medical Oncology (V.G., D.M.) and Pathology (M.T.), University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, and the Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (E.S.) - both in Greece; the Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital (G.G., I.L.A.), the Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (A.M.M.) and Molecular Genetics (I.L.A.), University of Toronto, and the Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network (A.M.M.), Toronto, and the Genomics Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec-Université Laval Research Center, Québec City, QC (J.S.) - both in Canada; the Department of Electron Microscopy and Molecular Pathology (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L.), the Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L., K. Michailidou), and the Biostatistics Unit (K. Michailidou), Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus; the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health (M. Hartman, R.M.V.D.) and the Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (R.M.V.D.), National University of Singapore, the Department of Surgery, National University Health System (M. Hartman, J. Li), and the Human Genetics Division, Genome Institute of Singapore (J. Li), Singapore; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia (W.K.H.), and the Breast Cancer Research Programme, Cancer Research Malaysia (W.K.H., P.S.N., S.-Y.Y., S.H.T.), Selangor, and the Breast Cancer Research Unit, Cancer Research Institute (N.A.M.T.), and the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (N.A.M.T., P.S.N., S.H.T.), University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur - both in Malaysia; Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (M.J.K., N. Miller); the Department of Surgery, Daerim Saint Mary's Hospital (S.-W.K.), the Department of Surgery, Ulsan University College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center (J.W.L.), the Department of Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine and Soonchunhyang University Hospital (M.H.L.), Integrated Major in Innovative Medical Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (S.K.P.), and the Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University (S.K.P.), Seoul, South Korea; the Department of Basic Sciences, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Lahore, Pakistan (M.U.R.); and the National Cancer Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S.T.).

Background: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking.

Methods: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity.

Results: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (, , , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (, , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in and , odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in , , , , , and , odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in , , and were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For , , and , missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants.

Conclusions: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1913948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611105PMC
February 2021

Performance of Breast Cancer Polygenic Risk Scores in 760 Female CHEK2 Germline Mutation Carriers.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jul;113(7):893-899

Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Genome-wide association studies suggest that the combined effects of breast cancer (BC)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can improve BC risk stratification using polygenic risk scores (PRSs). The performance of PRSs in genome-wide association studies-independent clinical cohorts is poorly studied in individuals carrying mutations in moderately penetrant BC predisposition genes such as CHEK2.

Methods: A total of 760 female CHEK2 mutation carriers were included; 561 women were affected with BC, of whom 74 developed metachronous contralateral BC (mCBC). For PRS calculations, 2 SNP sets covering 77 (SNP set 1, developed for BC risk stratification in women unselected for their BRCA1/2 germline mutation status) and 88 (SNP set 2, developed for BC risk stratification in female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers) BC-associated SNPs were used. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: Both SNP sets provided concordant PRS results at the individual level (r = 0.91, P < 2.20 × 10-16). Weighted cohort Cox regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations of PRSs with the risk for first BC. For SNP set 1, a hazard ratio of 1.71 per SD of the PRS was observed (95% confidence interval = 1.36 to 2.15, P = 3.87 × 10-6). PRSs identify a subgroup of CHEK2 mutation carriers with a predicted lifetime risk for first BC that exceeds the surveillance thresholds defined by international guidelines. Association of PRS with mCBC was examined via Cox regression analysis (SNP set 1 hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval = 0.86 to 1.78, P = .26).

Conclusions: PRSs may be used to personalize risk-adapted preventive measures for women with CHEK2 mutations. Larger studies are required to assess the role of PRSs in mCBC predisposition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246885PMC
July 2021

Polygenic risk scores and breast and epithelial ovarian cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2020 10 15;22(10):1653-1666. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Exeter, UK.

Purpose: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

Methods: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort.

Results: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar.

Conclusion: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0862-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521995PMC
October 2020

Germline HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C do not confer an increased breast cancer risk.

Sci Rep 2020 06 16;10(1):9688. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65665-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297796PMC
June 2020

Criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for the Classification of Germline Sequence Variants in Risk Genes for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer.

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2020 Apr 21;80(4):410-429. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Klinikum der Universität München, Campus Großhadern, München, Germany.

