Publications by authors named "Noman Anwar"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of co-administration of pharmacopoeia formulations and with CAT-I antitubercular drugs in rats.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

ICMR-National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objectives: Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem globally, despite incredible advancements in healthcare system. In system of medicine, (QTS) and (AHB) have been traditionally used for tuberculosis like conditions. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of co-administration of QTS and AHB with category I first line antitubercular drugs (CAT-I) on the indices of liver and kidney function in rats.

Methods: QTS and AHB were prepared individually and mixed to achieve final compound pharmacopoeia formulation (UPF). The human equivalent doses for rats were calculated and administered with and without CAT-I. The effects of the formulations on serum indices of kidney and liver function, hematological markers and plasma CAT-I drug levels were estimated at 14th, 60th & 180th days of treatment.

Results: The administration of UPF, CAT-I and UPF + CAT-I altered the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and haematological markers. These alterations were within permissible range and randomly distributed among groups during various time points. Administration of CAT-I alone resulted in moderate histopathological changes which were completely abrogated in CAT-I + UPF co-administered animals. The co-administration of UPF with CAT-I improved the plasma peak rifampicin (RIF) levels, without altering the liver and kidney functions.

Conclusions: The co-administration of UPF with ATT improved liver and kidney functions and increased the plasma levels of RIF. These beneficial findings provide a scope to evaluate the pharmacokinetic studies in humans.
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May 2021

Emergence of antimicrobial resistance and magnitude of Unani medicine - scope and challenges.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India, New Delhi, India.

Emergence of antimicrobial resistance, with practically all newly developed and even more potent antibiotics like carbapenem and colistin, has become a matter of great public health concern. A number of common diseases of public health importance are becoming harder and sometimes impossible to treat due to increased resistance of pathogens. These alarming threats seek prime attention of scientific community to develop newer antibiotics with long-lasting efficacy, least side effects, and low economic burden. Unani classical texts have enormous citations on different infectious diseases. Many single drugs and compound formulations are in vogue since ages for the treatment of infectious diseases. Use of Afaviya (spices), Mufarrehat (exhilarants), Tiryaqi Advia (drugs with antidote properties) and Sirka (vinegar) is highly advocated in treating various infectious diseases. Though, enormous research activities have been undertaken worldwide to explore and develop newer antibiotics from natural resources, indicating massive magnitude of natural products in treating various infectious diseases, however, the higher plants, still largely seems to be unexplored. Moreover, elaborated and well controlled clinical studies are still lacking to authenticate their clinical significance. Hence, a rigorous, well-designed & well-structured research is highly paramount to ascertain the provision of newer, relatively safe and cost effective natural antibiotics.
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January 2021

Structural and physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized Chinese sturgeon protein hydrolysates prepared by using two different enzymes.

J Food Sci 2020 Oct 22;85(10):3313-3322. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

The structural and physicochemical characteristics of protein hydrolysates prepared from Chinese sturgeon through the enzymatic hydrolysis process were evaluated. Two different enzymes including papain and alcalase 2.4L were used in the hydrolysis process. The papain enzyme significantly increased the degree of hydrolysis (20.62%) and decreased the ζ-potential (12.4 ± 1.31 mV) as compared to the alcalase enzyme, which represented 15.55% and 15.53 ± 0.77 mV, respectively. Alcalase 2.4L hydrolysate exhibited smaller particle size (822.047 ± 61.26 nm) than papain hydrolysate (1425.39 ± 44.82 nm). Hydrolysis by papain and alcalase 2.4L enzymes decreased the molecular weights (MW ≤ 1,000 Da) to 98.27% and 86.84%, respectively. The surface hydrophobicity and turbidity of the hydrolysates significantly affected by enzyme type and protein concentrations. By using the X-ray diffraction analysis, the papain hydrolysate showed a higher relative crystallinity degree (30.33%) than alcalase 2.4L hydrolysate (29.40%), whereas the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed more clearly peaks for the amide bands of alcalase hydrolysate. The thermal properties also affected by enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, since the melting temperatures were 159.17 and 149.58 °C, whereas the rate of mass loss was 67.04% and 62.8%, for papain and alcalase hydrolysates, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The enzymatic hydrolysis process of proteins is employed to obtain the nutritionally and functionality important peptides that result during the preparation of fish protein hydrolysate. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural and physicochemical characteristics of protein hydrolysate prepared from Chinese sturgeon. This study showed that these characteristics were affected by enzymatic hydrolysis conditions especially enzyme type. The finding of this study may be useful in terms of providing new information on the properties of the protein hydrolysate and the structural changes resulting from controlled enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Overall, these conditions could potentially alter the secondary structure of the protein hydrolysates or peptides and enhance their functional properties.
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October 2020

