Publications by authors named "Nolan J Maloney"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Synergistic effect of lymphovascular invasion and nodal involvement on prognosis in Merkel cell carcinoma: a retrospective analysis in the National Cancer Database.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System, Palo Alto, California; Department of Dermatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.08.055DOI Listing
September 2021

Prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion in early-stage Merkel cell carcinoma: A retrospective analysis in the National Cancer Database.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System, Palo Alto, California; Department of Dermatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.018DOI Listing
July 2021

Merkel cell carcinoma patients with solid organ transplant or hematologic malignancy: Demographics, survival, and prognosticators.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System, Palo Alto, California; Department of Dermatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.05.042DOI Listing
May 2021

Off-label Studies on the Use of Ruxolitinib in Dermatology.

Dermatitis 2021 May-Jun 01;32(3):164-172

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.

Purpose: Ruxolitinib (Jakafi) is a Janus kinase 1 and 2 small molecule inhibitor that the Food and Drug Administration approved for myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera. It has been expanded to off-label treatment for a variety of dermatologic conditions, with several clinical trials ongoing. A review of available studies and cases of off-label uses was performed to guide clinicians seeking evidence on the efficacy of this Janus kinase inhibitor for dermatologic disorders.

Materials And Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the term "ruxolitinib," and results were manually reviewed to identify published data on off-label uses of ruxolitinib. Studies included are structured by quality of evidence available.

Results: Ruxolitinib may have utility in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and vitiligo, with data from open-label and randomized trials supporting efficacy of topical formulations. Evidence of utility for alopecia areata is mixed and differs depending on topical versus oral form. Evidence for numerous other conditions is available through case reports and case series.

Conclusions: There is growing evidence supporting potential off-label use of oral and topical ruxolitinib for a wide range of skin conditions. There are several ongoing investigations of ruxolitinib use in dermatology that will undoubtedly better define its efficacy and appropriate use in dermatology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0000000000000658DOI Listing
January 2021

Psoriasis drugs in the medicare population: dermatologists' spending and prescription patterns.

J Dermatolog Treat 2021 Jan 20:1-4. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: Over the past decade, many new biologic and small-molecule drugs have been approved for psoriasis. These specialty drugs tend to be expensive and place financial burden on the healthcare system as well as patients. This study aims to explore trends in Medicare Part D spending and prescription patterns for psoriasis drugs by dermatologists.

Methods: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS) Medicare Part D Public Use Files from 2013 to 2017 were utilized to examine prescription rates and pricing FDA-approved psoriasis drugs.

Results: From 2013 to 2017, psoriasis drugs accounted for 41% of total Medicare Part D spending by dermatologists in the database, of which biologics accounted for 86.5%. The proportion of psoriasis-related spending increased from 36% of total spending in 2013 to 53% in 2017. Prescriptions of etanercept decreased while prescribers of newly approved drugs increased significantly. The cost per day of biologics were significantly variable in 2013 but converged toward similar costs in 2017.

Conclusion: Psoriasis prescriptions comprise a large, increasing proportion of Medicare Part D spending related to dermatology. These increasing costs have significant implications for the healthcare system and affect out-of-pocket costs for patients who rely on such medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2020.1864265DOI Listing
January 2021

Inadequate and delayed characterization of cutaneous reactions for US Food and Drug Administration-approved oncologic drugs from 2011-2020 leading to medication discontinuation.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 Oct 23. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.10.047DOI Listing
October 2020

Sweet syndrome as an adverse reaction to tyrosine kinase inhibitors: A review.

Dermatol Ther 2021 01 5;34(1):e14461. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are a class of targeted anticancer drugs that inhibit cancer cell proliferation by inactivating proteins involved in signal transduction cascades. Various cutaneous adverse events have been observed after tyrosine kinase inhibitor administration, including Sweet syndrome. We queried the PubMed database to identify 14 cases of Sweet syndrome thought to be secondary to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced Sweet syndrome had a median of 2 months latency following drug administration. All cases but one had morphologic features classic for Sweet syndrome (erythematous and tender papules, plaques, or nodules). All cases also had classic histopathologic findings (dermal neutrophilic infiltrate without vasculitis or necrosis). Using diagnostic criteria for drug-induced Sweet syndrome and the Naranjo Drug Reaction Probability Scale for a drug-induced cutaneous eruption, we found that six cases favored a drug-induced etiology over malignancy, two cases favored a malignancy-associated Sweet syndrome, and the remaining eight met drug-induced Sweet syndrome criteria but had low Naranjo scores. Nine cases resulted in medication discontinuation, while five cases continued anticancer therapy and were treated only with corticosteroids with quick resolution of skin lesions. Dermatologists should be aware of this adverse cutaneous reaction to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and should treat on a case-by-case basis, though limited evidence in this review suggests that oncologic therapy may safely be continued with prompt corticosteroid treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14461DOI Listing
January 2021

Overlap between hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and drug reaction and eosinophilia with systemic symptoms: a review.