More than ten years ago, the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC) set up a panel of experts (VUS Task Force) which was tasked with reviewing the classifications of genetic variants reported by individual centres of the GC-HBOC to the central database in Leipzig and reclassifying them, where necessary, based on the most recent data. When it evaluates variants, the VUS Task Force must arrive at a consensus. The resulting classifications are recorded in a central database where they serve as a basis for ensuring the consistent evaluation of previously known and newly identified variants in the different centres of the GC-HBOC. The standardised VUS evaluation by the VUS Task Force is a key element of the recall system which has also been set up by the GC-HBOC. The system will be used to pass on information to families monitored and managed by GC-HBOC centres in the event that previously classified variants are reclassified based on new information. The evaluation algorithm of the VUS Task Force was compiled using internationally established assessment methods (IARC, ACMG, ENIGMA) and is presented here together with the underlying evaluation criteria used to arrive at the classification decision using a flow chart. In addition, the characteristics and special features of specific individual risk genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer are discussed in separate subsections. The URLs of relevant databases have also been included together with extensive literature references to provide additional information and cover the scope and dynamism of the current state of knowledge on the evaluation of genetic variants. In future, if criteria are updated based on new information, the update will be published on the website of the GC-HBOC ( https://www.konsortium-familiaerer-brustkrebs.de/ ).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1110-0909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174002PMC
April 2020

HPTLC-DESI-HRMS-Based Profiling of Anthraquinones in Complex Mixtures-A Proof-of-Concept Study Using Crude Extracts of Chilean Mushrooms.

Foods 2020 Feb 6;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany.

High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with negative ion desorption electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS) was used for the analysis of anthraquinones in complex crude extracts of Chilean dermocyboid Cortinarii. For this proof-of-concept study, the known anthraquinones emodin, physcion, endocrocin, dermolutein, hypericin, and skyrin were identified by their elemental composition. HRMS also allowed the differentiation of the investigated anthraquinones from accompanying compounds with the same nominal mass in the crude extracts. An investigation of the characteristic fragmentation pattern of skyrin in comparison with a reference compound showed, exemplarily, the feasibility of the method for the determination of these coloring, bioactive and chemotaxonomically important marker compounds. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the coupling of HPTLC with DESI-HRMS represents an advanced and efficient technique for the detection of anthraquinones in complex matrices. This analytical approach may be applied in the field of anthraquinone-containing food and plants such as spp. (rhubarb), spp., spp., spp. and others. Furthermore, the described method can be suitable for the analysis of anthraquinone-based colorants and dyes, which are used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9020156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074031PMC
February 2020

Bispecific antibodies enhance tumor-infiltrating T cell cytotoxicity against autologous HER-2-expressing high-grade ovarian tumors.

J Leukoc Biol 2020 06 13;107(6):1081-1095. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Institute of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Epithelial ovarian cancer displays the highest mortality of all gynecological tumors. A relapse of the disease even after successful surgical treatment is a significant problem. Resistance against the current platinum-based chemotherapeutic standard regime requires a detailed ex vivo immune profiling of tumor-infiltrating cells and the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we phenotypically and functionally characterize tumor cells and autologous tumor-derived αβ and γδ T lymphocyte subsets. Tumor-infiltrating (TIL) and tumor-ascites lymphocytes (TAL) were ex vivo isolated out of tumor tissue and ascites, respectively, from high-grade ovarian carcinoma patients (FIGO-stage IIIa-IV). We observed an increased γδ T cell percentage in ascites compared to tumor-tissue and blood of these patients, whereas CD8 αβ T cells were increased within TAL and TIL. The number of Vδ1 and non-Vδ1/Vδ2-expressing γδ T cells was increased in the ascites and in the tumor tissue compared to the blood of the same donors. Commonly in PBL, the Vγ9 chain of the γδ T cell receptor is usually associated exclusively with the Vδ2 chain. Interestingly, we detected Vδ1 and non-Vδ1/Vδ2 T cells co-expressing Vγ9, which is so far not described for TAL and TIL. Importantly, our data demonstrated an expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 on high-grade ovarian tumors, which can serve as an efficient tumor antigen to target CD3 TIL or selectively Vγ9-expressing γδ T cells by bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) to ovarian cancer cells. Our bsAbs efficiently enhance cytotoxicity of TIL and TAL against autologous HER-2-expressing ovarian cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.5MA1119-265RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318294PMC
June 2020

SNiPER: a novel hypermethylation biomarker panel for liquid biopsy based early breast cancer detection.

Oncotarget 2019 Nov 5;10(60):6494-6508. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Molecular Oncology Group, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

Introduction: Mammography is the gold standard for early breast cancer detection, but shows important limitations. Blood-based approaches on basis of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) provide minimally invasive screening tools to characterize epigenetic alterations of tumor suppressor genes and could serve as a liquid biopsy, complementing mammography.

