Publications by authors named "Nodi Dehvari"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The metabolic effects of mirabegron are mediated primarily by β -adrenoceptors.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2020 10;8(5):e00643

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Vic., Australia.

The β -adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron is approved for use for overactive bladder and has been purported to be useful in the treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases in humans, including those involving disturbances of glucose homeostasis. We investigated the effect of mirabegron on glucose homeostasis with in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on its selectivity at β-adrenoceptors, ability to cause browning of white adipocytes, and the role of UCP1 in glucose homeostasis. In mouse brown, white, and brite adipocytes, mirabegron-mediated effects were examined on cyclic AMP, UCP1 mRNA, [ H]-2-deoxyglucose uptake, cellular glycolysis, and O consumption. Mirabegron increased cyclic AMP levels, UCP1 mRNA content, glucose uptake, and cellular glycolysis in brown adipocytes, and these effects were either absent or reduced in white adipocytes. In brite adipocytes, mirabegron increased cyclic AMP levels and UCP1 mRNA content resulting in increased UCP1-mediated oxygen consumption, glucose uptake, and cellular glycolysis. The metabolic effects of mirabegron in both brown and brite adipocytes were primarily due to actions at β -adrenoceptors as they were largely absent in adipocytes derived from β -adrenoceptor knockout mice. In vivo, mirabegron increased whole body oxygen consumption, glucose uptake into brown and inguinal white adipose tissue, and improved glucose tolerance, all effects that required the presence of the β -adrenoceptor. Furthermore, in UCP1 knockout mice, the effects of mirabegron on glucose tolerance were attenuated. Thus, mirabegron had effects on cellular metabolism in adipocytes that improved glucose handling in vivo, and were primarily due to actions at the β -adrenoceptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437350PMC
October 2020

Treatment with a β-2-adrenoceptor agonist stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and improves glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in mice with diet-induced obesity.

Diabetologia 2020 08 29;63(8):1603-1615. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, the Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 20B, Arrhenius laboratories F3, 10691, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims/hypothesis: Chronic stimulation of β-adrenoceptors, opposite to acute treatment, was reported to reduce blood glucose levels, as well as to improve glucose and insulin tolerance in rodent models of diabetes by essentially unknown mechanisms. We recently described a novel pathway that mediates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells via stimulation of β-adrenoceptors. In the current study we further explored the potential therapeutic relevance of β-adrenoceptor stimulation to improve glucose homeostasis and the mechanisms responsible for the effect.

Methods: C57Bl/6N mice with diet-induced obesity were treated both acutely and for up to 42 days with a wide range of clenbuterol dosages and treatment durations. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance test. We also measured in vivo glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, insulin sensitivity by insulin tolerance test, plasma insulin levels, hepatic lipids and glycogen.

Results: Consistent with previous findings, acute clenbuterol administration increased blood glucose and insulin levels. However, already after 4 days of treatment, beneficial effects of clenbuterol were manifested in glucose homeostasis (32% improvement of glucose tolerance after 4 days of treatment, p < 0.01) and these effects persisted up to 42 days of treatment. These favourable metabolic effects could be achieved with doses as low as 0.025 mg kg day (40 times lower than previously studied). Mechanistically, these effects were not due to increased insulin levels, but clenbuterol enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in vivo both acutely in lean mice (by 64%, p < 0.001) as well as during chronic treatment in diet-induced obese mice (by 74%, p < 0.001). Notably, prolonged treatment with low-dose clenbuterol improved whole-body insulin sensitivity (glucose disposal rate after insulin injection increased up to 1.38 ± 0.31%/min in comparison with 0.15 ± 0.36%/min in control mice, p < 0.05) and drastically reduced hepatic steatosis (by 40%, p < 0.01) and glycogen (by 23%, p < 0.05).

Conclusions/interpretation: Clenbuterol improved glucose tolerance after 4 days of treatment and these effects were maintained for up to 42 days. Effects were achieved with doses in a clinically relevant microgram range. Mechanistically, prolonged treatment with a low dose of clenbuterol improved glucose homeostasis in insulin resistant mice, most likely by stimulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and improving whole-body insulin sensitivity as well as by reducing hepatic lipids and glycogen. We conclude that selective β-adrenergic agonists might be an attractive potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. This remains to be confirmed in humans. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05171-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351816PMC
August 2020

BRL37344 stimulates GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle via β-adrenoceptors without causing classical receptor desensitization.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2019 05 20;316(5):R666-R677. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University , Stockholm , Sweden.