Effects of ultrasonic, microwave, and combined ultrasonic-microwave pretreatments on the enzymatic hydrolysis process and protein hydrolysate properties obtained from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

J Food Biochem 2020 08 19;44(8):e13292. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Degree of hydrolysis (DH), yield, amino acid profile, protein solubility, and antioxidant activity of Chinese sturgeon protein hydrolysates, as influenced by thermal pretreatment, ultrasonic (US), microwave (MW), and combined US-microwave pretreatments were investigated. Initially, the samples were subjected to thermal pretreatments in order to measure their effect on DH, which increased at 55°C. The DH recorded 7.63, 5.55, and 6.02% for US, MW, and combined US-MW pretreatment (US + MW), respectively, at the optimal time (8 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis (EN) of pretreated samples increased the DH to 19.41, 14.18, and 16.91% for US + EN, MW + EN, and US + MW + EN, respectively. The US + EN treatment was most effective for obtaining higher DH and yield, which were 19.41% and 18.62%, respectively. The use of US + EN also resulted in an increase in the percentage of molecular weights (≤1,000 Da), amino acid content and protein solubility, which reached 89.24, 80.08, and 98.58%, respectively. While, US + MW + EN pretreatment has achieved the highest antioxidant activities by IC of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-Azinobis (3-ehtylbenzothiazoli- 6-sulfnic acid), which were 3.01 and 1.85 mg/ml, respectively, in addition to the reducing power assay, which was 0.528 at a protein concentration of 5 mg/ml. Therefore, US and combined US-MW techniques can play a promising role in the production of protein hydrolysates and the improvement of their antioxidant properties. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Nowadays, interest in Chinese sturgeon production has increased as a promising source of protein and antioxidant peptides. The optimal thermal pretreatment can be used to enhance the degree of hydrolysis. The results indicated that the use of ultrasound as a pretreatment enhanced the degree of hydrolysis, which could be useful in the preparation of protein hydrolysate with higher yields. The use of combined US-MW significantly improved the antioxidant properties of the protein hydrolysate. The combined US-MW technique is a novel method for obtaining valuable peptides and protein hydrolysates that can be applied as antioxidant constituents in the food products.
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August 2020

Lithotriptic effect of in patients of (Nephrolithiasis) - an open prospective clinical validation trial.

J Complement Integr Med 2020 May 19;18(1):139-146. Epub 2020 May 19.

Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt of India, India.

Background: (Nephrolithiasis) is one of the most common chronic conditions and has been known to the mankind since antiquity. The incidence is increasing globally with geographic, racial and gender variation in its occurrence. Medical management of Nephrolithiasis still poses a considerable challenge for modern medical practice. Unani drugs possessing lithotriptic activity are not only cost effective but also have least side effects. has been used since long for the treatment of (Nephrolithiasis) but no documentary evidence based on scientific parameters as to its safety and efficacy are available.

Objective: To validate the safety and efficacy of in the treatment of .

Methodology: An open prospective clinical trial was carried out on 107 subjects of renal calculi of 3-7 mm diameter diagnosed by Ultrasonogram-KUB (USG-KUB). Subjects were evaluated by clinical history & examination, laboratory investigations followed by USG-KUB for confirmation. The safety was assessed by reporting of adverse events and by pathological and biochemical investigations. Assessment of efficacy was based on improvement observed in VAS score and expulsion/reduction of stone size as detected by USG-KUB.

Results: Substantial reduction (53%) in the size of calculi confirmed by USG-KUB and considerable lowering of VAS score (75%) were observed with the active intervention in majority of the cases.