Methods: Potential biomarkers were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), using HumanMethylation450-BeadChip data. Promoter methylation status was evaluated quantitatively by pyrosequencing in a serum test cohort ( 103), a serum validation cohort ( 368) and a plasma cohort ( 125).

Results: , and were identified as novel biomarker candidates. was included on basis of our previous work. In the serum test cohort, a panel of and showed 63% sensitivity for DCIS and 51% sensitivity for early invasive tumor (pT1, pN0) detection at 80% specificity. The serum validation cohort revealed 50% sensitivity for DCIS detection on basis of and . Furthermore, an inverse correlation between methylation frequency and cfDNA concentration was uncovered. Therefore, markers were tested in a plasma cohort, achieving a 64% sensitivity for breast cancer detection using , and .

Conclusions: Although liquid biopsy remains challenging, a combination of , , and (SNiPER) provides a promising tool for blood-based breast cancer detection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849652PMC
November 2019

Association of Genomic Domains in and with Prostate Cancer Risk and Aggressiveness.

Cancer Res 2020 02 13;80(3):624-638. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Unité de Prévention et d'Epidémiologie Génétique, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in or () are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. We evaluated whether PSVs in were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 and 171 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 and 2,880 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 3' region of (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001-c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in . These results demonstrate that specific PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-1840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553241PMC
February 2020

The :p.Arg658* truncating variant is associated with risk of triple-negative breast cancer.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2019 1;5:38. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

25University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX USA.

Breast cancer is a common disease partially caused by genetic risk factors. Germline pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes , , , , and are associated with breast cancer risk. , which encodes for a DNA translocase, has been proposed as a breast cancer predisposition gene, with greater effects for the ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. We tested the three recurrent protein-truncating variants :p.Arg658*, p.Gln1701*, and p.Arg1931* for association with breast cancer risk in 67,112 cases, 53,766 controls, and 26,662 carriers of pathogenic variants of or . These three variants were also studied functionally by measuring survival and chromosome fragility in patient-derived immortalized fibroblasts treated with diepoxybutane or olaparib. We observed that :p.Arg658* was associated with increased risk of ER-negative disease and TNBC (OR = 2.44,  = 0.034 and OR = 3.79;  = 0.009, respectively). In a country-restricted analysis, we confirmed the associations detected for :p.Arg658* and found that also :p.Arg1931* was associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk (OR = 1.96;  = 0.006). The functional results indicated that all three variants were deleterious affecting cell survival and chromosome stability with :p.Arg658* causing more severe phenotypes. In conclusion, we confirmed that the two rare deleterious variants p.Arg658* and p.Arg1931* are risk factors for ER-negative and TNBC subtypes. Overall our data suggest that the effect of truncating variants on breast cancer risk may depend on their position in the gene. Cell sensitivity to olaparib exposure, identifies a possible therapeutic option to treat -associated tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-019-0127-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825205PMC
November 2019

Bruceadysentoside A, a new pregnane glycoside and others secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity from J. F. Mill. (simaroubaceae).

Nat Prod Res 2021 Jun 21;35(12):2037-2043. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaounde, Cameroon.

The chemical investigation of the root barks leaves and stem barks of Brucea antidysenterica J. F. Mill. (Simaroubaceae) led to the isolation of a new pregnane glycoside, named Bruceadysentoside A or 3-O-β-L-arabinopyranosyl-pregn-5-en-20-one (1) together with seventeen known compounds. Their structures were established from spectral data, mainly HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR and by comparison with literature data. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13 were tested in vitro for their effects on the viability of two different human cancer cell lines, namely prostate PC-3 adenocarcinoma cells and colorectal HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells. No substantial activities were recorded for 2, 10, 12 and 13 (up to 10 μM concentration). 1, 5 and 8 did not show strong anti-proliferative effects up to 100 μM, however, 6 exhibited a stronger anti-proliferative effect with IC50 values of ∼ 100 μM against PC-3 and ∼ 200 μM against HT-29.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1655024DOI Listing
June 2021

Investigating the effects of additional truncating variants in DNA-repair genes on breast cancer risk in BRCA1-positive women.