The type 2 diabetes epidemic makes it important to find insulin-independent ways to improve glucose homeostasis. This study examines the mechanisms activated by a dual β-/β-adrenoceptor agonist, BRL37344, to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and its effects on glucose homeostasis in vivo. We measured the effect of BRL37344 on glucose uptake, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation, cAMP levels, β-adrenoceptor desensitization, β-arrestin recruitment, Akt, AMPK, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation using L6 skeletal muscle cells as a model. We further tested the ability of BRL37344 to modulate skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in animal models (glucose tolerance tests and in vivo and ex vivo skeletal muscle glucose uptake). In L6 cells, BRL37344 increased GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake only by activation of β-adrenoceptors, with a similar potency and efficacy to that of the nonselective β-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline, despite being a partial agonist with respect to cAMP generation. GLUT4 translocation occurred independently of Akt and AMPK phosphorylation but was dependent on mTORC2. Furthermore, in contrast to isoprenaline, BRL37344 did not promote agonist-mediated desensitization and failed to recruit β-arrestin1/2 to the β-adrenoceptor. In conclusion, BRL37344 improved glucose tolerance and increased glucose uptake into skeletal muscle in vivo and ex vivo through a β-adrenoceptor-mediated mechanism independently of Akt. BRL37344 was a partial agonist with respect to cAMP, but a full agonist for glucose uptake, and importantly did not cause classical receptor desensitization or internalization of the receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00285.2018DOI Listing
May 2019

Mirabegron: potential off target effects and uses beyond the bladder.

Br J Pharmacol 2018 11 18;175(21):4072-4082. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

The β -adrenoceptor was initially an attractive target for several pharmaceutical companies due to its high expression in rodent adipose tissue, where its activation resulted in decreased adiposity and improved metabolic outputs (such as glucose handling) in animal models of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. However, several drugs acting at the β -adrenoceptor failed in clinical trials. This was thought to be due to their lack of efficacy at the human receptor. Recently, mirabegron, a β -adrenoceptor agonist with human efficacy, was approved in North America, Europe, Japan and Australia for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. There are indications that mirabegron may act at other receptors/targets, but whether they have any clinical relevance is relatively unknown. Besides overactive bladder syndrome, mirabegron may have other uses such as in the treatment of heart failure or metabolic disease. This review gives an overview of the off-target effects of mirabegron and its potential use in the treatment of other diseases.

Linked Articles: This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of GPCRs. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.21/issuetoc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.14121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6177610PMC
November 2018

The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone promotes the induction of brite adipocytes, increasing β-adrenoceptor-mediated mitochondrial function and glucose uptake.

Cell Signal 2018 Jan 29;42:54-66. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 381 Royal Parade, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia; Department of Pharmacology, 9 Ancora Imparo Way, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Recruitment and activation of brite (or beige) adipocytes has been advocated as a potential avenue for manipulating whole-body energy expenditure. Despite numerous studies illustrating the differences in gene and protein markers between brown, brite and white adipocytes, there is very little information on the adrenergic regulation and function of these brite adipocytes. We have compared the functional (cyclic AMP accumulation, oxygen consumption rates, mitochondrial function, glucose uptake, extracellular acidification rates, calcium influx) profiles of mouse adipocytes cultured from three contrasting depots, namely interscapular brown adipose tissue, and inguinal or epididymal white adipose tissues, following chronic treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone. Prototypical brown adipocytes readily express β-adrenoceptors, and β-adrenoceptor stimulation increases cyclic AMP accumulation, oxygen consumption rates, mitochondrial function, glucose uptake, and extracellular acidification rates. Treatment of brown adipocytes with rosiglitazone increases uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels, and increases β-adrenoceptor mitochondrial function but does not affect glucose uptake responses. In contrast, inguinal white adipocytes only express UCP1 and β-adrenoceptors following rosiglitazone treatment, which results in an increase in all β-adrenoceptor-mediated functions. The effect of rosiglitazone in epididymal white adipocytes, was much lower compared to inguinal white adipocytes. Rosiglitazone also increased α-adrenoceptor mediated increases in calcium influx and glucose uptake (but not mitochondrial function) in inguinal and epididymal white adipocytes. In conclusion, the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone promotes the induction and function of brite adipocytes cultured from inguinal and epididymal white adipose depots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2017.09.023DOI Listing
January 2018

β-Adrenergically induced glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue is independent of UCP1 presence or activity: Mediation through the mTOR pathway.

Mol Metab 2017 06 30;6(6):611-619. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Today, the presence and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans is generally equated with the induced accumulation of [2-F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([F]FDG) in adipose tissues, as investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. In reality, PET-FDG is currently the only method available for quantification of BAT activity in adult humans. The underlying assumption is that the glucose uptake reflects the thermogenic activity of the tissue.

