Publications by authors named "Noramaliza Mohd Noor"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bone single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in cancer care in the past decade: a systematic review and meta-analysis as well as recommendations for further work.

Nucl Med Commun 2021 Jan;42(1):9-20

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals, NHS Trust, Liverpool, UK.

Skeletal whole-body scintigraphy (WBS), although widely used as a sensitive tool for detecting metastatic bone disease in oncology cases, has relatively low specificity. Indeterminate bone lesions (IBLs) detected by WBS cause a diagnostic dilemma, which hampers further management plans. In the advent of hybrid imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has been gaining popularity as a tool to improve the characterisation of IBLs detected by WBS. As yet, there has not been a systematic review to objectively evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of SPECT/CT in this area. We conducted a systematic review of relevant electronic databases up to 30 August 2020. The outcomes of interest were the reporting of SPECT/CT to identify benign and malignant IBLs and the calculation of the sensitivity and specificity of the index test, based on histopathological examination or clinical and imaging follow-up as the reference standard. After the risk of bias and eligibility assessment, 12 articles were identified and synthesised in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of SPECT/CT for diagnosing IBLs are 93.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.95] and 96.0% (95% CI 0.94-0.97), respectively. There was heterogeneity of the articles due to variable imaging protocols, duration of follow-up and scoring methods for interpreting the SPECT/CT results. The heterogeneity poses a challenge for accurate interpretation of the true diagnostic capability of SPECT/CT. In conclusion, targeted SPECT/CT improves the specificity of diagnosing bone metastases, but efforts need to be made to standardise the thresholds for SPECT/CT, methodology, as well as harmonising the reporting and interpretation criteria. We also make some recommendations for future works.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0000000000001306DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of miscentering and low-dose protocols on contrast resolution in computed tomography head examination.

Comput Biol Med 2020 08 6;123:103840. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biomedical Imaging, Universiti of Malaya Medical Centre, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Unoptimized protocols, including a miscentered position, might affect the outcome of diagnostic in CT examinations. In this study, we investigate the effects of miscentering position during CT head examination on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR).

Method: We simulate the CT head examination using a water phantom with a standard protocol (120 kVp/180 mAs) and a low dose protocol (100 kVp/142 mAs). The table height was adjusted to simulate miscentering by 5 cm from the isocenter, where the height was miscentered superiorly (MCS) at 109, 114, 119, and 124 cm, and miscentered inferiorly (MCI) at 99, 94, 89, and 84 cm. Seven circular regions of interest were used, with one drawn at the center, four at the peripheral area of the phantom, and two at the background area of the image.

Results: For the standard protocol, the mean CNR decreased uniformly as table height increased and significantly differed (p < 0.05) at +20 cm for MCS (435.70 ± 9.39) and -20 cm for MCI (438.91 ± 10.94) from the isocenter. Similarly, significant reductions (p < 0.05) were also noted for SNR for MCS (at +20 cm) and MCI (at -20 cm). For the low dose protocol, both CNR and SNR were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) at table heights of +20 and -20 cm from the isocenter.

Conclusion: Miscentering is proven to significantly affect the image quality in both low and standard dose protocols for head CT procedure. This study implies that accurate patient centering is one of the approaches that can improve CT optimization practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.103840DOI Listing
August 2020

Prospective role of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in mediating GMG-ITC to reduce cytotoxicity in HO-induced oxidative stress in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Nov 18;119:109445. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of Glucomoringin isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) have been reported in in vivo and in vitro models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its neuroprotective role via mitochondrial-dependent pathway in a noxious environment remains unknown. The main objective of the present study was to unveil the mitochondrial apoptotic genes' profile and prospectively link with neuroprotective activity of GMG-ITC through its ROS scavenging. The results showed that pre-treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with 1.25 μg/mL purified isolated GMG-ITC, significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production level, compared to HO control group, as evidenced by flow cytometry-based evaluation of ROS generation. Presence of GMG-ITC prior to development of oxidative stress condition, downregulated the expression of cyt-c, p53, Apaf-1, Bax, CASP3, CASP8 and CASP9 genes with concurrent upregulation of Bcl-2 gene in mitochondrial apoptotic signalling pathway. Protein Multiplex revealed significant decreased in cyt-c, p53, Apaf-1, Bax, CASP8 and CASP9 due to GMG-ITC pre-treatment in oxidative stress condition. The present findings speculated that pre-treatment with GMG-ITC may alleviate oxidative stress condition in neuronal cells by reducing ROS production level and protect the cells against apoptosis via neurodegenerative disease potential pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109445DOI Listing
November 2019

Neuroprotective effects of glucomoringin-isothiocyanate against HO-Induced cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells.

