Publications by authors named "Noordin Mohamed Mustapha"

31 Publications

Prophylactic effect of edible bird's nest on acetaminophen-induced liver injury response in mice model.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2022 Jan;35(1):113-121

Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Edible bird's nest (EBN) is one of the natural products believed to pose health-enhancing properties. To provide a better insight into the protective role of EBN from a toxicological perspective, acetaminophen (APAP) as a common hepatotoxicant is chosen. This study focuses on the regenerative response of prophylaxis EBN extract in APAP-induced liver injury (AILI) of mice model. Eighty (80) ICR mice were assigned to groups of control, APAP (500 mg/kg), silymarin (200 mg/kg), and prophylactic EBN (60, 120 and 250mg/kg). The EBN and silymarin were orally administered daily for 7 days followed by an APAP intraperitoneal induction. Animals were sacrificed at 5, 10 and 24 hours post-APAP dosing (hpd). Liver samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining. Significant differences in histological changes between APAP and prophylactic EBN groups were observed at 10 hpd with complete liver recovery for all groups at 24 hpd except for EBN 250 that continuously showed injuries. Hepatocyte proliferation was initiated at 5 hpd in EBN 60 and 120, while at 24 hpd, EBN 120 and 250 expressed higher PCNA-stained hepatocytes. The hepatoprotective role of EBN was shown earlier in EBN 60 and 120, while cellular proliferation delay in EBN 250. In conclusion, EBN has the potential as a prophylactic liver supplement to accelerate hepatic regeneration in the AILI model.
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January 2022

hydorethanolic leaf extract induced acute and sub-acute hepato-nephrotoxicity in female ICR-mice.

Sci Prog 2021 10;104(4):368504211004272

Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Lam belongs to the family Moringaceae. It is an important multipurpose tree that is largely distributed globally and has been used almost in every aspect of traditional medicine for the treatment of various illnesses including cancers, diabetes mellitus, asthma, arthritis, etc. This study investigated the effects of oral acute and sub-acute administration of hydroethanolic leaf extract (MOHE) in ICR-mice. Its major phenolic compounds were also determined. Ten (10) female, 8-week old mice were grouped into control and treatment groups for acute toxicity study. A dose of 2000 mg/kg MOHE was given once to the treatment group via oral gavage. However, for the sub-acute toxicity study, 25 mice were grouped into groups A (control), B (125 mg/kg), C (250 mg/kg), D (500 mg/kg) and E (1000 mg/kg). MOHE was given via oral gavage to groups B, C, D and E daily for 28 days. Group A received only distilled water. The mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiments and samples were collected for evaluation. The results of the chemical profiling of MOHE revealed the presence of glucomoringin, niaziminine, quercetin and kaempferol as the major compounds. The treated mice in the acute toxicity study were slightly anaemic and showed evidence of stress leukogram. Moreover, a slight increase in creatinine, significant increases in AST and CK, hepatic degeneration and necrosis, none-obstructive sinusoidal dilatation, renal tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and renal interstitial oedema were observed. It is concluded that the LD of MOHE is higher than 2000 mg/kg. However, oral administration of MOHE causes acute mild anaemia and moderate hepato-nephrotoxicity in ICR-mice. Its major phenolic compounds are glucomoringin, niaziminine, quercetin and kaempferol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211004272DOI Listing
October 2021

Gallic acid and myricetin-rich Labisia pumila extract mitigated multiple diabetic eye disorders in rats.

J Food Biochem 2021 11 7;45(11):e13948. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Serdang, Malaysia.

Diabetes affected about a quarter of a billion people globally, and one out of four diabetics has eye or vision problems. This study investigated whether gallic acid and myricetin-rich Labisia pumila extract (LP) consumption would help prevent diabetic eye disorders and some probable biochemistry involved relating to inflammation, vascular leakage, and oxidative tension. Male rats were divided into four groups (n = 6), namely healthy control, diabetic non-treated control, and hyperglycemic rats treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg LP. Intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes. Rats were fed in the morning and evening. Diabetic retinopathy was graded in rats using a dilated retinal digital ophthalmoscopy. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks and the retina, optic nerve, cornea, lens, sclera, ciliary bodies, iris, and conjunctiva were examined histologically. The diabetic rats consuming LP for 10 weeks showed dose-dependent, histopathologically-reduced eye abnormalities (keratopathy, cataract, sclera, conjunctiva, ciliary bodies, iris, limbus, corneal edema, epithelial barrier inefficiency, shallow punctate keratitis, lower basal layer cell density, retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal changes). The LP significantly suppressed inflammation [increased serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)], vascular leakage [claudin-1], abnormal vascularization [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)], oxidative tension [malondialdehyde/reduced glutathione ratio], and hyperglycemia [fasting blood glucose] of the diabetic rats. The LP consumption was significantly protective against diabetic eye disorders and optic nerve dysfunction which were related to inflammation, vascular leakage, abnormal vascularization, and oxidative tension, which most likely influenced eye hemorrhage and collagen cross-linkage. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The study shows that gallic acid and myricetin-rich Labisia pumila (LP) leaf consumption may be used as a complementary therapy for managing diabetes (fasting blood glucose) and preventing diabetic eye disorders (keratopathy, cataract, sclera, conjunctiva, ciliary bodies, iris, limbus, corneal edema, epithelial barrier inefficiency, shallow punctate keratitis, lower basal layer cell density, retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal abnormalities). The LP consumptions reduced the serum biomarkers for inflammation (serum tumor necrosis factor-α TNF-α; prostaglandin-E2), vascular leakage/abnormalities (claudin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF), and oxidative tension (malondialdehyde/reduced glutathione MDA/GSH ratio). The LP was eye-protective probably by normalizing fasting blood glucose, reducing inflammation, oxidative tension, vascular leakage, and irregular vascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13948DOI Listing
November 2021

Physiological and electroencephalographic changes in goats subjected to transportation, lairage, and slaughter.