Methods: To examine this basic assumption, we here followed [F]FDG uptake by PET and by tissue [H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake in wildtype and UCP1(-/-) mice, i.e. in mice that do or do not possess the unique thermogenic and calorie-consuming ability of BAT.

Results: Unexpectedly, we found that β-adrenergically induced (by CL-316,243) glucose uptake was UCP1-independent. Thus, whereas PET-FDG scans adequately reflect glucose uptake, this acute glucose uptake is not secondary to thermogenesis but is governed by an independent cellular signalling, here demonstrated to be mediated via the previously described KU-0063794-sensitive mTOR pathway.

Conclusions: Thus, PET-FDG scans do not exclusively reveal active BAT deposits but rather any tissue possessing an adrenergically-mediated glucose uptake pathway. In contrast, we found that the marked glucose uptake-ameliorating effect of prolonged β-adrenergic treatment was UCP1 dependent. Thus, therapeutically, UCP1 activity is required for any anti-diabetic effect of BAT activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2017.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5444022PMC
June 2017

Could burning fat start with a brite spark? Pharmacological and nutritional ways to promote thermogenesis.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2016 Jan 27;60(1):18-42. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Australia.

There are two types of adipose tissue with distinct functions-white adipose tissue stores chemical energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue consumes energy and releases heat (thermogenesis) in response to sympathetic nerve activity. In humans, treatments that promote greater brown adipose tissue deposition and/or activity would be highly beneficial in regimes aimed at reducing obesity. Adult humans have restricted populations of prototypical brown adipocytes in the neck and chest areas, but recent advances have established that adipocytes with similar properties, termed "brite" adipocytes, can be recruited in subcutaneous depots thought to be primarily white adipose tissue. These brite adipocytes express the protein machinery required for thermogenesis, but to assess brite adipocytes as viable therapeutic targets we need to understand how to promote conversion of white adipocytes to brite adipocytes and ways to increase optimal energy consumption and thermogenesis in these brite adipocytes. This can be accomplished by pharmacological and nutritional therapies to differing degrees, as reviewed in detail here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201500251DOI Listing
January 2016

Improving type 2 diabetes through a distinct adrenergic signaling pathway involving mTORC2 that mediates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

Diabetes 2014 Dec 9;63(12):4115-29. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

There is an increasing worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes that poses major health problems. We have identified a novel physiological system that increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but not in white adipocytes. Activation of this system improves glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki rats or mice fed a high-fat diet, which are established models for type 2 diabetes. The pathway involves activation of β2-adrenoceptors that increase cAMP levels and activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which phosphorylates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) at S2481. The active mTORC2 causes translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane and glucose uptake without the involvement of Akt or AS160. Stimulation of glucose uptake into skeletal muscle after activation of the sympathetic nervous system is likely to be of high physiological relevance because mTORC2 activation was observed at the cellular, tissue, and whole-animal level in rodent and human systems. This signaling pathway provides new opportunities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-1860DOI Listing
December 2014

Amyloid precursor protein accumulates in aggresomes in response to proteasome inhibitor.

Neurochem Int 2012 Apr 15;60(5):533-42. Epub 2012 Feb 15.

Department of Physiology, The Wenner-Gren Institute Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aggresomes are cytoplasmic inclusions which are localized at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) as a result of induced proteasome inhibition, stress or over-expression of certain proteins. Aggresomes are linked to the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Here we studied whether amyloid precursor protein (APP), a type-I transmembrane glycoprotein, is localized in aggresomes after exposure to stress condition. Using confocal microscopy we found that APP is located in aggresomes and co-localized with vimentin, γ-tubulin, 20S and ubiquitin at the MTOC in response to proteasome dysfunction. An interaction between vimentin and APP was found after proteasome inhibition suggesting that APP is an additional protein constituent of aggresomes. Suppression of the proteasome system in APP-HEK293 cells overexpressing APP or transfected with APP Swedish mutation caused an accumulation of stable, detergent-insoluble forms of APP containing poly-ubiquitinated proteins. In addition, brain homogenates from transgenic mice expressing human APP with the Arctic mutation demonstrated an interaction between APP and the aggresomal-marker vimentin. These data suggest that malfunctioning of the proteasome system caused by mutation or overexpression of pathological or non-pathological proteins may lead to the accumulation of stable aggresomes, perhaps contributing to the neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2012.02.012DOI Listing
April 2012

Macroautophagy-generated increase of lysosomal amyloid β-protein mediates oxidant-induced apoptosis of cultured neuroblastoma cells.