BMC Cancer 2019 Aug 8;19(1):787. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Institute of Medical Genetics and Applied Genomics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Inherited pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the most common causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). The risk of developing breast cancer by age 80 in women carrying a BRCA1 pathogenic variant is 72%. The lifetime risk varies between families and even within affected individuals of the same family. The cause of this variability is largely unknown, but it is hypothesized that additional genetic factors contribute to differences in age at onset (AAO). Here we investigated whether truncating and rare missense variants in genes of different DNA-repair pathways contribute to this phenomenon.

Methods: We used extreme phenotype sampling to recruit 133 BRCA1-positive patients with either early breast cancer onset, below 35 (early AAO cohort) or cancer-free by age 60 (controls). Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) was used to screen for variants in 311 genes involved in different DNA-repair pathways.

Results: Patients with an early AAO (73 women) had developed breast cancer at a median age of 27 years (interquartile range (IQR); 25.00-27.00 years). A total of 3703 variants were detected in all patients and 43 of those (1.2%) were truncating variants. The truncating variants were found in 26 women of the early AAO group (35.6%; 95%-CI 24.7 - 47.7%) compared to 16 women of controls (26.7%; 95%-CI 16.1 to 39.7%). When adjusted for environmental factors and family history, the odds ratio indicated an increased breast cancer risk for those carrying an additional truncating DNA-repair variant to BRCA1 mutation (OR: 3.1; 95%-CI 0.92 to 11.5; p-value = 0.07), although it did not reach the conventionally acceptable significance level of 0.05.

Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first time that the combined effect of truncating variants in DNA-repair genes on AAO in patients with hereditary breast cancer is investigated. Our results indicate that co-occurring truncating variants might be associated with an earlier onset of breast cancer in BRCA1-positive patients. Larger cohorts are needed to confirm these results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-5946-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686546PMC
August 2019

Exposure to UV-B Radiation Leads to Increased Deposition of Cell Wall-Associated Xerocomic Acid in Cultures of .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 09 29;85(18). Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile

Many fungi are thought to have developed morphological and physiological adaptations to cope with exposure to UV-B radiation, but in most species, such responses and their protective effects have not been explored. Here, we study the adaptive response to UV-B radiation in the widespread, saprotrophic fungus , frequently found colonizing coniferous wood in nature. We report the morphological and chemical responses of to controlled intensities of UV-B radiation, under culture conditions. Ultraviolet radiation induced a decrease in the growth rate of but did not cause gross morphological changes. Instead, we observed accumulation of pigments near the cell wall with increasing intensities of UV-B radiation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analyses revealed that xerocomic acid was the main pigment present, both before and after UV-B exposure, increasing from 7 mg/liter to 15 mg/liter after exposure. We show that xerocomic acid is a photoprotective metabolite with strong antioxidant abilities, as evidenced by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt], and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Finally, we assessed the capacity of xerocomic acid as a photoprotective agent on HEK293 cells and observed better photoprotective properties than those of β-carotene. Xerocomic acid is therefore a promising natural product for development as a UV-protective ingredient in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Our study shows the morphological and chemical responses of to controlled doses of UV-B radiation under culture conditions. We found that increased biosynthesis of xerocomic acid was the main strategy adopted by against UV-B radiation. Xerocomic acid showed strong antioxidant and photoprotective abilities, which has not previously been reported. Our results indicate that upon UV-B exposure, decreases its hyphal growth rate and uses this energy instead to increase the biosynthesis of xerocomic acid, which is allocated near the cell wall. This metabolic switch likely allows xerocomic acid to efficiently defend from UV radiation through its antioxidant and photoprotective properties. The findings further suggest that xerocomic acid is a promising candidate for development as a cosmetic ingredient to protect against UV radiation and should therefore be investigated in depth in the near future both and .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00870-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6715839PMC
September 2019

Nor-guanacastepene pigments from the Chilean mushroom Cortinarius pyromyxa.

Phytochemistry 2019 Sep 21;165:112048. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120, Halle (Saale), Germany. Electronic address:

For the first time, the pigment composition of basidiocarps from the Chilean mushroom Cortinarius pyromyxa was studied under various aspects like phylogeny, chemistry and antibiotic activity. A molecular biological study supports the monotypic position of C. pyromyxa in subgenus Myxacium, genus Cortinarius. Four undescribed diterpenoids, named pyromyxones A-D, were isolated from fruiting bodies of C. pyromyxa. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on comprehensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analysis, ESI-HRMS measurements, as well as X-ray crystallography. In addition, the absolute configurations of pyromyxones A-D were established with the aid of J, NOESY spectra and quantum chemical CD calculation. The pyromyxones A-D possess the undescribed nor-guanacastane skeleton. Tested pyromyxones A, B, and D exhibit only weak activity against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri as well as the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici and Phytophthora infestans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2019.05.021DOI Listing
September 2019

Mendelian randomisation study of height and body mass index as modifiers of ovarian cancer risk in 22,588 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Br J Cancer 2019 07 19;121(2):180-192. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Chris O'Brien Lifehouse and The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Background: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown.

