Publications by authors named "Nolwazi Mokitimi"

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Dengue and the heart.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 Jul 20;32:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Anaesthesiology, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Email:

Background: Peri-operative morbidity and mortality are increased in patients with rheumatic heart disease. Pre-operative risk stratification is imperative for optimisation and a better outcome.

Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective, contextual study. A consecutive convenience sampling method was used. Eighty-nine patients who underwent mitral valve surgery at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital between January 2014 and December 2015 were enrolled. The objectives of the study were to describe the demographic profile of the patients presenting for rheumatic mitral valve surgery, describe their peri-operative cardiovascular and echocardiographic parameters, and risk stratify according to their clinical and echocardiographic parameters. Demographic, echocardiographic and laboratory data as well as the cardiovascular examination were analysed. Descriptive statistics using proportions (percentages), means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile ranges) were used where appropriate.

Results: A total of 102 patients were reviewed. Thirteen were excluded due to significant missing data. Of the 89 analysed, all had demographic data, 81 had cardiovascular clinical examination data, 82 had echocardiographic data and 52 had laboratory data. Forty-seven patients presented with mitral regurgitation (MR) and 35 had mitral stenosis (MS). Data included two mixed mitral valve disease patients with predominant regurgitation who were classified under the MR group. In total, 45% (39 patients) had arrhythmias and 49% (42 patients) had congestive cardiac failure at presentation for surgery. The overall mean (SD) pulmonary artery systolic pressure was 57 (20) mmHg and mean (SD) left atrial size was 53 (11) mm. Those with MS presented with mean (SD) mitral valve area of 0.9 (0.2) cm. Of the analysed MR patients, 51% presented with left ventricular ejection fraction < 60% and 55% with left ventricular end-systolic diameter > 40 mm. Among the analysed MS patients, 59% had mitral valve area < 1 cm. A substantial number (49% MR and 54% MS) of collected records were not eligible for analysis and stratification using the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (ACC/AHA) guidelines for valvular heart disease due to missing vital information. Of the 24 MR patients analysed utilising the 2014/2017 AHA/ACC guidelines, 13 had asymptomatic severe MR (stage C) and 11 had symptomatic severe MR (stage D). One patient had progressive MS (stage B), eight had asymptomatic severe MS (stage C) and seven had symptomatic severe MS (stage D).

Conclusions: The majority of those who could be stratified presented in stages C and D of disease progression; however, they also presented with concomitant clinical and echocardiographic features that placed them at high risk of perioperative morbidity.
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July 2021