Autophagy 2011 Dec;7(12):1528-45

Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, IKE, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Increasing evidence suggests the toxicity of intracellular amyloid β-protein (Aβ) to neurons, as well as the involvement of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease (AD). Here we show that normobaric hyperoxia (exposure of cells to 40% oxygen for five days), and consequent activation of macroautophagy and accumulation of Aβ within lysosomes, induced apoptosis in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Cells under hyperoxia showed: (1) increased numbers of autophagic vacuoles that contained amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as Aβ monomers and oligomers, (2) increased reactive oxygen species production, and (3) enhanced apoptosis. Oxidant-induced apoptosis positively correlated with cellular Aβ production, being the highest in cells that were stably transfected with APP Swedish KM670/671NL double mutation. Inhibition of γ-secretase, prior and/or in parallel to hyperoxia, suggested that the increase of lysosomal Aβ resulted mainly from its autophagic uptake, but also from APP processing within autophagic vacuoles. The oxidative stress-mediated effects were prevented by macroautophagy inhibition using 3-methyladenine or ATG5 downregulation. Our results suggest that upregulation of macroautophagy and resulting lysosomal Aβ accumulation are essential for oxidant-induced apoptosis in cultured neuroblastoma cells and provide additional support for the interactive role of oxidative stress and the lysosomal system in AD-related neurodegeneration.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288025PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/auto.7.12.18051DOI Listing
December 2011

β(2)-Adrenoceptors increase translocation of GLUT4 via GPCR kinase sites in the receptor C-terminal tail.

Br J Pharmacol 2012 Mar;165(5):1442-56

Department of Physiology, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background And Purpose: β-Adrenoceptor stimulation induces glucose uptake in several insulin-sensitive tissues by poorly understood mechanisms.

Experimental Approach: We used a model system in CHO-K1 cells expressing the human β(2)-adrenoceptor and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to investigate the signalling mechanisms involved.

Key Results: In CHO-K1 cells, there was no response to β-adrenoceptor agonists. The introduction of β(2)-adrenoceptors and GLUT4 into these cells caused increased glucose uptake in response to β-adrenoceptor agonists. GLUT4 translocation occurred in response to insulin and β(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation, although the key insulin signalling intermediate PKB was not phosphorylated in response to β(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation. Truncation of the C-terminus of the β(2)-adrenoceptor at position 349 to remove known phosphorylation sites for GPCR kinases (GRKs) or at position 344 to remove an additional PKA site together with the GRK phosphorylation sites did not significantly affect cAMP accumulation but decreased β(2)-adrenoceptor-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, inhibition of GRK by transfection of the βARKct construct inhibited β(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation, and overexpression of a kinase-dead GRK2 mutant (GRK2 K220R) also inhibited GLUT4 translocation. Introducing β(2)-adrenoceptors lacking phosphorylation sites for GRK or PKA demonstrated that the GRK sites, but not the PKA sites, were necessary for GLUT4 translocation.

Conclusions And Implications: Glucose uptake in response to activation of β(2)-adrenoceptors involves translocation of GLUT4 in this model system. The mechanism is dependent on the C-terminus of the β(2)-adrenoceptor, requires GRK phosphorylation sites, and involves a signalling pathway distinct from that stimulated by insulin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01647.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3372728PMC
March 2012

β-Adrenergic inhibition of contractility in L6 skeletal muscle cells.

PLoS One 2011 28;6(7):e22304. Epub 2011 Jul 28.

Department of Physiology, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

The β-adrenoceptors (β-ARs) control many cellular processes. Here, we show that β-ARs inhibit calcium depletion-induced cell contractility and subsequent cell detachment of L6 skeletal muscle cells. The mechanism underlying the cell detachment inhibition was studied by using a quantitative cell detachment assay. We demonstrate that cell detachment induced by depletion of extracellular calcium is due to myosin- and ROCK-dependent contractility. The β-AR inhibition of L6 skeletal muscle cell detachment was shown to be mediated by the β(2)-AR and increased cAMP but was surprisingly not dependent on the classical downstream effectors PKA or Epac, nor was it dependent on PKG, PI3K or PKC. However, inhibition of potassium channels blocks the β(2)-AR mediated effects. Furthermore, activation of potassium channels fully mimicked the results of β(2)-AR activation. In conclusion, we present a novel finding that β(2)-AR signaling inhibits contractility and thus cell detachment in L6 skeletal muscle cells by a cAMP and potassium channel dependent mechanism.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022304PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145637PMC
December 2011

Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and improves plasma glucose levels in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

PLoS One 2011 26;6(7):e22510. Epub 2011 Jul 26.

