Publications by authors named "Nora Schopp"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Resolving Atomic-Scale Interactions in Non-Fullerene Acceptor Organic Solar Cells with Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Crystallographic Modelling, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

Adv Mater 2021 Nov 24:e2105943. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

University of Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille Institut, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, Lille, F-59000, France.

Fused-ring core non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs), designated "Y-series", have enabled high-performance organic solar cells (OSCs) achieving over 18% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Since the introduction of these NFAs, much effort has been expended to understand the reasons for their exceptional performance. While several studies have identified key optoelectronic properties that govern high PCEs, little is known about the molecular level origins of large variations in performance, spanning from 5 to 18% PCE, e.g., in the case of PM6:Y6 OSCs. Here, we introduce a combined solid-state NMR, crystallography, and molecular modelling approach to elucidate the atomic-scale interactions in Y6 crystals, thin films, and PM6:Y6 bulk heterojunction (BHJ) blends. We show the Y6 morphologies in BHJ blends are not governed by the morphology in neat films or single crystals. Notably, PM6:Y6 blends processed from different solvents self-assemble into different structures and morphologies, whereby the relative orientations of the sidechains and end groups of the Y6 molecules to their fused-ring cores play a crucial role in determining the resulting morphology and overall performance of the solar cells. The molecular-level understanding of BHJs enabled by this approach will guide the engineering of next-generation NFAs for stable and efficient OSCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202105943DOI Listing
November 2021

Optical Expediency of Back Electrode Materials for Organic Near-Infrared Photodiodes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 3;13(23):27217-27226. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Physics, School of Sciences and Humanities, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan City 010000, Republic of Kazakhstan.

Organic semiconductor devices, including organic photodetectors (OPDs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs), have undergone vast improvements, thanks to the development of non-fullerene acceptors. The absorption range of such NFA-based systems is typically shifted toward the near-infrared (near-IR) region compared to early-generation fullerene-based systems, rendering organic semiconductor devices suitable for near-IR sensing applications. While most efforts are concentrated on the photoactive materials, less attention is paid to the impact of the back electrodes on the device performance. Therefore, this work focuses on the optical expediency of gold (Au), silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), and graphite as back electrode materials in organic optoelectronics. This work shows that the "one size fits all" methodology is not a valid approach for choosing the back electrode material. Instead, considering the active layer absorption, the active layer thickness, and the intended application is necessary. A traditional polymer/fullerene-based system, poly(3-hexylthiophene) with [6,6]-phenyl C butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM), and a state-of-the-art narrow-band gap non-fullerene-based system, poly[4,8bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-; 4,5-']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethy-lhexyl)3-fluorothieno[3,4-]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-(2-6-diyl)] and 2,2'-((2Z,2'Z)-((5,5'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)4-cyclopenta[1,2-:5,4-']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(4-((2ethylhexyl)oxy)thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(methanylylidene)) bis(5,6-difluoro3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1-indene-2,1-diylidene))dimalononitrile (PCE10:COTIC-4F), are investigated by combining optical transfer matrix modeling simulations with experimentally determined recombination and extraction losses. We find that the narrow-band gap system shows performance gains when employing Au as the back electrode. Furthermore, we show that these performance gains are dependent on active layer thickness, yielding the most significance for thin active layers (<100 nm). Such thin, ultra-narrow-band gap devices are the focus of near-IR sensing applications, highlighting the importance of methodically choosing the back electrode. Lastly, the impact of the back electrode on the OPV device performance is outlined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04036DOI Listing
June 2021

Understanding the High Performance of over 15% Efficiency in Single-Junction Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

Adv Mater 2019 Nov 9;31(48):e1903868. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Center for Polymers and Organic Solids, University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB), Santa Barbara, CA, 93106, USA.

The highly efficient single-junction bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) PM6:Y6 system can achieve high open-circuit voltages (V ) while maintaining exceptional fill-factor (FF) and short-circuit current (J ) values. With a low energetic offset, the blend system is found to exhibit radiative and non-radiative recombination losses that are among the lower reported values in the literature. Recombination and extraction dynamic studies reveal that the device shows moderate non-geminate recombination coupled with exceptional extraction throughout the relevant operating conditions. Several surface and bulk characterization techniques are employed to understand the phase separation, long-range ordering, as well as donor:acceptor (D:A) inter- and intramolecular interactions at an atomic-level resolution. This is achieved using photo-conductive atomic force microscopy, grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, and solid-state F magic-angle-spinning NMR spectroscopy. The synergy of multifaceted characterization and device physics is used to uncover key insights, for the first time, on the structure-property relationships of this high-performing BHJ blend. Detailed information about atomically resolved D:A interactions and packing reveals that the high performance of over 15% efficiency in this blend can be correlated to a beneficial morphology that allows high J and FF to be retained despite the low energetic offset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201903868DOI Listing
November 2019

A Comprehensive Study of Copper Guanidine Quinoline Complexes: Predicting the Activity of Catalysts in ATRP with DFT.

Chemistry 2016 Sep 9;22(38):13550-62. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Institut für Anorganische Chemie, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Copper complexes of the hybrid guanidine ligands 1,3-dimethyl-N-(quinolin-8-yl)-imidazolidin-2-imine (DMEGqu) and 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-2-(quinolin-8-yl)-guanidine (TMGqu) have been studied comprehensively with regard to their structural and electrochemical properties and their activity in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A simple analysis of the molecular structures of the complexes gives no indication about their activity in ATRP; however, with the help of DFT and NBO analysis the influence of particular coordinating donors on the electrochemical properties could be fully elucidated. With an adequate DFT methodology and newly applied theoretical isodesmic reactions it was possible to predict the relative position of the redox potentials of copper complexes containing DMEGqu and TMGqu ligands. In addition, predictions could be made as to whether the complexes of DMEGqu or TMGqu are more active in ATRP. Four new Cu(I) complexes were tested in standard ATRP reactions and kinetically investigated both in bulk and in solution. It could be proven that complexes featuring DMEGqu possess a lower redox potential and are more active in ATRP, although the tetramethylguanidine moiety represents the stronger donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201602223DOI Listing
September 2016
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