Publications by authors named "Nor Asma Ab Razak"

5 Publications

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Induction of apoptosis by Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. bulb extracted under optimised extraction condition on human retinoblastoma cancer cells (WERI-Rb-1).

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Feb 21;284:114770. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Natural Medicines and Product Research Laboratory (NaturMeds), Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The bulb of Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. is an indigenous medicinal plant traditionally used among Dayak people for the management of diabetes, breast cancer, hypertension, stroke, and fertility problems in women. The bulb has been reported with a potent cytotoxic potential but with limited underlying mechanisms.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic properties of E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extracted under optimised extraction condition on retinoblastoma cancer cells (WERI-Rb-1) through in vitro cell culture bioassays. The optimised extraction condition has been determined in the previous reports.

Materials And Methods: Cytotoxic assay was analysed through MTT assay. Comparison between non-optimised and optimised extraction condition from E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract was evaluated. Morphological assessment of apoptotic cells was conducted through acridine orange propidium iodide (AOPI) staining using fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis assay was carried out through Annexin V-FITC and cell cycle analysis through PI staining. The effect of varying concentrations (IC, IC, IC) of the optimised E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract was observed. The mRNA expression was also conducted to confirm the underlying mechanism.

Results: The optimised E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract markedly suppressed the proliferation of retinoblastoma cancer cells significantly with an IC value of 15.7 μg/mL as compared to non-optimised extract (p < 0.01). Fluorescence microscopy revealed that retinoblastoma cancer cells manifested early features of apoptosis-like membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies in a dose-dependent manner. The number of apoptotic cells were greatly observed in early and late apoptosis through Annexin V-FITC and the extract also induced cell arrestment as compared to the untreated group. The apoptosis was confirmed with the upregulation of Bax, Bad, p53, Caspase 3, Caspase 8, and Caspase 9 genes meanwhile, Bcl-2, BcL-xL, Nrf-2, and HO-1 genes were downregulated.

Conclusion: The optimised E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract induced a significant cell death and cell cycle arrestment on retinoblastoma cancer cells. It could be suggested that the induction of apoptosis in retinoblastoma cancer cells may be due to the synergistic effect of the bioactive compounds extracted under optimised extraction condition. Our findings indicated that E. bulbosa bulb could be promising chemotherapeutic potential to treat retinoblastoma cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114770DOI Listing
February 2022

Characterization and Extraction Influence Protein Profiling of Edible Bird's Nest.

Foods 2021 Sep 23;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Natural Medicine and Products Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

The edible bird nest (EBN) from has been consumed as a Chinese traditional food for health and medicinal purposes due to its elevated nutritional value. The present study focused on the influence of characterization and extraction methods on protein profiling, which could be a guideline for grading the EBN. The proposed extraction method is similar to the common food preparation methods of consumers and thus can accurately establish the bioactive protein available upon human consumption. The characterization includes physicochemical analysis (physical, morphology, elemental composition, and microbial content) and chemical analysis (crude protein and amino acid). The morphology of half-cup EBN was found to be uniformly shaped and rich in calcium as compared to rough surface of stripe-shaped EBN, and there was no significant microbial growth in both types of EBN. The crude protein and amino acid content in half-cup EBN were significantly higher than stripe-shaped EBN. The full stew (FS) and stew (SE) extraction methods produced a maximal yield of soluble protein. Sialic acid content in SE extract (8.47%, ) and FS extract (7.91%, ) were recorded. About seven parent proteins (39.15 to 181.68 kDa) were identified by LC-MS/MS Q-TOF, namely 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, lysyl oxidase-3, Mucin-5AC-like, acidic mammalian chitinase-like, 45 kDa calcium-binding protein, nucleobindin-2, and ovoinhibitor-like. In conclusion, the characteristics and extraction methods influence the availability of bioactive protein and peptides, demonstrating the potential usage of EBN in improving its biological activities and nutritional properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10102248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8535018PMC
September 2021