Anim Sci J 2021 Dec;92(1):e13610

Department of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

This preliminary trial investigated the effect of transportation and lairage periods on physiological parameters of goats subjected to slaughter. Nine male Boer cross goats aged 8-12 months were transported for 6 h and kept at lairage for 3, 6, or 16 h (n = 3). Blood samples were collected at pre- (pre-T) and post-transportation (post-T), and post-slaughter (post-S) for determination of hematological parameters, serum enzyme, protein, and cortisol concentrations. Electroencephalogram readings were taken at pre-T, post-T, pre-slaughter (pre-S), and post-S to determine the median frequency (F ) and total power (Ptot) values. At post-T, there were manifestations of stress leukogram; increase in hematocrit, total protein, and muscle enzyme concentrations; and decrease in Ptot (p < 0.05). The high pre-T cortisol concentration suggests that the goats were already under stress before transportation. Stress leukogram became less evident after lairage, indicating that the goats had recovered from the stress of transportation. Although the Ptot increased at post-S especially following 3 h of lairage, F values at post-S did not differ from pre-L, suggesting that the pre-slaughter stress may have affected the pain threshold. It is suggested that after 6 h of transportation, goats should ideally be placed in lairage for a minimum period of 3 h before slaughter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13610DOI Listing
December 2021

Impact of natural salt lick on the home range of Panthera tigris at the Royal Belum Rainforest, Malaysia.

Sci Rep 2021 05 19;11(1):10596. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Natural salt lick (sira) is a strategic localisation for ecological wildlife assemblage to exhibit geophagy which may act as a population dynamic buffer of prey and predators. Undoubtedly, many agree that geophagy at natural licks is linked to nutritional ecology, health and assembly places facilitating social interaction of its users. Overall, natural salt licks not only save energy of obtaining nutrient leading to health maintenance but also forms the basis of population persistence. The Royal Belum Rainforest, Malaysia (Royal Belum) is a typical tropical rainforest in Malaysia rich in wildlife which are mainly concentrated around the natural salt lick. Since this is one of the most stable fauna ecology forest in Malaysia, it is timely to assess its impact on the Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris) home range dynamics. The three-potential home ranges of the Malayan tiger in this rainforest were selected based on animal trails or foot prints surrounding the salt lick viz (e.g. Sira Kuak and Sira Batu; Sira Rambai and Sira Buluh and Sira Papan) as well as previous sightings of a Malayan tiger in the area, whose movement is dependent on the density and distribution of prey. Camera traps were placed at potential animal trails surrounding the salt lick to capture any encountered wildlife species within the area of the camera placements. Results showed that all home ranges of Malayan tiger were of no significance for large bodied prey availability such as sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), and smaller prey such as muntjacs (Muntiacus muntjac) and wild boar (Sus scrofa). Interestingly, all home range harbour the Malayan tiger as the only sole predator. The non-significance of prey availability at each home range is attributed to the decline of the Malayan tiger in the rainforest since tigers are dependant on the movement of its preferred prey surrounding natural salt licks. Thus, the information from this study offers fundamental knowledge on the importance of prey-predator interaction at salt lick which will help in designing strategy in rewilding or rehabilitation programs of the Malayan tiger at the Royal Belum Rainforest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89980-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134436PMC
May 2021

Limonin modulated immune and inflammatory responses to suppress colorectal adenocarcinoma in mice model.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 09 19;394(9):1907-1915. Epub 2021 May 19.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Inflammation and compromised immune responses often increase colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The immune-modulating effects of limonin on carcinogen/inflammation-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) were studied in mice. Male Balb/c mice were randomly assorted into three groups (n = 6): healthy control, non-treated CRC-induced (azoxymethane/dextran-sulfate-sodium AOM/DSS) control, and CRC-induced + 50 mg limonin/kg body weight. The CRC developments were monitored via macroscopic, histopathological, ELISA, and mRNA expression analyses. Limonin downregulated inflammation (TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α), enhanced the adaptive immune responses (CD8, CD4, and CD19), and upregulated antioxidant defense (Nrf2, SOD2) mRNA expressions. Limonin reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid peroxidation biomarker), prostaglandin E2, and histopathology inflammation scores, while increasing reduced glutathione (GSH) in CRC-induced mice. Limonin significantly (p < 0.05) increased T cells (CD4 and CD8) and B cells (CD19) in spleen tissues. The CD335 (natural killer cells) were increased in the CRC-induced mice and limonin treatment restored them to normal levels suggesting reinstatement to normal colon conditions. Limonin apparently mitigated CRC development, by ameliorating adaptive immune responses (CD8, CD4, and CD19), reducing inflammation (serum prostaglandin E2; TNF-α, innate immune responses) and oxidative stress, and enhancing the endogenous anti-oxidation defense reactions (GSH) in CRC-induced mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02101-6DOI Listing
September 2021

The Therapeutic Effect and In Vivo Assessment of Palmitoyl-GDPH on the Wound Healing Process.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Feb 1;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Integrated Chemical Biophysics Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia.