Neurotoxicology 2019 12 12;75:89-104. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are pathological conditions characterised by progressive damage of neuronal cells leading to eventual loss of structure and function of the cells. Due to implication of multi-systemic complexities of signalling pathways in NDDs, the causes and preventive mechanisms are not clearly delineated. The study was designed to investigate the potential signalling pathways involved in neuroprotective activities of purely isolated glucomoringin isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) against HO-induced cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. GMG-ITC was isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds, and confirmed with NMR and LC-MS based methods. Gene expression analysis of phase II detoxifying markers revealed significant increase in the expression of all the genes involved, due to GMG-ITC pre-treatment. GMG-ITC also caused significant decreased in the expression of NF-kB, BACE1, APP and increased the expressions of IkB and MAPT tau genes in the differentiated cells as confirmed by multiplex genetic system analysis. The effect was reflected on the expressed proteins in the differentiated cells, where GMG-ITC caused increased in expression level of Nrf2, SOD-1, NQO1, p52 and c-Rel of nuclear factor erythroid factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) pathways respectively. The findings revealed the potential of GMG-ITC to abrogate oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration through Nrf2 and NF-kB signalling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2019.09.008DOI Listing
December 2019

Effects of gamma irradiation on tropomyosin allergen, proximate composition and mineral elements in giant freshwater prawn ().

J Food Sci Technol 2018 May 30;55(5):1960-1965. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

5Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan Malaysia.

Effects of food irradiation on allergen and nutritional composition of giant freshwater prawn are not well documented. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on tropomyosin allergen, proximate composition, and mineral elements in . In this study, prawn was peeled, cut into small pieces, vacuum packaged and gamma irradiated at 0, 5, 7, 10 and 15 kGy with a dose rate of 0.5 kGy/h using cobalt-60 as the source, subsequently determined the level of tropomyosin, proximate composition and mineral elements respectively. The results showed that band density of tropomyosin irradiated at 10 and 15 kGy is markedly decreased. Proximate analysis revealed that moisture, protein, and carbohydrate content were significantly different as compared with non-irradiated prawn. Meanwhile, gamma irradiated at 15 kGy was observed to be significantly higher in nickel and zinc than the non-irradiated prawn. The findings provide a new information that food irradiation may affect the tropomyosin allergen, proximate composition and mineral elements of the prawn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3104-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897310PMC
May 2018

Educational Module Intervention for Radiographers to Reduce Repetition Rate of Routine Digital Chest Radiography in Makkah Region of Saudi Arabia Tertiary Hospitals: Protocol of a Quasi-Experimental Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2017 Sep 26;6(9):e185. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

Department of Epidemiology, Collage of Health Science, Al-leeth-Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Repetition of an image is a critical event in any radiology department. When the repetition rate of routine digital chest radiographs is high, radiation exposure of staff and patients is increased. In addition, repetition consumes the equipment's life span, thus affecting the annual budget of the department.

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the impact of a printed educational module on reducing the repetition rate of routine digital chest radiography among radiographers in Makkah Region tertiary hospitals.

Methods: A quasi-experimental time series with a control group will be conducted in Makkah Region tertiary hospitals for 8 months starting in the second quarter of 2017. Four hospitals out of 5 in the region will be selected; 2 of them will be selected as the control group and the other 2 as the intervention group. Stratification and a simple random sampling technique will be used to sample 56 radiographers in each group. Pre- and postintervention assessments will be conducted to determine the radiographer knowledge, motivation, and skills and repetition rate of chest radiographs. Radiographs of the chest performed by sampled radiographers in the selected hospitals will be collected for 2 weeks before and after the intervention. A piloted questionnaire will be distributed and collected by a researcher in both groups. One-way multivariate analysis of variance and 2-way repeated multivariate analysis of variance will be used to analyze the data.

Results: It is expected that the repetition rate in the intervention group will decline after implementing the intervention and the change will be statistically significant (P<.05). Furthermore, it is expected that the knowledge, motivation, and skill levels in the intervention group will increase significantly among radiographers after implementation of the intervention (P<.05). Meanwhile, knowledge, motivation, and skills in the control group will not change.