Methods: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models.

Results: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0492-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738050PMC
July 2019

Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from the stem barks and leaves of Monotes kerstingii Gilg (Dipterocarpaceae).

Fitoterapia 2019 Sep 12;137:104239. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Electronic address:

In the search for bioactive natural products from the African flora, three previously undescribed compounds including one stilbene-coumarin derivative (1), one coumarin-carbinol (2) and one fatty glycoside (3) were isolated from the stem bark and leaves of Monotes kerstingii, together with sixteen known compounds (4-19). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their NMR and MS spectroscopic data and by comparison of these data with those previously reported in the literature. Compounds 1-19 were screened for anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity. None of the compounds exhibited significant anthelmintic activity. However, compounds 4, 5, 8 and 14 displayed interesting antibacterial activity against B. subtilis at a concentration of 100 μM with respective inhibition percentages of 99, 79, 71 and 100%, respectively, compared to erythromycin used as positive control. In addition, at the same concentration, compound 6 showed remarkable antifungal activity against Septoria tritici with 93.6% growth inhibition and was found to be more active than the positive controls epoconazole and terbinafine displaying 76.6 and 84.3%, respectively .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104239DOI Listing
September 2019

Biological activity and stability analyses of knipholone anthrone, a phenyl anthraquinone derivative isolated from Kniphofia foliosa Hochst.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2019 Sep 31;174:277-285. Epub 2019 May 31.

Institute of Pharmacy, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany; Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany. Electronic address:

Knipholone (1) and knipholone anthrone (2), isolated from the Ethiopian medicinal plant Kniphofia foliosa Hochst. are two phenyl anthraquinone derivatives, a compound class known for biological activity. In the present study, we describe the activity of both 1 and 2 in several biological assays including cytotoxicity against four human cell lines (Jurkat, HEK293, SH-SY5Y and HT-29), antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain, anthelmintic activity against the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, antibacterial activity against Aliivibrio fischeri and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and anti-HIV-1 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with HIV-1. In parallel, we investigated the stability of knipholone (2) in solution and in culture media. Compound 1 displays strong cytotoxicity against Jurkat, HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells with growth inhibition ranging from approximately 62-95% when added to cells at 50 μM, whereas KA (2) exhibits weak to strong activity with 26, 48 and 70% inhibition of cell growth, respectively. Both 1 and 2 possess significant antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with IC values of 1.9 and 0.7 μM, respectively. These results complement previously reported data on the cytotoxicity and antiplasmodial activity of 1 and 2. Furthermore, compound 2 showed HIV-1 replication inhibition (growth inhibition higher than 60% at tested concentrations 0.5, 5, 15 and 50 μg/ml and an EC value of 4.3 μM) associated with cytotoxicity against uninfected PBMCs. The stability study based on preincubation, HPLC and APCI-MS (atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry) analysis indicates that compound 2 is unstable in culture media and readily oxidizes to form compound 1. Therefore, the biological activity attributed to 2 might be influenced by its degradation products in media including 1 and other possible dimers. Hence, bioactivity results previously reported from this compound should be taken with caution and checked if they differ from those of its degradation products. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-HIV activity and stability analysis of compound 2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2019.05.065DOI Listing
September 2019

Large scale multifactorial likelihood quantitative analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants: An ENIGMA resource to support clinical variant classification.

Hum Mutat 2019 09;40(9):1557-1578

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6772163PMC
September 2019

Breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and noncarriers under prospective intensified surveillance.

Int J Cancer 2020 02 22;146(4):999-1009. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Würzburg University Hospital, Würzburg, Germany.