The standard treatment of open wounds via the direct usage of therapeutic agents is not without limitations with respect to healing. Small peptides can create a favorable milieu for accelerating the healing of wounds. This study presents the potential of a novel fatty acid conjugated tetrapeptide (palmitic acid-glycine-aspartic acid-proline-histidine; Palmitoyl-GDPH) in alleviating wound healing. Tetracycline was employed as a standard control drug following its significance in wound healing including biologically active and antimicrobial effects. The peptide in liquid form was applied on to a 4 cm full thickness wound surgically induced at the dorsum of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The in vivo wound treatment with Palmitoyl-GDPH for eighteen days, histologically demonstrated an almost perfect healing exhibited by increased re-epithelialization, enhanced collagen deposition, and diminished scar formation compared to the controls. In addition, the well-developed epidermal-dermal junction and ultimate stimulation of hair follicle-growth in the Palmitoyl-GDPH treated group indicated the wound to have healed as functionally viable tissues. In general, the much lower hemogram values in the Palmitoyl-GDPH group indicated that the ongoing healing is en route to an earlier recovery. Additionally, the liver, kidney, and pancreas function biomarkers being within normal limits indicated the relatively non-toxic nature of Palmitoyl-GDPH at the used dosage. These results indisputably supported the great potential of this newly synthesized Palmitoyl-GDPH to be used as an effective therapeutic agent for wound healing (this actually means creating a new wound).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13020193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912838PMC
February 2021

Supplementation of postbiotic RI11 improves antioxidant enzyme activity, upregulated gut barrier genes, and reduced cytokine, acute phase protein, and heat shock protein 70 gene expression levels in heat-stressed broilers.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 9;100(3):100908. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Veterinary Pathology & Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the impacts of feeding different levels of postbiotic RI11 on antioxidant enzyme activity, physiological stress indicators, and cytokine and gut barrier gene expression in broilers under heat stress. A total of 252 male broilers Cobb 500 were allocated in cages in environmentally controlled chambers. All the broilers received the same basal diet from 1 to 21 d. On day 22, the broilers were weighed and grouped into 7 treatment groups and exhibited to cyclic high temperature at 36 ± 1°C for 3 h per day until the end of the experiment. From day 22 to 42, broilers were fed with one of the 7 following diets: negative control, basal diet (0.0% RI11) (NC group); positive control, NC diet + 0.02% (w/w) oxytetracycline (OTC group); antioxidant control, NC diet + 0.02% (w/w) ascorbic acid. The other 4 other groups were as follows: NC diet + 0.2% cell-free supernatant (postbiotic RI11) (v/w), NC diet + 0.4% cell-free supernatant (postbiotic RI11) (v/w), NC diet + 0.6% cell-free supernatant (postbiotic RI11) (v/w), and NC diet + 0.8% cell-free supernatant (postbiotic RI11) (v/w). Supplementation of different levels (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8%) of postbiotic RI11 increased plasma glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione enzyme activity. Postbiotic RI11 groups particularly at levels of 0.4 and 0.6% upregulated the mRNA expression of IL-10 and downregulated the IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, heat shock protein 70, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels compared with the NC and OTC groups. Feeding postbiotic RI11, particularly at the level of 0.6%, upregulated ileum zonula occludens-1 and mucin 2 mRNA expressions. However, no difference was observed in ileum claudin 1, ceruloplasmin, IL-6, IL-2, and interferon expression, but downregulation of occludin expression was observed as compared with the NC group. Supplementation of postbiotic RI11 at different levels quadratically increased plasma glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione, IL-10, mucin 2, and zonula occludens-1 mRNA expression and reduced plasma IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and heat shock protein 70 mRNA expression. The results suggested that postbiotics produced from Lactiplantibacillus plantarum RI11 especially at the level of 0.6% (v/w) could be used as an alternative to antibiotics and natural sources of antioxidants in poultry feeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936158PMC
March 2021

Metformin attenuated histopathological ocular deteriorations in a streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rat model.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 03 13;394(3):457-467. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

UPM-MAKNA Laboratory of Cancer Research, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) often causes ocular disorders leading to vision loss. Metformin is commonly prescribed for type 2 diabetes. This study assessed the effect of metformin on hyperglycemic histopathological eye abnormalities and some possible pathways involved. Male rats were divided into 3 groups (N = 6), namely, healthy control, hyperglycemic non-treated control, and hyperglycemic rats treated with 200 mg/kg metformin. Two weeks after diabetes induction by an intraperitoneal streptozotocin (60 mg streptozotocin (STZ)/kg) injection, the rats develop ocular abnormalities, and metformin (200 mg/kg) treatment was administered daily. Rats underwent dilated retinal digital ophthalmoscope examination and graded for diabetic retinopathy. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks, and the cornea, lens, sclera, ciliary body, iris, conjunctiva, retinal, and optic nerve were examined histologically. Rats' fasting blood glucose and body weight were monitored. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), claudin-1, and glutathione/malondialdehyde ratios were analyzed. Metformin significantly attenuated diabetes-related histopathological ocular deteriorations in the cornea, lens, sclera, ciliary body, iris, conjunctiva, retina, and optic nerve partly by restoring serum TNF-α, VEGF, claudin-1, and glutathione/malondialdehyde ratios without significantly affecting the fasting blood glucose levels or body weight in these hyperglycemic rats. Metformin attenuated hyperglycemia-associated histopathological eye deteriorations, possibly partly by ameliorating vascular leakage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and neovascularization, without affecting the fasting blood glucose levels or body weights in these STZ-induced diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-020-01989-wDOI Listing
March 2021

A preliminary study of mirror-induced self-directed behaviour on wildlife at the Royal Belum Rainforest Malaysia.