Conclusion: The trial has revealed that the Unani pharmacopoeal formulation was well tolerated and has the therapeutic potential in the reduction and expulsion of renal calculi.
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May 2020

Proximate composition, nutritional evaluation and functional properties of a promising food: Arabian wax Cissus ( Forssk) leaves.

J Food Sci Technol 2019 Nov 31;56(11):4844-4854. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

1State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122 China.

is a wild plant, extensively used during scarcity and famine; however, the information about its chemical and nutritional properties still limited. In this work, was evaluated for its chemical, nutritional and functional properties. The results revealed that mainly contained carbohydrates (72.54%), proteins (12.16%), ash (12.53%), dietary fiber (14.10%), in addition to adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals. Fructose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose were the major monosaccharides with a percentage of 23.32, 13.60, 1.24, and 0.25 g/100 g DW, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that contained important vitamins, including thiamin (5.37 mg/100 g DW), riboflavin (1.19 mg/100 g DW), pyridoxine (0.46 mg/100 g DW) and folic acid (0.20 mg/100 g DW). The findings of functional properties revealed good water and oil absorption capacities of 2.74 and 1.63 g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity and water solubility index were 14 and 18.74%, respectively. From these results, it can be stated that has high nutritional values, which could be used widely in food applications.
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November 2019

Antimicrobial and wound healing potential of Marham-e-Aatshak (A Herb-o-Mineral formulation).

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Sep;30(5):1535-1543

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Marham-e-Aatshak (MA) is a Unani ointment, with wide use for treating chronic and infectious wounds since long time. This study was designed to screen the antimicrobial and wound healing potential of MA to validate the ethno-therapeutic claims. The agar diffusion method was used to study the antimicrobial action of MA as well as for all of its ingredients. Inhibition zone diameters were measured and MIC values were calculated. Wound healing activity was studied in models of both, excision and incision wounds. Wound contractibility was measured at different intervals in excision wound model; similarly tensile strength was measured in incision wound model. MA and its ingredients showed remarkable inhibitory activity against most of the organisms. In excision wound, a significantly enhanced wound contraction and significantly reduced epithelialization period was observed. In incision wound, significant increase in the mean breaking strength in the test group was observed. The results indicate that MA is capable of fighting against wound infections and able to potentiate the natural healing process.
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September 2017

Effect of detoxification (tadbeer) in content of toxic metabolites of Strychnos nux-vomica: A Unani approach for its use in human.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2015 Oct-Dec;7(4):314-6

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Background: Azaraqi (Strychnos nux-vomica, Loganiaceae) has been the important Unani medicine since long time as a stimulant, anti-inflammatory, and blood purifier. It has been used very frequently by the Unani practitioner. But the Unani system recommends application of azaraqi in medicine only after its detoxification (tadbeer) may be because of the presence of its deadly poisonous alkaloids (strychnine and brucine). In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to quantify the actual content of their toxic alkaloids before and after the tadbeer.

Materials And Methods: A sensitive high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for estimation of strychnine and brucine in different samples of azaraqi before and after tadbeer. Precoated HPTLC silica gel plates were used as stationary phase and (toluene: Ethyl acetate: Dietylamine 7:2:1 v/v/v) was used as mobile phase.

Result: The Rf value of strychnine and brucine was found as 0.53 and 0.41, respectively. Detection and quantification were performed by densitometry at 270 nm. The calibration plot was linear in the range of 50-1000 ng of strychnine and brucine, respectively, with the correlation coefficient (r (2)) 0.993 and 0.991 for strychnine and brucine, respectively, which confirms good linearity. The content of strychnine was 0.175, 0.07, 0.18, 0.051, and 0.075% w/w whereas brucine was 0.16, 0.117, 0.061, 0.045, and 0.057 in crude azaraqi, azaraqi without outer cover, azaraqi outer cover only, azaraqi mudabbar and azaraqi mudabbar by fried in ghee, respectively.

Conclusion: The detoxification results in sharp decrease in content of toxic metabolites. The process by boiling in milk was found much effective but tedious as compare to frying method.
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December 2015