Int J Dermatol 2020 Sep 21. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Drug reaction and eosinophilia with systemic symptoms (DRESS), also known as drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), shares features with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), most notably fever, rash, and internal organ involvement. However, there is increasing recognition of drug-induced (secondary) HLH and biopsy-proven hemophagocytosis in DRESS, suggesting that HLH and DRESS not only overlap but also may be diseases on the same spectrum of immune dysfunction. To characterize existing literature on HLH/DRESS overlap, we queried the PubMed/MEDLINE database for 23 cases of HLH-DRESS codiagnosis. Average time-to-onset of rash after exposure to inciting drug was 2.7 weeks. Fourteen cases (61%) clinically worsened despite initial therapy, prompting a workup with diagnosis of HLH on average 2.3 weeks after diagnosing DRESS. Nine cases met HLH diagnostic criteria and had a RegiSCAR score ≥4. Nine cases met one set of criteria with a presentation suggestive of the other. Five cases met neither criteria. A patient presenting with fever, generalized rash, bicytopenia, and internal organ involvement after drug exposure was most predictive of meeting diagnostic criteria for both HLH and DRESS. Treatment was highly variable, although most initiated systemic corticosteroids with/without IVIG, plasmapheresis, or etoposide. Patients with poor outcomes in this review were treated using steroid monotherapy and had viral reactivation. Dermatologists should consider the possibility of HLH in any patient presenting with fever, rash, internal organ involvement, and cytopenia. Additional studies will be necessary to further characterize HLH and DRESS overlap and determine optimal management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.15196DOI Listing
September 2020

Alopecia areata as an immune-related adverse event of immune checkpoint inhibitors: A review.

Dermatol Ther 2020 11 7;33(6):e14171. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) improve the ability of the immune system to target cancer cells by blocking signaling through either the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death (PD-1) receptor, or its ligand (PD-L1). They have been found to cause a variety of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) including a form of nonscarring alopecia that resembles alopecia areata (AA) in presentation and histology. Clinical features of ICI-induced AA are poorly described. We queried the Pubmed database for cases of AA secondary to ICI use reporting on extent of hair loss, treatments attempted, alopecia outcome, and time of follow-up with 13 cases identified. Although most patients had localized hair loss with subsequent regrowth, four of them experienced extensive and persistent AA, lasting up to a year. All but one patient continued ICI after the onset of hair loss. Many used topical corticosteroids with varying outcomes. Possible prognostic factors for severe and persistent disease may include young age and male sex. However, the low number of reported cases limits the generalizability of these findings. Tumor response was positive in every case of immune-induced AA where it was reported. Further investigation will be needed to better characterize clinical features of this irAE, risk factors for persistent disease, and determine its optimal management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14171DOI Listing
November 2020

Dermatology in the emergency department: Prescriptions, rates of inpatient admission, and predictors of high utilization in the United States from 1996 to 2012.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 May 17;84(5):1480-1483. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.07.055DOI Listing
May 2021

Financial burden in US patients with melanoma from 1997 to 2015: Racial disparities, trends, and predictors of high expenditures.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Mar 17;84(3):819-821. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.07.051DOI Listing
March 2021

Machine learning for precision dermatology: Advances, opportunities, and outlook.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 May 6;84(5):1458-1459. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.06.1019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023050PMC
May 2021

Off-Label studies on anakinra in dermatology: a review.

J Dermatolog Treat 2020 Apr 22:1-14. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Dermatology and Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Anakinra (Kineret) is an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) FDA approved for use in rheumatoid arthritis and in neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). It has been used off-label for a variety of dermatologic conditions. A review of the available studies and cases of these off-label uses would be valuable to the dermatologist considering alternative treatments for these oftentimes poorly studied conditions. The PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the term 'anakinra.' Results were manually screened to identify published data on off-label uses of anakinra in dermatologic conditions and systemic conditions with prominent dermatologic manifestations. Anakinra appears to show efficacy for numerous dermatologic conditions, with the strongest evidence for hidradenitis suppurativa, Bechet's disease, Muckle-Wells syndrome, and SAPHO syndrome. Case reports and case series data are available for numerous other dermatologic conditions. Anakinra is a potential option for patients with certain difficult-to-treat dermatologic diseases, given its relatively benign adverse effect profile and its effectiveness in a wide array of conditions. Overall, anakinra appears to be a promising option in the treatment of numerous dermatologic inflammatory conditions refractory to first line therapies, but further and higher-quality data is needed to clarify its therapeutic role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2020.1755417DOI Listing
April 2020

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis-like reactions to checkpoint inhibitors: a systematic review.