Sci Rep 2020 08 24;10(1):14105. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Mirror-induced behaviour has been described as a cognitive ability of an animal to self-direct their image in front of the mirror. Most animals when exposed to a mirror responded with a social interactive behaviour such as aggressiveness, exploratory and repetitive behaviour. The objective of this study is to determine the mirror-induced self-directed behaviour on wildlife at the Royal Belum Rainforest, Malaysia. Wildlife species at the Royal Belum Rainforest were identified using a camera traps from pre-determined natural saltlick locations. Acrylic mirrors with steel frame were placed facing the two saltlicks (Sira Batu and Sira Tanah) and the camera traps with motion-detecting infrared sensor were placed at strategically hidden spot. The behavioural data of the animal response to the mirror were analysed using an ethogram procedure. Results showed that barking deer was the species showing the highest interaction in front of the mirror. Elephants displayed self-directed response through inspecting behaviour via usage of their trunk and legs while interacting to the mirror. Interestingly, the Malayan tapir showed startled behaviour during their interaction with the mirror. However, the absence of interactive behaviour of the Malayan tiger signalled a likelihood of a decreased social response behaviour. These results suggested that the ability to self-directed in front of the mirror is most likely related to the new approach to study the neural mechanism and its level of stimulus response in wildlife. In conclusion, research on mirror-induced self-directed behaviour in wildlife will have profound implications in understanding the cognitive ability of wildlife as an effort to enhance the management strategies and conservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71047-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445253PMC
August 2020

Acute and subacute dermal toxicity of ethanolic extract of leaves in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Toxicol Res 2020 Jul 26;36(3):203-210. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan Malaysia.

is a well-known herb in Malaysia where it being used in various ways for treatment of different diseases and ailments including skin problems. The study aims to investigate acute and subacute dermal toxicity of ethanolic extract of leaves following to a single or repeated doses exposure. A total of 30 female Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into 5 groups (n = 6 per group) for both acute and subacute toxicity study. The duration for each study was determined at 14 days for acute toxicity and 28 days for subacute toxicity. The rats were topically applied with the plant extract at three different doses; 2.5%, 5.0% and 10.0% on the shaved area of dorsal skin. For acute toxicity study, rats in all three groups received single application of the extract on the first day of the experimental period, while rats in subacute toxicity study were topically applied with the extract once daily for 28 days. Throughout the respective 14-day and 28-day study periods, all rats were monitored for any changes in their physical appearance and behavioural patterns that might develop due to toxic effects of the plant. There were no mortality or abnormal physical appearance, and physiological and behavioural changes observed in all rats in both studies. Body weights, kidney and liver weights, and both haematology and serum biochemistry results showed no significant (> 0.05) differences between all groups in both studies. All of the findings were supported by normal macroscopic and microscopic architectures of liver, kidneys and skin of all rats applied topically with the extract. This study suggests that topical application of leaf ethanolic extract at 2.5%, 5% and 10% does not induce acute and subacute adverse effects on the skin or systemic toxic reactions in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43188-019-00013-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352010PMC
July 2020

Dietary Supplementation of Postbiotics Mitigates Adverse Impacts of Heat Stress on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Total Antioxidant, Lipid Peroxidation, Physiological Stress Indicators, Lipid Profile and Meat Quality in Broilers.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 5;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Veterinary Pathology & Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the impacts of feeding different postbiotics on oxidative stress markers, physiological stress indicators, lipid profile and meat quality in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 252 male Cobb 500 (22-day-old) were fed with 1 of 6 diets: A basal diet without any supplementation as negative control (NC); basal diet + 0.02% oxytetracycline served as positive control (PC); basal diet + 0.02% ascorbic acid (AA); or the basal diet diet + 0.3% of RI11, RS5 or UL4 postbiotics. Postbiotics supplementation, especially RI11 increased plasma activity of total-antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), and decreased alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein (α1-AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CPN) compared to NC and PC groups. Meat malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the postbiotic groups than the NC, PC and AA groups. Plasma corticosterone, heat shock protein70 (HSP70) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were not affected by dietary treatments. Postbiotics decreased plasma cholesterol concentration compared to other groups, and plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) compared to the NC group. Postbiotics increased breast meat pH, and decreased shear force and lightness (L*) compared to NC and PC groups. The drip loss, cooking loss and yellowness (b*) were lower in postbiotics groups compared to other groups. In conclusion, postbiotics particularly RI11 could be used as an alternative to antibiotics and natural sources of antioxidants for heat-stressed broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10060982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341226PMC
June 2020

Protective effect of Tualang honey against cadmium-induced morphological abnormalities and oxidative stress in the ovary of rats.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 May 29;20(1):160. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: To investigate the protective effects of Tualang honey against the toxicity effects induced by cadmium (Cd) on the ovary.

Methods: A total of 32 female Sprague Dawley rats were taken and randomly divided into four groups (n = 8). Throughout the experimental period of 6 weeks, negative control-NC (vehicle deionized water), positive control-CD (Cd at 5 mg/kg), Tualang honey followed by Cd exposure-TH (Tualang honey at 200 mg/kg and Cd at 5 mg/kg) and Tualang honey control-THC (Tualang honey at 200 mg/kg) groups, were administered orally on a daily basis.

Results: Rats exposed to Cd were significantly higher in ovarian weight, number of antral and atretic follicles as compared to the NC group. The disruptive effects of Cd on ovarian follicles were associated with a disruption in gonadotropin hormones and decreases in follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Moreover, a significant formation of oxidative stress in ovarian Cd-exposed rats has been proven by increasing the level of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) and decreasing the levels of enzymatic antioxidant (catalase). Interestingly, a daily supplementation of high antioxidant agents such as Tualang honey in these animals, caused significant improvements in the histological changes. Additionally, less atretic follicles were observed, restoring the normal level of LH and FSH (P < 0.001), and normalizing the ovarian malondialdehyde (P < 0.05) and catalase levels in comparison with CD group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Tualang honey has protective effects against Cd-induced ovarian toxicity by reducing morphological abnormalities, restoring the normal levels of gonadotropin hormones and stabilizing equilibrium levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme in ovaries of rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02960-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260854PMC
May 2020

Extrusion enhances apparent metabolizable energy, ileal protein and amino acid digestibility of palm kernel cake in broilers.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Dec 12;33(12):1965-1974. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Objective: This study consisted of two stages; the first was to determine the effect of extrusion and sieving treatments on the chemical properties of palm kernel cake (PKC), and accordingly, a follow-up experiment (second stage) was conducted to determine and compare the apparent metabolizable energy (AME), and protein and amino acid digestibility of extruded and sieved PKC.

