Publications by authors named "Nontiya Homkham"

5 Publications

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Comparison of HIV-Positive Incidence Among Transgender Women and Men Who Have Sex with Men at Stand-Alone and Mobile Voluntary Counseling and Testing Facilities in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2021 04;35(4):116-125

Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is still a major cause of death in Thais and new cases of infection are still emerging among the key population comprising men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers and their clients, and transgender women (TGW) and people who inject drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of HIV infection between MSM and TGW who were tested at stand-alone and mobile HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) centers and to identify factors associated with HIV-positive individuals from the two services. We conducted an observational study using MSM and TGW individuals with unknown HIV status from the databases at a stand-alone center and a mobile VCT belonging to the MPlus in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Factors associated with HIV-positive status were identified using logistic regression model. HIV VCT data were obtained for 6971 individuals at both MPlus center and mobile care unit. Among 3033 and 3938 clients tested at each facility, respectively, 168 (5.6%) and 101 (2.6%) clients were HIV positive. Individuals tested at the stand-alone centers were at a 1.91-fold higher risk of being HIV positive compared with those tested at the mobile VCT unit. Individuals who were 20-24 or >24 years old, sex workers, or sexually transmitted infection positive were more likely to be HIV positive. Our results show the beneficial effect of mobile HIV VCT facilities that enable testing of more of the at-risk population. Developing mobile VCT activities that attract a particular target population is needed to be able to reach the 90-90-90 goals. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University (0BG-2562-06418).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/apc.2020.0258DOI Listing
April 2021

Overweight and Obesity Coexist with Thinness among Lao's Urban Area Adolescents.

J Obes 2020 14;2020:5610834. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Faculty of Public Health, Thammasat University (Rangsit Campus), Klong Luang District, Patumthani 12120, Thailand.

Introduction: In recent decades, the developing countries of Southeast Asia, including the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), have experienced a rapid growth of their urban population. Partly as a result of that, issues of undernutrition and overnutrition became a significant public health problem.

Objective: To examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their related factors, among the school-attending adolescents in the Lao capital of Vientiane.

Methods: A cross-sectional data on 300 adolescents aged 15-19 were collected during the months of March, April, and May 2018 by means of a self-administrated questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were used to obtain data on height and weight. Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher exact tests, and univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were applied in the course of the statistical analysis.

Results: The study found a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (23.3%) and thinness (10.3%). Poor eating habits were noted in 67.0% of adolescents, even though 78.0% of them had a good knowledge of nutrition. Factors significantly associated with the overweight/obesity were low physical activities (aOR = 18.3; 95% CI: 5.51-60.66) and adolescents living with their guardians (aOR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.08-0.79). Results also indicated that, in 47.3% of the cases, teachers, acting as a source of health and nutrition information, can prevent the risk of adolescents' overweight/obesity (aOR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.11-3.80) but not their thinness (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.17-0.88).

Conclusions: Laotian adolescents are facing the spectrum of malnutrition in urban areas. To improve adolescents' nutritional status, there is a need for a collaborative approach of public health agencies that would address the issues of an effective food and nutrition policy. The school curricula should also include programs on nutrition and physical education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5610834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444367PMC
August 2020

Role of efavirenz plasma concentrations on long-term HIV suppression and immune restoration in HIV-infected children.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(5):e0216868. Epub 2019 May 16.

Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD UMI 174), Marseille, France.

Background: To access the long term relationship between efavirenz plasma concentrations and evolution of HIV RNA loads and CD4 cell counts in children.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of data from HIV-infected children on first line efavirenz-containing regimen. A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was developed to describe the evolution of HIV RNA load and CD4 cell count (efficacy outcomes) in relation to efavirenz plasma concentration. Individual CYP2B6 516 G>T genotype data were not available for this analysis. A score (ISEFV) quantifying the effect of efavirenz concentrations on the long-term HIV replication was calculated from efavirenz concentrations and PD parameters and, a value of ISEFV below which HIV replication is likely not suppressed was determined. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of the risk of viral replication with ISEFV, and with efavirenz mid-dose concentration(C12).

Results: At treatment initiation, median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 8 years (5 to 10), body weight 17 kg (14 to 23), HIV RNA load 5.1 log10 copies/mL (4.6 to 5.4), and CD4 cell count 71 cells/mm3. A model of PK-PD viral dynamics assuming that efavirenz decreases the rate of infected host cells adequately described the relationship of interest. After adjusting for age, baseline HIV RNA load and CD4 cell counts an ISEFV <85% was significantly associated with a higher risk of viral replication (p-value <0.001) while no significant association was observed with C12 <1.0 mg/L.

Conclusion: The ISEFV score was a good predictor of viral replication in children on efavirenz-based treatment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216868PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6521995PMC
January 2020

A Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model Predicts Favorable HDL Cholesterol Changes Over the First 5 Years in Children Treated With Current Efavirenz-Based Regimens.

J Clin Pharmacol 2016 09 24;56(9):1076-83. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Unité de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, France.

Efavirenz use is associated with changes in cholesterol concentrations, but it is unclear whether this effect is related to drug concentrations. Using efavirenz and cholesterol plasma concentrations measured in 87 antiretroviral-naive children in Thailand, we assessed indirect response models to describe the evolution of high- and low-density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL) cholesterol concentrations in relation to efavirenz plasma concentrations over time where efavirenz was assumed to either stimulate cholesterol production or inhibit its elimination. Simulations of cholesterol evolution for children with different average efavirenz concentrations (Cav ) according to their assumed status of "fast" or "slow" metabolizers of efavirenz were performed. At treatment initiation, children's median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 8 years (5 to 10), body mass index z-score 0.01 (-1.05 to 1.44), HDL 31 mg/dL (24 to 44), and LDL 83 mg/dL (69 to 100). Median (IQR) efavirenz Cav was 1.7 mg/L (1.3 to 2.1) during the period of observation. The best model describing the evolution of HDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations over time assumed that efavirenz inhibited their elimination. HDL concentrations increase over 5 years, whereas LDL concentrations increased only during the first 4 months and then returned to baseline levels afterward. Simulations predicted that, after 3 years, HDL would increase to 63 mg/dL in "fast" metabolizers and 97 mg/dL in "slow" metabolizers of efavirenz. The population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model shows that favorable HDL cholesterol changes can be expected in children with current efavirenz dosing guidelines over 5 years of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.701DOI Listing
September 2016

Efavirenz Concentrations and Probability of HIV Replication in Children.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2015 Nov;34(11):1214-7

From the *Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD UMI 174-PHPT), Marseille, France; †Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; ‡Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand; §Ecole Doctorale de Santé Publique, Université Paris Saclay, Paris, France; ¶Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; ‖Unité de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris; **CIC1419, INSERM & APHP, EAU08 Université Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; ††Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiangrai, Thailand; ‡‡Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; §§Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; ¶¶Samutsakhon Hospital, Samutsakhon, Thailand; and ‖‖Somdej Prapinklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

In 188 HIV-infected children receiving efavirenz, a lower mid-dose (C12) was associated with a higher risk of HIV-1 viral load >400 copies/mL (P = 0.03). Simulations for a normalized population receiving US Food and Drug Administration weight-band dosing predicted that 15% of children would have a C12 below target threshold (<1.0 mg/L) with a 23% risk of viral replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000854DOI Listing
November 2015