Publications by authors named "Nor Azian Mohd Zaki"

6 Publications

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Factors Associated with High Sodium Intake Assessed from 24-hour Urinary Excretion and the Potential Effect of Energy Intake.

J Nutr Metab 2019 2;2019:6781597. Epub 2019 May 2.

Centre for Nutrition Epidemiology Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Dietary consumption and other environmental factors are known factors associated with sodium intake. However, little is known about the influence of energy intake on this relationship. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high sodium intake assessed from urine sodium excretion and the influence of energy intake. A nationwide, cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2016 among Malaysian health staff (MySalt 2015). A total of 1027 participants from 1568 targeted participants aged 18 years and older that were randomly selected were included in this study. Sodium intake was determined by measuring sodium excretion in the 24 hr urine test. Dietary, sociodemography, and anthropometry variables as associated risk factors were assessed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between high sodium intake (≥2000 mg/day urinary sodium) and potential risk factors. The prevalence of high sodium intake in this study was 70.1% (=733). High sodium intake was associated with male (OR 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41, 2.64), Bumiputera Sarawak ethnicity (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09, 0.62), and energy-adjusted sodium intake (mg/d) (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.39). Our results suggested that sex, ethnicity, and energy-adjusted sodium consumption were strong risk factors associated with high sodium intake independent from energy and other potential confounding factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6781597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6525945PMC
May 2019

Changes in body pain among overweight and obese housewives living in Klang Valley, Malaysia: findings from the MyBFF@home study.

BMC Womens Health 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):101. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Kuala Lumpur General Hospital, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Obesity leads to the increase of pain at different parts of the body and it is a potential marker for complications of chronic diseases. This paper aims to assess changes in the body pain among overweight and obese housewives who participated in the My Body is Fit and Fabulous at home (MyBFF@home) study.

Methods: Housewives aged 18 to 59 years old from the MyBFF@home study were selected and pain was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire. VAS measured the pain intensity at different parts of the body (score of 0-10). Data were collected at base line, 3 months and 6 months among the housewives in both the control and intervention group. Pain scores and other variables (age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference) were analysed using SPSS version 22.

Results: A total of 328 housewives completed the VAS questionnaires at baseline, while 185 (56.4%) of housewives completed the VAS at 3 months and 6 months. A decreasing trend of mean pain score in both groups after 6 months was observed. However, the intervention group showed a consistent decreasing trend of pain score mainly for back pain. In the control group, there was a slight increment of score in back pain from baseline towards the 6 months period. Older housewives in both groups (aged 50 years and above) had a higher mean score of leg pain (2.86, SD: 2.82) compared to the other age group. Higher BMI was significantly associated with pain score in both groups.

Conclusion: There were some changes in the level of body pain among the housewives before and after the intervention. Older obese women had a higher pain score compared to younger obese women. Pain was associated with BMI and change in BMI appears to be beneficial in reducing body pain among overweight and obese individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0597-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6069687PMC
July 2018

Impact of community lifestyle intervention on anthropometric parameters and body composition among overweight and obese women: findings from the MyBFF@home study.

BMC Womens Health 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):110. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian women remained high over the past three decades. Collaboration with existing community at-risk may be feasible for wide-scale prevention of overweight and obesity in the country. The aims of this study were to examine the impact of community-based lifestyle intervention among overweight and obese women on their anthropometric and body composition changes as compared to the usual care group.

Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in low-cost flats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 255 overweight and obesity individuals aged between 18 to 59 years old were assigned to either the lifestyle intervention group (n = 169) or the usual care group (n = 146) over a period of 6 months. Individuals in the intervention group received 6 individual lifestyle counselling comprised of physical activity, diet counselling and self-monitoring components aimed to achieve at least 5% weight loss while individuals in the usual care group obtained six sessions of health care seminars from health care providers. These individuals were then followed-up for another 6 months without any intervention as part of maintenance period.