Int J Dermatol 2020 Jun 13;59(6):e183-e188. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The use of checkpoint inhibitors for treatment of advanced malignancies is increasing. Rashes, pruritus, and more rarely, reactions resembling Stevens-Johnsons syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) may occur secondary to checkpoint inhibitors. To characterize existing literature on these reports, we queried the PubMed/MEDLINE database for cases of SJS or TEN associated with checkpoint inhibitors. We identified 18 cases of SJS or TEN-like reactions to checkpoint inhibitors in the literature. There were 12 cases of SJS-like rashes with median time to onset of 5.6 weeks (average of 8.9 weeks), of which five were delayed to week 8 or later from checkpoint inhibitor initiation. The five TEN-like reactions had a median time to onset of 4 weeks (average of 5.38 weeks), of which two were delayed to week 6 or later. SJS/TEN-like reactions to nivolumab (seven cases) had median onset time of 3 weeks, whereas five cases secondary to pembrolizumab had median onset time of 11 weeks. Seven cases in this study described prodromal rashes, which varied from localized papular rashes to generalized morbilliform rashes, prior to evolution into SJS or TEN-like patterns. SJS-like patterns generally improved well on systemic treatment/supportive care and no cases of death were identified, but mortality occurred in three of five patients with TEN-like reactions. Dermatologists should consider the possibility for unique features of SJS/TEN in response to checkpoint inhibitors. Additional studies will be necessary to further characterize SJS/TEN-like eruptions on checkpoint inhibitors and determine the optimal management of these cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.14811DOI Listing
June 2020

Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the skin: a retrospective investigation in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database from 1975 to 2016.

Int J Dermatol 2020 May 12;59(5):e169-e171. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.14749DOI Listing
May 2020

Dupilumab in Dermatology: Potential for Uses Beyond Atopic Dermatitis

J Drugs Dermatol 2019 Oct;18(10)

Dupilumab inhibits the interleukin-4 receptor subunit α and is FDA approved for treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. It is a relatively new drug, and whether it is efficacious for other diseases in dermatology is an area of increasing interest. We searched the literature and ClinicalTrials.gov database for uses of dupilumab beyond atopic dermatitis in dermatology and for ongoing studies on new uses for dupilumab. Off-label reports identified described use of dupilumab for several different dermatologic conditions, including allergic contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria, prurigo nodularis, and alopecia areata. Overall, there is limited but promising data for dupilumab use beyond atopic dermatitis in dermatology. The relatively safe adverse effect profile of dupilumab may make it an option for certain recalcitrant diseases in dermatology, but further studies will be needed to assess its efficacy and determine its best possible use. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(10):1053-1055.
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October 2019

Off-label studies on tofacitinib in dermatology: a review.

J Dermatolog Treat 2021 Jun 3;32(4):399-409. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Department of Dermatology & Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Purpose: Tofacitinib citrate is an oral Janus kinase 1/3 inhibitor approved for rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and active psoriatic arthritis. Tofacitinib is being increasingly used off-label for dermatological conditions, with varying efficacy across recent studies. A review of these studies will be a helpful resource for dermatologists considering the use of tofacitinib for conditions refractory to first-line therapies.

Materials And Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, Clinicaltrials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were all searched for articles and trials mentioning the term 'tofacitinib', then manually reviewed to identify published data on off-label uses of tofacitinib. The article was structured according to the quality of the evidence available.

Results: Tofacitinib appears to show strong efficacy for numerous dermatologic conditions. Randomized controlled trial data is available for atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, and plaque psoriasis. Case report and case series data is available for numerous other dermatologic conditions.

Conclusion: While tofacitinib has a wide array of immunoregulatory properties, making it a possible candidate for treating many dermatologic conditions refractory to other treatments, further testing is needed to better characterize its efficacy and utility moving forward, as well as its safety and adverse effect profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2019.1673877DOI Listing
June 2021

Cutaneous spindle cell sarcoma: a population-based study in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database from 1975 to 2016.

Int J Dermatol 2019 Sep 4. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.14635DOI Listing
September 2019

Neutrophilic dermatoses as adverse effects of checkpoint inhibitors: A review.

Dermatol Ther 2019 09 4;32(5):e13074. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Checkpoint inhibitors are a new class of drugs that enhance the immune system's intrinsic ability to destroy tumor cells by blocking signaling through the programmed cell death (PD-1) receptor, its ligand (PD-L1), and the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4). The resulting increase in immunologic activity is responsible for a variety of adverse cutaneous reactions, which sometimes include neutrophilic dermatoses. We queried the PubMed database for existing cases of checkpoint inhibitors causing neutrophilic dermatoses. The literature search identified four cases of Sweet syndrome, four cases of pustular eruptions, two cases of pyoderma gangrenosum, and one case of bullous lupus erythematosus secondary to checkpoint inhibitors. All neutrophilic dermatoses were treated with topical or systemic steroids and most (9 of 11) completely resolved. Dermatologists should be aware of these rare, adverse cutaneous reactions to checkpoint inhibitors and how to approach their treatment, especially as their use increases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13074DOI Listing
September 2019

Patient experiences with biologics and apremilast in pityriasis rubra pilaris: A patient survey.