Comparably little is known about breast cancer (BC) risks in women from families tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutations despite an indicative family history, as opposed to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We determined the age-dependent risks of first and contralateral breast cancer (FBC, CBC) both in noncarriers and carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, who participated in an intensified breast imaging surveillance program. The study was conducted between January 1, 2005, and September 30, 2017, at 12 university centers of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Two cohorts were prospectively followed up for incident FBC (n = 4,380; 16,398 person-years [PY], median baseline age: 39 years) and CBC (n = 2,993; 10,090 PY, median baseline age: 42 years). Cumulative FBC risk at age 60 was 61.8% (95% CI 52.8-70.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 43.2% (95% CI 32.1-56.3%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 15.7% (95% CI 11.9-20.4%) for noncarriers. FBC risks were significantly higher than in the general population, with incidence rate ratios of 23.9 (95% CI 18.9-29.8) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 13.5 (95% CI 9.2-19.1) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 4.9 (95% CI 3.8-6.3) for BRCA1/2 noncarriers. Cumulative CBC risk 10 years after FBC was 25.1% (95% CI 19.6-31.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 6.6% (95% CI 3.4-12.5%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 3.6% (95% CI 2.2-5.7%) for noncarriers. CBC risk in noncarriers was similar to women with unilateral BC from the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm whether less intensified surveillance is justified in women from BRCA1/2 negative families with elevated risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32396DOI Listing
February 2020

Germline loss-of-function variants in the BARD1 gene are associated with early-onset familial breast cancer but not ovarian cancer.

Breast Cancer Res 2019 04 29;21(1):55. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Center for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, Center for Integrated Oncology (CIO), University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Str. 34, 50931, Cologne, Germany.

Background: The role of the BARD1 gene in breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition remains elusive, as published case-control investigations have revealed controversial results. We aimed to assess the role of deleterious BARD1 germline variants in BC/OC predisposition in a sample of 4920 BRCA1/2-negative female BC/OC index patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC).

Methods: A total of 4469 female index patients with BC, 451 index patients with OC, and 2767 geographically matched female control individuals were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging rare missense variants in BARD1. All patients met the inclusion criteria of the GC-HBOC for germline testing and reported at least one relative with BC or OC. Additional control datasets (Exome Aggregation Consortium, ExAC; Fabulous Ladies Over Seventy, FLOSSIES) were included for the calculation of odds ratios (ORs).

Results: We identified LoF variants in 23 of 4469 BC index patients (0.51%) and in 36 of 37,265 control individuals (0.10%), resulting in an OR of 5.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.17-9.04; P < 0.00001). BARD1-mutated BC index patients showed a significantly younger mean age at first diagnosis (AAD; 42.3 years, range 24-60 years) compared with the overall study sample (48.6 years, range 17-92 years; P = 0.00347). In the subgroup of BC index patients with an AAD < 40 years, an OR of 12.04 (95% CI = 5.78-25.08; P < 0.00001) was observed. An OR of 7.43 (95% CI = 4.26-12.98; P < 0.00001) was observed when stratified for an AAD < 50 years. LoF variants in BARD1 were not significantly associated with BC in the subgroup of index patients with an AAD ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 0.82-6.45; P = 0.11217). Overall, rare and predicted damaging BARD1 missense variants were significantly more prevalent in BC index patients compared with control individuals (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26-3.67; P = 0.00723). Neither LoF variants nor predicted damaging rare missense variants in BARD1 were identified in 451 familial index patients with OC.

Conclusions: Due to the significant association of germline LoF variants in BARD1 with early-onset BC, we suggest that intensified BC surveillance programs should be offered to women carrying pathogenic BARD1 gene variants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-019-1137-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6489184PMC
April 2019

Linking pre-existing biorepositories for medical research: the PopGen 2.0 Network.

J Community Genet 2019 Oct 29;10(4):523-530. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Pneumology, Leibniz Lung Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Borstel, Germany.

The significance of human biorepositories for modern medical research, particularly for comprehensive population-based genetic analyses, is constantly growing. While large and centralized institutions are usually considered best suited to meet the increasing demand for high-quality "biobanks," most medical research institutions still host rather heterogeneous and fragmented biobanking activities, undertaken by clinical departments with oftentimes rather different scientific scope. Undoubtedly, most clinicians and medical researchers would appreciate infrastructural support in terms of the storage and handling of their biosamples, but they are also likely to expect access to their samples avoiding extensive formal requirements. We report on the establishment of the PopGen 2.0 Network (P2N), an overarching alliance of initially seven biobanks from Northern Germany which adopted a joint but lean governance structure and use-and-access policy for their samples and data. In addition, the members of P2N have pursued an intense collaboration on ethical, legal and social issues and maintain a common IT infrastructure. The implementation of P2N has substantially improved the prospects of biobank-based research at the participating institutions. The network may thus serve as a role model for similar initiatives geared at linking pre-existing biorepositories for the benefit of research quality, efficiency, and transparency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12687-019-00417-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754520PMC
October 2019

RNA based individualized drug selection in breast cancer patients without patient-matched normal tissue.