Results: An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 6-month of intervention (β, 95% CI) revealed greater changes in weight among intervention individuals' (- 1.09 kg vs. -0.99; p < 0.018) as compared to the control group. These changes were not sustained during the maintenance phase (between 6 and 12 months). Overall significant improvement at 12th month was found for visceral fat (- 0.78 vs. -0.64; p-value = 0.017), although no significant changes between groups were detected either during intervention or maintenance phase (p > 0.05). Individuals in the intervention group showed a significant increase for skeletal muscle mass (0.13 kg) than those individuals in the control group (- 0.37 kg), p = 0.033, throughout the study period.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence that an overweight and obesity prevention program can be implemented in a community setting, with some reduction of several anthropometric and body composition parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0595-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6069685PMC
July 2018

Prediction of body fat loss in relation to change in nutrient intake among housewives participating in the MyBFF@home study.

BMC Womens Health 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):102. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Centre for Nutrition Epidemiology Research, Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Jalan Bangsar, 50590, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Diet compositions are likely to be one of the influential factors for body fat deposition. The aim of this paper was to determine the nutrient changes and its association to body fat loss among the overweight and obese housewives in the MyBFF@home study.

Methods: Data of participants in the MyBFF@home study (intervention and control groups) were analysed. Participants in the intervention group received personalised dietary counselling consisted of reduced calorie diet 1200-1500 kcal/day, while the control group was assigned to receive women's health seminars. The dietary assessment was done during the intervention phase at baseline, 1 month (m), 2 m, 3 m and 6 m using a 3-day food diary. Body fat was measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyser (In-body 720) at baseline and at the end of the intervention phase. The mean differences of nutrient intake and body compositions during the intervention phase were measured with paired t-test. The changes in body fat and nutrients intake were calculated by subtracting baseline measurements from those taken at 6 months. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine the extent to which the changes in each gram of nutrients per 1000 kcal were predictive of changes in body fat mass.

Results: There were significant reductions in energy, all macronutrients, dietary fibre, calcium and iron intake in both study groups after the intervention phase (p <  0.05). In the intervention group, body fat loss increased with the reduction of each gram of carbohydrate, protein and fat per 1000 kcal, (p <  0.05), and decreased with the reduction of each gram of calcium and fibre intake per 1000 kcal (p <  0.05). In the control group, body fat loss increased with the reduction of each gram fat per 1000 kcal (p <  0.05) and decreased with the reduction of each gram iron per 1000 kcal.

Conclusion: Changes in the intake of various nutrients have different effects on body fat loss between the intervention and control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0594-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6069758PMC
July 2018

Smoking among Secondary School Students in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia--Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(11):4563-70

Institute of Public Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia E-mail :

Background: Smoking is a learnt behavior during adolescence and understanding the factor/s associated with smoking will assist in identifying suitable measures in combating the rising prevalence of smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to identify the factor/s associated with smoking among form four students in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Multistage sampling was used to select a representative sample of students in 2008 and data were collected using a self-administered validated questionnaire. This study revealed that the overall smoking prevalence was 19.0% with a significantly higher proportion of male smokers (35.8%) as compared to females (3.15%). Adolescents who were male (aOR 6.6, 95%CI 2.61-16.4), those who had peer/s who smoked (aOR 4.03, 95% CI 1.31-12.4), and those who studied in rural areas and Felda Settlements ( aOR 4.59, 95 CI 1.11-18.0; aOR 9.42, 95%CI 3.91-29.1) were more likely to smoke in the past one week. On the other hand, adolescents with better knowledge on the hazards of smoking and negative attitudes towards smoking were less likely to smoke (aOR 0.51, 95%CI 0.37-0.72; aOR 0.67, 95%CI 0.46-0.99). Future promotional and interventional programmes on smoking should be considered and the above identified risk factors integrated to reduce smoking prevalence among students of school-going ages in Kota Tinggi. Johor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.11.4563DOI Listing
March 2016

Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2014 Sep 28;26(5 Suppl):36S-43S. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539514543681DOI Listing
September 2014