Methods: Two physical treatments, namely extrusion (using temperature profiles of 90°C/100°C/100°C, 90°C/100°C/110°C, and 90°C/100°C/120°C) and sieving (to 8 particles sizes ranging from >8.00 to 0.15 mm) were carried out to determine their effects on chemical properties, primarily crude protein (CP) and fiber contents of PKC. Based on the results from the above study, PKC that extruded with temperature profile 90/100/110°C and of sieved size between 1.5 to 0.15 mm (which made up of near 60% of total samples) were used to determine treatments effect on AME and CP and amino acid digestibility. The second stage experiment was conducted using 64 male Cobb 500 chickens randomly assigned to 16 cages (4 cages [or replicates] per treatment) to the following four dietary groups: i) basal (control) diet, ii) basal diet containing 20% untreated PKC, iii) basal diet containing 20% extruded PKC (EPKC), and iv) basal diet containing 20% sieved PKC (SPKC).

Results: Extrusion and sieving had no effect on CP and ash contents of PKC, however, both treatments reduced (p<0.05) crude fiber by 21% and 19%, respectively. Overall, extrusion and sieving reduced content of most of the amino acids except for aspartate, glutamate, alanine and lysine which increased, while serine, cysteine and tryptophan remained unchanged. Extrusion resulted in 6% increase (p<0.05) in AME and enhanced CP digestibility (p<0.05) by 32%, as compared to the untreated PKC while sieving had no effect on AME but improved CP digestibility by 39% which was not significantly different from that by extrusion.

Conclusion: Extrusion is more effective than sieving and serves as a practical method to enhance AME and digestibility of CP and several amino acids in broiler chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649399PMC
December 2020

Effects of Feeding Different Postbiotics Produced by on Growth Performance, Carcass Yield, Intestinal Morphology, Gut Microbiota Composition, Immune Status, and Growth Gene Expression in Broilers under Heat Stress.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Sep 2;9(9). Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

The effects of feeding different postbiotics on growth performance, carcass yield, intestinal morphology, gut microbiota, immune status, and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene expression in broilers under heat stress were assessed in this study. A total of 252 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned in cages in identical environmentally controlled chambers. During the starter period from 1 to 21 days, all the birds were fed the same basal diet. On day 22, the birds were weighed and randomly divided into six treatment groups and exposed to cyclic high temperature at 36 ± 1 °C for 3 h per day from 11:00 to 14:00 until the end of the experiment. From day 22 to 42 (finisher period), an equal number of birds were subjected to one of the following diets: NC (negative control) basal diet; PC (positive control) basal diet + 0.02% oxytetracycline; or AA (ascorbic acid) basal diet + 0.02% ascorbic acid. The other three groups (RI11, RS5 and UL4) were basal diet + 0.3% different postbiotics (produced from different strains, and defined as RI11, RS5 and UL4, respectively). The results demonstrated that birds fed RI11 diets had significantly higher final body weight, total weight gain and average daily gain than the birds that received the NC, PC and AA treatments. The feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the RI11 group compared with the other groups. Carcass parameters were not affected by the postbiotic-supplemented diet. Postbiotic supplementation improved villi height significantly in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum compared to the NC, PC and AA treatments. The crypt depth of the duodenum and ileum was significantly higher in NC group compared to other treatment groups except RI11 in duodenum, and UL4 in ileum was not different with NC groups. The villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum and ileum was significantly higher for the postbiotic treatment groups and AA than the PC and NC treatment groups. The postbiotic RI11 group recorded significantly higher caecum total bacteria and count and lower count compared to the NC and PC treatment groups. The population in the NC group was significantly lower compared to the other treatment groups. The postbiotic (RI11, RS5 and UL4) and AA treatment groups showed lower Enterobacteriaceae and counts and caecal pH than the NC and PC treatment groups. The plasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) level was significantly higher in the birds receiving postbiotic RI11 than those receiving other treatments. The plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) level was higher in the RI11 treatment group than in the NC, AA and RS5 groups. The plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA) level was not affected by postbiotic supplements. The hepatic GHR mRNA expression level was significantly increased in birds fed postbiotics RI11, RS5 and UL4, AA and PC compared to the NC-fed birds. Postbiotic RI11 led to significantly higher hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression level compared to the NC, PC, and AA treatments. Mortality was numerically lesser in the postbiotic treatment groups, but not significantly different among all the treatments. In conclusion, among the postbiotics applied in the current study as compared with NC, PC and AA, RI11 could be used as a potential alternative antibiotic growth promoter and anti-stress treatment in the poultry industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9090644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770893PMC
September 2019

Subacute Oral Toxicity Assesment of Ethanol Extract of Leaves in Male Sprague Dawley Rats.

Toxicol Res 2018 Apr 15;34(2):85-95. Epub 2018 Apr 15.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Selangor, Malaysia.

The term Butterfly tea refers to decoction of leaves which is widely consumed by cancer patients throughout Malaysia and has gained a huge popularity among Malaysians, not only cancer patients but also researchers to discover the real potential of this plant. Herein, the study is aimed at evaluating the possible toxicity in 28-day subacute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract in male Sprague Dawley rats. The 28-day subacute toxicity study was conducted to detect the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). In this study, a total of 30 rats were divided into the control, 5% DMSO (vehicle), low dose (75 mg/kg), medium dose (125 mg/kg) and high dose (250 mg/kg) groups. The extract was administered daily from day 1 until day 28. At the end of the study, the animals were humanely sacrificed and assessed for the effect extract of leaves on body weight and relative organ weights and haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. The haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the assessment of kidney and liver injuries were carried out. Results of haematological and serum biochemistry results showed no changes in the control and treated groups. In the histopathology, evaluation of kidney tissues in all treated groups showed no significant ( > 0.05) lesions. In contrast to kidney, liver tissues showed significant differences ( < 0.05) in lesions observed in low dose (430 mg), medium dose (700 mg) and high dose (1480 mg) groups with very mild, mild and mild to moderate lesion of hepatic necrosis, in the respective groups, and very mild hepatic degeneration and hepatitis were scored in all three groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5487/TR.2018.34.2.085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903138PMC
April 2018

Identification and comparison of RCMV ALL 03 open reading frame (ORF) among several different strains of cytomegalovirus worldwide.