Conclusions: A quasi-experimental time series with a control will be conducted to investigate the effect of printed educational material in reducing the repetition rate of routine digital chest radiographs among radiographers in tertiary hospitals in the Makkah Region of Saudi Arabia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/resprot.8007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5635235PMC
September 2017

Naturally-Occurring Glucosinolates, Glucoraphanin and Glucoerucin, are Antagonists to Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor as Their Chemopreventive Potency.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(14):5801-5

Food Safety Research Centre (FOSREC), Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, E-mail :

As a cytosolic transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor is involved in several patho- physiological events leading to immunosuppression and cancer; hence antagonists of the Ah receptor may possess chemoprevention properties. It is known to modulate carcinogen-metabolising enzymes, for instance the CYP1 family of cytochromes P450 and quinone reductase, both important in the biotransformation of many chemical carcinogens via regulating phase I and phase II enzyme systems. Utilising chemically-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay it was revealed that intact glucosinolates, glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, isolated from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala sabellica and Eruca sativa ripe seeds, respectively, are such antagonists. Both glucosinolates were poor ligands for the Ah receptor; however, they effectively antagonised activation of the receptor by the avid ligand benzo[a]pyrene. Indeed, intact glucosinolate glucoraphanin was a more potent antagonist to the receptor than glucoerucin. It can be concluded that both glucosinolates effectively act as antagonists for the Ah receptor, and this may contribute to their established chemoprevention potency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.14.5801DOI Listing
June 2016

Induction of epoxide hydrolase, glucuronosyl transferase, and sulfotransferase by phenethyl isothiocyanate in male Wistar albino rats.

Biomed Res Int 2014 27;2014:391528. Epub 2014 Jan 27.

School of Agro-Industry, Mae Fah Luang University, 333 Moo1 Thasud Muang, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand.

Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), glucuronosyl transferase (UDP), and epoxide hydrolase (EH) following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06 µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake), 0.6 µmol/g (medium dose), and 6.0 µmol/g (high dose), and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/391528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3921933PMC
December 2014

Sulforaphane is superior to glucoraphanin in modulating carcinogen-metabolising enzymes in Hep G2 cells.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013 ;14(7):4235-8

Food Safety Research Centre (FOSREC), Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

Glucoraphanin is the main glucosinolate found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae). The objective of the study was to evaluate whether glucoraphanin and its breakdown product sulforaphane, are potent modulators of various phase I and phase II enzymes involved in carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems in vitro. The glucosinolate glucoraphanin was isolated from cruciferous vegetables and exposed to human hepatoma cell line HepG2 at various concentrations (0-25 μM) for 24 hours. Glucoraphanin at higher concentration (25 μM) decreased dealkylation of methoxyresorufin, a marker for cytochrome P4501 activity; supplementation of the incubation medium with myrosinase (0.018 U), the enzyme that converts glucosinolate to its corresponding isothiocyanate, showed minimal induction in this enzyme activity at concentration 10 μM. Quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were unaffected by this glucosinolate; however, supplementation of the incubation medium with myrosinase elevated quinone reductase activity. It may be inferred that the breakdown product of glucoraphanin, in this case sulforaphane, is superior than its precursor in modulating carcinogen- metabolising enzyme systems in vitro and this is likely to impact on the chemopreventive activity linked to cruciferous vegetable consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.7.4235DOI Listing
March 2014

Cruciferous vegetables: dietary phytochemicals for cancer prevention.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013 ;14(3):1565-70

Food Safety Research Centre (FOSREC), Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur- containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.3.1565DOI Listing
January 2014

Review of doped silica glass optical fibre: their TL properties and potential applications in radiation therapy dosimetry.

Appl Radiat Isot 2012 Dec 17;71 Suppl:2-11. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, United Kingdom.

Review is made of dosimetric studies of Ge-doped SiO(2) telecommunication fibre as a 1-D thermoluminescence (TL) system for therapeutic applications. To-date, the response of these fibres has been investigated for UV sources, superficial X-ray beam therapy facilities, a synchrotron microbeam facility, electron linear accelerators, protons, neutrons and alpha particles, covering the energy range from a few eV to several MeV. Dosimetric characteristics include, reproducibility, fading, dose response, reciprocity between TL yield and dose-rate and energy dependence. The fibres produce a flat response to fixed photon and electron doses to within better than 3% of the mean TL distribution. Irradiated Ge-doped SiO(2) optical fibres show limited signal fading, with an average loss of TL signal of ~0.4% per day. In terms of dose response, Ge-doped SiO(2) optical fibres have been shown to provide linearity to x and electron doses, from a fraction of 1 Gy up to 2 kGy. The dosimeters have also been used in measuring photoelectron generation from iodinated contrast media; TL yields being some 60% greater in the presence of iodine than in its absence. The review is accompanied by previously unpublished data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2012.02.001DOI Listing
December 2012
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