Synthesis and Characterization of Gefitinib and Paclitaxel Mono and Dual Drug-Loaded Blood Cockle Shells ()-Derived Aragonite CaCO Nanoparticles.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Aug 2;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Natural Medicines and Products Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Calcium carbonate has slowly paved its way into the field of nanomaterial research due to its inherent properties: biocompatibility, pH-sensitivity, and slow biodegradability. In our efforts to synthesize calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CSCaCONP) from blood cockle shells (), we developed a simple method to synthesize CSCaCONP, and loaded them with gefitinib (GEF) and paclitaxel (PTXL) to produce mono drug-loaded GEF-CSCaCONP, PTXL-CSCaCONP, and dual drug-loaded GEF-PTXL-CSCaCONP without usage of toxic chemicals. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results reveal that the drugs are bound to CSCaCONP. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal that the CSCaCONP, GEF-CSCaCONP, PTXL-CSCaCONP, and GEF-PTXL-CSCaCONP are almost spherical nanoparticles, with a diameter of 63.9 ± 22.3, 83.9 ± 28.2, 78.2 ± 26.4, and 87.2 ± 26.7 (nm), respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and N adsorption-desorption experiments revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles are negatively charged and mesoporous, with surface areas ranging from ~8 to 10 (m/g). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles are aragonite. The CSCaCONP show excellent alkalinization property in plasma simulating conditions and greater solubility in a moderately acidic pH medium. The release of drugs from the nanoparticles showed zero order kinetics with a slow and sustained release. Therefore, the physico-chemical characteristics and in vitro findings suggest that the drug loaded CSCaCONP represent a promising drug delivery system to deliver GEF and PTXL against breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11081988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398682PMC
August 2021

The Authentication and Grading of Edible Bird's Nest by Metabolite, Nutritional, and Mineral Profiling.

Foods 2021 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Natural Medicine and Products Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

Edible bird's nest (EBN) produced by has a high demand for nutritional and medicinal application throughout the world. The present study was to evaluate the authentication of a man-made house EBN, which are half cup and stripe-shaped by FTIR. Next, both samples were compared according to their metabolite, nutritional, and mineral composition. The results indicated that the FTIR spectra of both EBN samples were identical and similar to the reference, suggesting the authenticity of the EBN used. The metabolites that contribute to the possible medicinal properties of EBN were found by using GC-MS. The results of the proximate analysis, followed by the standard AOAC method, inferred that both EBN shapes to be rich in crude protein and carbohydrate contents. However, the proximate composition between the half cup and stripe-shaped EBN showed significant differences. Major mineral elements detected were calcium and sodium, and magnesium contents were significantly different between both EBN. Additionally, the half cup and stripe-shaped EBN had a low level of heavy metal content than the maximum regulatory limit as set by the Malaysian Food Act 1983. This study concludes that the nutritional composition varied between the samples and thus suggests that nutrient content should be considered as criteria for the grading requirement of commercialized EBN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303490PMC
July 2021

(Mill.) Urb. Bulb: Review of the Pharmacological Activities and Its Prospects for Application.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 23;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Natural Medicine and Product Research Laboratory (NaturMeds), Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Natural product is an excellent candidate for alternative medicine for disease management. The bulb of is one of the notable Iridaceae family with a variety therapeutic potential that is widely cultivated in Southeast Asia. The bulb has been used traditionally among the Dayak community as a folk medicine to treat several diseases like diabetes, breast cancer, nasal congestion, and fertility problems. The bulb is exceptionally rich in phytochemicals like phenolic and flavonoid derivatives, naphthalene, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The electronic database was searched using various keywords, i.e., , , , , and others due to the interchangeably used scientific names of different countries. Scientific investigations revealed that various pharmacological activities were recorded from the bulb of including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungi, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, dermatological problems, anti-oxidant, and anti-fertility. The potential application of the bulb in the food industry and in animal nutrition was also discussed to demonstrate its great versatility. This is a compact study and is the first study to review the extensive pharmacological activities of the bulb and its potential applications. The development of innovative food and pharma products from the bulb of is of great interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268349PMC
June 2021
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