Infect Genet Evol 2017 10 19;54:81-90. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor D.E, Malaysia; Institute of Bioscience, University Putra, 43400 Serdang, Selangor D.E, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Background: Rat cytomegalovirus ALL-03 (Malaysian strain) which was isolated from a placenta and uterus of a house rat, Rattus rattus diardii has the ability to cross the placenta and infecting the fetus. To further elucidate the pathogenesis of the Malaysian strain of Rat Cytomegalovirus ALL-03 (RCMV ALL-03), detailed analysis on the viral genome sequence is crucial.

Methods: Genome sequencing of RCMV ALL-03 was carried out in order to identify the open reading frame (ORF), homology comparison of ORF with other strains of CMV, phylogenetic analysis, classifying ORF with its corresponding conserved genes, and determination of functional proteins and grouping of gene families in order to obtain fundamental knowledge of the genome.

Results: The present study revealed a total of 123 Coding DNA sequences (CDS) from RCMV ALL-03 with 37 conserved ORF domains as with all herpesvirus genomes. All the CDS possess similar function with RCMV-England followed by RCMV-Berlin, RCMV-Maastricht, and Human CMV. The phylogenetic analysis of RCMV ALL-03 based on conserving genes of herpes virus showed that the Malaysian RCMV isolate is closest to RCMV-English and RCMV-Berlin strains, with 99% and 97% homology, respectively. Similarly, it also demonstrated an evolutionary relationship between RCMV ALL-03 and other strains of herpesviruses from all the three subfamilies. Interestingly, betaherpesvirus subfamily, which has been shown to be more closely related with gammaherpesviruses as compared to alphaherpesviruses, shares some of the functional ORFs. In addition, the arrangement of gene blocks for RCMV ALL-03, which was conserved among herpesvirus family members was also observed in the RCMV ALL-03 genome.

Conclusion: Genomic analysis of RCMV ALL-03 provided an overall picture of the whole genome organization and it served as a good platform for further understanding on the divergence in the family of Herpesviridae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2017.06.020DOI Listing
October 2017

Pathological vicissitudes and oxidative stress enzyme responses in mice experimentally infected with reptarenavirus (isolate UPM/MY01).

Microb Pathog 2017 Mar 3;104:17-27. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boid snakes believed to be caused by reptarenavirus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. Unlike most mammalian arenaviruses, the reservoir host for reptarenavirus is still unknown. In this study, the pathological responses were evaluated in a mouse model for a period of 28 days. Blood and tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney and brain) were collected for evaluation of hematology, biochemistry, histopathology and oxidative enzyme levels at six time points (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), after viral infection (2.0 × 10 pfu/mL) in the infected and normal saline in the control groups. An initial increase (p < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were observed in the infected group at day 3 post infection, and a decline (p < 0.05) on day 7 and 4 post infection. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine, total protein and globulin levels were also observed in the infected group. An increased (p < 0.05) level of hydrogen peroxide, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and catalase activity (CAT) were frequently observed on different days in the infected group. The MDA activity was increased (p < 0.05) in the infected group on day 7 and 14. Histopathological changes observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, brain and lungs were mainly associated with degeneration, necrosis and infiltration of lymphocytes. Viral counts were low on days 7 and 14 but surged in both the liver and spleen on day 21 and 28. This study has shown that reptarenavirus replicates in mammalian host and induces oxidative stress. Furthermore, the resultant hematobiochemical and histopathological changes observed in infected mice were similar to what has been reported in mammarenavirus infections. This suggests that rodents may serve as potential reservoir hosts for reptarenavirus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2017.01.003DOI Listing
March 2017

In vitro isolation and molecular identification of reptarenavirus in Malaysia.

Virus Genes 2016 Oct 3;52(5):640-50. Epub 2016 May 3.

Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boids caused by reptarenavirus. In this study, tissue from naturally infected boid snakes were homogenized and propagated in African Monkey kidney (Vero) and rat embryonic fibroblast (REF) cells. Virus replication was determined by the presence of cytopathic effect, while viral morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Viral RNA was amplified using RT-PCR with primers specific for the L-segment of reptarenavirus; similarly, quantification of viral replication was done using qPCR at 24-144 h postinfection. Viral cytopathology was characterized by cell rounding and detachment in both Vero and REF cells. The viral morphology showed round-to-pleomorphic particles ranging from 105 to 150 nm which had sand-like granules. Sanger sequencing identified four closely associated reptarenavirus species from 15 (37.5 %) of the total samples tested, and these were named as follows: reptarenavirus UPM-MY 01, 02, 03, and 04. These isolates were phylogenetically closely related to the University Helsinki virus (UHV), Boa Arenavirus NL (ROUTV; BAV), and unidentified reptarenavirus L20 (URAV-L20). Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences further confirmed identities to L-protein of UHV, L-polymerase of BAV and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of URAV-L20. Viral replication in Vero cells increased steadily from 24 to 72 h and peaked at 144 h. This is the first study in South East Asia to isolate and characterize reptarenavirus in boid snakes with BIBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-016-1345-7DOI Listing
October 2016

Antiviral Activity of Resveratrol against Human and Animal Viruses.

Adv Virol 2015 29;2015:184241. Epub 2015 Nov 29.

Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic compound that is being extensively studied in the amelioration of viral infections both in vitro and in vivo. Its antioxidant effect is mainly elicited through inhibition of important gene pathways like the NF-κβ pathway, while its antiviral effects are associated with inhibitions of viral replication, protein synthesis, gene expression, and nucleic acid synthesis. Although the beneficial roles of resveratrol in several viral diseases have been well documented, a few adverse effects have been reported as well. This review highlights the antiviral mechanisms of resveratrol in human and animal viral infections and how some of these effects are associated with the antioxidant properties of the compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/184241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4676993PMC
December 2015

Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of caprine Orf virus in Malaysia.

Virusdisease 2015 Dec 21;26(4):255-9. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor DE Malaysia.

Orf virus is a DNA virus that causes contiguous ecthyma in goat and sheep. Infection of animals with this virus cause high mortality in young animals resulting in huge economic losses. In this study, we investigated an outbreak of Orf in a goat farm in Malaysia. Samples were collected from infected animals and viral isolation was done using both LT and MDCK cell lines. Molecular detection was done by conventional PCR for specific primers; B2L and F1L genes and phylogenetic analysis was done on the sequence data obtained. Cytopathic effects (CPE) were observed in both cell lines after 3 days of inoculation and were 50 % by the sixth day. PCR showed positive bands for both B2L and F1L genes and phylogenetic analysis showed that the Malaysian strain had close homology to the Chinese and Indian Orf virus isolates. This study gives more insight into the existing Orf viral strains in Malaysia and their relationship with other strains globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-015-0278-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4663714PMC
December 2015

Complete Genome Sequence of Rat Cytomegalovirus Strain ALL-03 (Malaysian Strain).

Genome Announc 2015 Jun 4;3(3). Epub 2015 Jun 4.

Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The complete genome sequence of the ALL-03 strain of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) has been determined. The RCMV genome has a length of 197,958 bp and is arranged as a single unique sequence flanked by 504-bp terminal direct repeats. This strain is closely related to the English strain of RCMV in terms of genetic arrangement but differs slightly in size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00451-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4457050PMC
June 2015

Catechin-rich oil palm leaf extract enhances bone calcium content of estrogen-deficient rats.

Nutrition 2013 Apr 2;29(4):667-72. Epub 2013 Jan 2.

Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Objective: Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency often causes bone density loss and osteoporosis. This study evaluated the effects of an oral administration of oil palm leaf extract (OPL) on bone calcium content and structure, bone density, ash weights, and serum total alkaline phosphatase (T-ALP) of estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats.

Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five experimental groups: 1) intact (normal control); 2) ovariectomized (OVX control), and OVX rats supplemented with 3) 2% (w/v) green tea (OVX + GT), 4) OPL 150 mg/kg of body weight, or 5) OPL 300 mg/kg of body weight in the drinking water.

Results: After 3 mo, the OVX control rats had significantly decreased femur and tibia masses (-5% and -3%, respectively), ash (-15% and -10%), calcium content (-0.5% and -2.7%), and bone density and T-ALP concentrations (-40%) compared with intact rats. The catechin-rich OPL dose dependently increased the OVX bone density and structure, femur and tibia masses (by +8% and +12% respectively), ash (by +30% and +20% respectively), calcium (by +3% and +5%), and T-ALP concentrations (by +76%) compared with the OVX rats. The increases by OPL were higher than that in OVX + GT and control intact rats.

Conclusion: The catechin-rich OPL increased the bone mass in estrogen-deficient rats by increasing osteoblast activities to higher levels than in normal rats and those supplemented with GT. This was shown by the modulation of serum T-ALP levels, bone calcium content, total mineral content, and bone histologic structure. The OPL is a potential inexpensive ingredient for protection against osteoporosis and influences bone metabolism by encouraging bone formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.09.005DOI Listing
April 2013

Effects of elevated ambient temperature on reproductive outcomes and offspring growth depend on exposure time.

ScientificWorldJournal 2012 31;2012:359134. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 13314, Sudan.

Reproductive performance has been shown to be greatly affected by changes in environmental factors, such as temperature. However, it is also crucial to identify the particular stage of pregnancy that is most adversely affected by elevated ambient temperature. The aims of this study were to determine the effect on reproductive outcomes of exposure to elevated ambient temperature during different stages of pregnancy and to determine the effect of prenatal heat stress on offspring growth. Sixty pregnant rats were used in this study. The rats were divided equally into four groups as group 1 (control), group 2 (exposed to elevated temperature following implantation), group 3 (exposed to elevated temperature during pre- and periimplantation), and group 4 (exposed to elevated temperature during pre- and periimplantation and following implantation). Groups 3 and 4 had prolonged gestation periods, reduced litter sizes, and male-biased sex ratios. Moreover, the growth patterns of group 3 and 4 pups were adversely affected by prenatal exposure to elevated temperature. The differences between group 1 and group 3 and between group 1 and group 4 were highly significant. However, no significant differences were observed between groups 1 and 2 in the gestation length, sex ratios, and growth patterns. Thus, it can be concluded that exposure to elevated ambient temperature during pre- and periimplantation has stronger adverse effects on reproductive outcomes and offspring growth than postimplantation exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/359134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3417197PMC
March 2013

Subcutaneous administration of tramadol after elective surgery is as effective as intravenous administration in relieving acute pain and inflammation in dogs.