Dermatol Ther 2019 09 18;32(5):e13060. Epub 2019 Aug 18.

Department of Dermatology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13060DOI Listing
September 2019

Off-label studies on apremilast in dermatology: a review.

J Dermatolog Treat 2020 Mar 2;31(2):131-140. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Apremilast is a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor FDA approved for psoriatic arthritis and moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. In recent years, multiple studies have suggested other potential uses for apremilast in dermatology. A summary of these various studies will be a valuable aid to dermatologists considering apremilast for an alternative indication. The PubMed/MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were queried with the term 'apremilast,' with results manually screened to identify published data on off-label uses of apremilast. The article was structured by the quality of evidence available. Apremilast use in dermatology beyond plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is frequently described in the literature, with a mixture of positive and negative results. Randomized controlled data is available for Behçet's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, nail/scalp/palmoplantar psoriasis, alopecia areata, and atopic dermatitis. The relatively safe adverse effect profile of apremilast and its broad immunomodulatory characteristics may make it a promising option in the future for patients with difficult to treat diseases in dermatology, refractory to first line therapies, but further studies will be necessary to clarify its role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2019.1589641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6774908PMC
March 2020

Development of alopecia in patients treated with dupilumab.

Dermatol Ther 2019 05 18;32(3):e12869. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.12869DOI Listing
May 2019

Type I pityriasis rubra pilaris treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, ustekinumab, or secukinumab: A review.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Sep 5;79(3):585-587. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2018.02.063DOI Listing
September 2018

Refractory pityriasis rubra pilaris treated with etanercept, adalimumab, or ustekinumab: A retrospective investigation.

Dermatol Ther 2017 Nov 15;30(6). Epub 2017 Oct 15.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.

Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare, difficult to treat papulosquamous disorder that responds variably to retinoids and immunosuppression. Successful use of biologics for treating PRP has been described in the literature by case reports and a limited number of case series. To provide additional data, we retrospectively analyzed cases of PRP treated with biologics at our institution. We identified seven patients with a clear diagnosis of PRP treated with adalimumab, etanercept, and/or ustekinumab at our institution from January 1, 2014 to April 1, 2017. Six of seven patients had type I, adult acquired PRP, and one had type V atypical juvenile PRP. In response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibition, two patients had marked responses (>75% improvement in involved body surface area), while three patients failed to show any improvement on a TNF-α inhibitor. In two cases of PRP refractory to TNF-α inhibition, ustekinumab resulted in a partial response (<75% improvement) in one patient and no response in the other. Compared to other published data, our cohort was substantially more resistant to treatment with biologics, a finding which may provide valuable perspective for dermatologists managing refractory PRP in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.12559DOI Listing
November 2017

Destabilization of MYC/MYCN by the mitochondrial inhibitors, metaiodobenzylguanidine, metformin and phenformin.

Int J Mol Med 2014 Jan 1;33(1):35-42. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects of the mitochondrial inhibitors, metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), metformin and phenformin. 131I-MIBG has been used for scintigraphic detection and the targeted radiotherapy of neuroblastoma (NB), a pediatric malignancy. Non-radiolabeled MIBG has been reported to be cytotoxic to NB cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms behind its growth suppressive effects have not yet been fully elucidated. Metformin and phenformin are diabetes medications that are being considered in anticancer therapeutics. We investigated the anticancer mechanisms of action of MIBG and metformin in NB. Our data revealed that both drugs suppressed NB cell growth and that the combination drug treatment was more potent. MIBG reduced MYCN and MYC expression in MYCN-amplified and non-MYCN-amplified NB cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Metformin was less effective than MIBG in destabilizing MYC/MYCN. The treatment of NB cells with metformin or MIBG resulted in an increased expression of genes encoding biomarkers for favorable outcome in NB [(ephrin (EFN)B2, EFNB3, EPH receptor B6 (EPHB6), neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1 (NTRK1), CD44 and Myc-interacting zinc finger protein (MIZ-1)] and tumor suppressor genes [(early growth response 1 (EGR1), EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta (GADD45B), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), TP53 apoptosis effector (PERP) and sel-1 suppressor of lin-12-like (C. elegans) (SEL1L)]. Accordingly, metformin and MIBG augmented histone H3 acetylation in these cells. Phenformin also exhibited histone modification and was more effective than metformin in destabilizing MYC/MYCN in NB cells. Our data suggest that the destabilization of MYC/MYCN by MIBG, metformin and phenformin and their effects on histone modification are important mechanisms underlying their anticancer effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2013.1545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868499PMC
January 2014
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