Oncotarget 2018 Aug 17;9(64):32362-32372. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Avera Cancer Institute, Sioux Falls, SD, USA.

Background: While standard RNA expression tests stratify patients into risk groups, RNA-Seq can guide personalized drug selection based on expressed mutations, fusion genes, and differential expression (DE) between tumor and normal tissue. However, patient-matched normal tissue may be unavailable. Additionally, biological variability in normal tissue and technological biases may confound results. Therefore, we present normal expression reference data for two sequencing methods that are suitable for breast biopsies.

Results: We identified breast cancer related and drug related genes that are expressed uniformly across our normal samples. Large subsets of these genes are identical for formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples and fresh frozen samples. Adipocyte signatures were detected in frozen compared to formalin samples, prepared by surgeons and pathologists, respectively. Gene expression confounded by adipocytes was identified using fat tissue samples. Finally, immune repertoire statistics were obtained for healthy breast, tumor and fat tissues.

Conclusions: Our reference data can be used with patient tumor samples that are asservated and sequenced with a matching aforementioned method. Coefficients of variation are given for normal gene expression. Thus, potential drug selection can be based on confidently overexpressed genes and immune repertoire statistics.

Materials And Methods: Normal expression from formalin and frozen healthy breast tissue samples using Roche Kapa RiboErase (total RNA) (19 formalin, 9 frozen) and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access (targeted RNA-Seq, aka TruSeq RNA Exome) (11 formalin, 1 frozen), and fat tissue (6 frozen Access). Tumor DE using 10 formalin total RNA tumor samples and 1 frozen targeted RNA tumor sample.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6122351PMC
August 2018

Quantifying cell free DNA in urine: comparison between commercial kits, impact of gender and inter-individual variation.

Biotechniques 2018 05;64(5):225-230

Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, D-24105 Kiel, Germany.

DNA can enter the blood circulation from living cells by extracellular vesicles or at cell death, and pass into urine through the kidney barrier. Urine can be collected non-invasively, making it an interesting source of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for research studies and ultimately for clinical diagnostics. However, there is currently a lack of data on the quantity and variability of cfDNA in urine. Here, we benchmark two commercial urine cfDNA isolation kits with respect to the quantity of DNA, the labor time, and cost. The results show distinctive differences between each kit. Furthermore, the cfDNA amount from the same probands varied strongly from day to day and may be higher in female samples than in male samples (p = 0.003).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/btn-2018-0003DOI Listing
May 2018

ADAM17 inhibition enhances platinum efficiency in ovarian cancer.

Oncotarget 2018 Mar 23;9(22):16043-16058. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Chemotherapeutic resistance evolves in about 70 % of ovarian cancer patients and is a major cause of death in this tumor entity. Novel approaches to overcome these therapeutic limitations are therefore highly warranted. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is highly expressed in ovarian cancer and required for releasing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands like amphiregulin (AREG). This factor has recently been detected in ascites of advanced stage ovarian cancer patients. However, it is not well understood, whether and how ADAM17 might contribute to chemo resistance of ovarian cancer. In this study, we identified ADAM17 as an essential upstream regulator of AREG release under chemotherapeutic treatment in ovarian cancer cell lines and patient derived cells. In the majority of ovarian cancer cells cisplatin treatment resulted in enhanced ADAM17 activity, as shown by an increased shedding of AREG. Moreover, both mRNA and the protein content of AREG were dose-dependently increased by cisplatin exposure. Consequently, cisplatin strongly induced phosphorylation of ADAM17-downstream mediators, the EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), similarly to cisplatin, mediated AREG shedding and membrane fading of surface ADAM17. Inhibition of ADAM17 with either GW280264X or the anti-ADAM17 antibody D1 (A12) as well as silencing of ADAM17 by siRNA selectively reduced AREG release. Thus, ADAM17 inhibition sensitized cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and significantly reduced cell viability. Based on these findings, we propose that targeting of ADAM17 in parallel to chemotherapeutic treatment suppresses survival pathways and potentially diminish evolving secondary chemo resistance mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5882316PMC
March 2018
-->