ScientificWorldJournal 2012 18;2012:564939. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Subcutaneous (SC) administration of tramadol was compared with intravenous (IV) administration to evaluate analgesia following canine ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Healthy female dogs (n = 12) between 1 and 3 years of age (1.95 ± 0.65 years), weighing between 10.5 and 17.1 kg (13.12 ± 1.95 kg), were used. Pain was assessed at baseline before surgery and then hourly for 8 hr after surgery. Tramadol was administered both SC and IV at a dose of 3 mg/kg and provided significant postoperative analgesia, as indicated by analgesiometry, β-endorphin levels, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels. The respiratory rates and rectal temperatures remained normal and were not significantly different between or within the groups. A significant increase in heart rate was observed at 4 hr for dogs in both groups relative to the baseline, but there was no significant difference in heart rates between the groups at any time point. A significant decrease in mechanical pain threshold was observed within each group after surgery, but both groups responded similarly, suggesting that SC administration of tramadol is as effective as IV administration. Increased serum levels of both IL-6 and β-endorphin 3 hr postoperatively further indicate that both routes of administration achieve similar pain control. Thus, the relative analgesic efficacy of SC tramadol is comparable to that of IV administration and can be used to achieve similar effects for postsurgical pain management in dogs undergoing OHE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/564939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3385626PMC
October 2012

Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

ScientificWorldJournal 2012 12;2012:851437. Epub 2012 Mar 12.

Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/851437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3317550PMC
July 2012

Gelam (Melaleuca spp.) Honey-Based Hydrogel as Burn Wound Dressing.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 19;2012:843025. Epub 2011 Sep 19.

Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

A novel cross-linked honey hydrogel dressing was developed by incorporating Malaysian honey into hydrogel dressing formulation, cross-linked and sterilized using electron beam irradiation (25 kGy). In this study, the physical properties of the prepared honey hydrogel and its wound healing efficacy on deep partial thickness burn wounds in rats were assessed. Skin samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after burn for histopathological and molecular evaluations. Application of honey hydrogel dressings significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) wound closure and accelerated the rate of re-epithelialization as compared to control hydrogel and OpSite film dressing. A significant decrease in inflammatory response was observed in honey hydrogel treated wounds as early as 7 days after burn (P < 0.05). Semiquantitative analysis using RT-PCR revealed that treatment with honey hydrogel significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6). The present study substantiates the potential efficacy of honey hydrogel dressings in accelerating burn wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/843025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175734PMC
November 2011

Evaluating the toxic and beneficial effects of jering beans (Archidendron jiringa) in normal and diabetic rats.

J Sci Food Agric 2011 Nov 11;91(14):2697-706. Epub 2011 Jul 11.

Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Jering (Archidendron jiringa) is eaten in the tropics and traditionally extolled for treating diabetes, high blood pressure and eliminating bladder stones. Jering contains an unusual amino acid-djenkolic acid (S,S'-methylenebiscysteine)-which may form sharp crystals in the urinary tract, causing pain and haematuria. This study evaluates the beneficial and toxic effects of dietary jering on tissues and organs in normal and diabetic rats.

Results: Dietary jering administered orally to diabetic rats significantly reduced the blood glucose in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats to normal levels after about 12 weeks. Jering improved the rats' appetite, body weight, organ oxidative status and number of active islets of Langerhans in both diabetic and normal rats, after 15 weeks of treatment. Although dietary jering showed beneficial effects to diabetic eye lens, lung and pancreas, it caused hypertrophy and lesions to the heart, kidney, liver, lung and pancreas of normal rats.

Conclusion: Chronic jering consumption showed toxic effects to the heart, kidney, liver and pancreas of normal rats but produced some beneficial effects to diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4516DOI Listing
November 2011

Sea cucumber (Stichopus hermanii) based hydrogel to treat burn wounds in rats.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2011 Jul 18;98(1):30-7. Epub 2011 Apr 18.

Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Malaysian sea cucumber was incorporated into hydrogel formulation by using electron beam irradiation technique and was introduced as novel cross-linked Gamat Hydrogel dressing. This study investigated whether Gamat Hydrogel enhanced repair of deep partial skin thickness burn wound in rats and its possible mechanism. Wounds were treated with either Gamat Hydrogel, control hydrogel, OpSite® film dressing or left untreated. Skin samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post burn for histological and molecular evaluations. Gamat Hydrogel markedly enhanced wound contraction and improved histological reorganization of the regenerating tissue. Furthermore, the dressing modulated the inflammatory responses, stimulated the activation and proliferation of fibroblasts, and enhanced rapid production of collagen fiber network with a consequently shorter healing time. The level of proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6, were significantly reduced in Gamat Hydrogel treated wounds compared with other groups as assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In summary, our results showed that Gamat Hydrogel promoted burn wound repair via a complex mechanism involving stimulation of tissue regeneration and regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The resultant wound healing effects were attributed to the synergistic effect of the hydrogel matrix and incorporated sea cucumber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.31828DOI Listing
July 2011

Comparison of cardiovascular protective effects of tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, on high-cholesterol/high-fat diet in rats.

J Med Food 2010 Aug;13(4):792-800

Functional Food Laboratory, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

This study was designed to investigate the comparative in vivo cardiovascular protective effects of red, green, and brown tropical seaweeds, namely, Kappaphycus alvarezii (or Eucheuma cottonii), Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, in rats fed on high-cholesterol/high-fat (HCF) diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 260-300 g) on the HCF diet had significantly increased body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), plasma triglycerides (TG), lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase levels after 16 weeks. Supplementing 5% seaweeds to HCF diet significantly reduced plasma TC (-11.4% to -18.5%), LDL-C (-22% to -49.3%), and TG (-33.7% to -36.1%) levels and significantly increased HDL-C levels (16.3-55%). Among the seaweeds, S. polycystum showed the best anti-obesity and blood GSH-Px properties, K. alvarezii showed the best antihyperlipemic and in vivo antioxidation effects, and C. lentillifera was most effective at reducing plasma TC. All seaweeds significantly reduced body weight gain, erythrocyte GSH-Px, and plasma lipid peroxidation of HCF diet rats towards the values of normal rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2008.1212DOI Listing
August 2010
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