Department of Physiology, Arrhenius Laboratories F3, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: There is considerable interest in identifying compounds that can improve glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle, due to its large mass, is the principal organ for glucose disposal in the body and we have investigated here if shikonin, a naphthoquinone derived from the Chinese plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells.

Methodology/principal Findings: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes, but does not phosphorylate Akt, indicating that in skeletal muscle cells its effect is medaited via a pathway distinct from that used for insulin-stimulated uptake. Furthermore we find no evidence for the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in shikonin induced glucose uptake. Shikonin increases the intracellular levels of calcium in these cells and this increase is necessary for shikonin-mediated glucose uptake. Furthermore, we found that shikonin stimulated the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface in L6 myoblasts. The beneficial effect of shikonin on glucose uptake was investigated in vivo by measuring plasma glucose levels and insulin sensitivity in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Treatment with shikonin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) once daily for 4 days significantly decreased plasma glucose levels. In an insulin sensitivity test (s.c. injection of 0.5 U/kg insulin), plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in the shikonin-treated rats. In conclusion, shikonin increases glucose uptake in muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium.

Conclusions/significance: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. The beneficial effects of shikonin on glucose metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo, show that the compound possesses properties that make it of considerable interest for developing novel treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022510PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3144218PMC
December 2011

Parkin deficiency disrupts calcium homeostasis by modulating phospholipase C signalling.

FEBS J 2009 Sep 3;276(18):5041-52. Epub 2009 Aug 3.

Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, KI-Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.

Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin cause early-onset, autosomal-recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AJRP), presumably as a result of a lack of function that alters the level, activity, aggregation or localization of its substrates. Recently, we have reported that phospholipase Cgamma1 is a substrate for parkin. In this article, we show that parkin mutants and siRNA parkin knockdown cells possess enhanced levels of phospholipase Cgamma1 phosphorylation, basal phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The protein levels of Ca2+-regulated protein kinase Calpha were decreased in AJRP parkin mutant cells. Neomycin and dantrolene both decreased the intracellular Ca2+ levels in parkin mutants in comparison with those seen in wild-type parkin cells, suggesting that the differences were a consequence of altered phospholipase C activity. The protection of wild-type parkin against 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) toxicity was also established in ARJP mutants on pretreatment with dantrolene, implying that a balancing Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive stores decreases the toxic effects of 6OHDA. Our findings suggest that parkin is an important factor for maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis and that parkin deficiency leads to a phospholipase C-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels, which make cells more vulnerable to neurotoxins, such as 6OHDA.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844703PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.07201.xDOI Listing
September 2009

Oxidative stress induces macroautophagy of amyloid beta-protein and ensuing apoptosis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2009 Feb 6;46(3):422-9. Epub 2008 Nov 6.

Division of Geriatric Medicine, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden.

There is increasing evidence for the toxicity of intracellular amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) to neurons and the involvement of lysosomes in this process in Alzheimer disease (AD). We have recently shown that oxidative stress, a recognized determinant of AD, enhances macroautophagy and leads to intralysosomal accumulation of Abeta in cultured neuroblastoma cells. We hypothesized that oxidative stress promotes AD by stimulating macroautophagy of Abeta that further may induce cell death by destabilizing lysosomal membranes. To investigate such possibility, we compared the effects of hyperoxia (40% ambient oxygen) in cultured HEK293 cells that were transfected with an empty vector (Vector), wild-type APP (APPwt), or Swedish mutant APP (APPswe). Exposure to hyperoxia for 5 days increased the number of cells with Abeta-containing lysosomes, as well as the number of apoptotic cells, compared to normoxic conditions. The rate of apoptosis in all three cell lines demonstrated dependence on intralysosomal Abeta content (Vector
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.10.043DOI Listing
February 2009

Parkin-mediated ubiquitination regulates phospholipase C-gamma1.

J Cell Mol Med 2009 Sep 30;13(9B):3061-8. Epub 2008 Jul 30.

Department of NVS, Karolinska Institutet, KI-Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.

Mutations in parkin cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), with an early age of onset and similar pathological phenotype to the idiopathic disease. Parkin has been identified as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates different types of ubiquitination, which has made the search for substrates an intriguing possibility to identify pathological mechanisms linked to PD. In this study, we present PLCgamma1 as a novel substrate for parkin. This association was found in non-transfected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells as well as in stable cell lines expressing parkin WT and familial mutants R42P and G328E. Analysis of cortical, striatal and nigral human brain homogenates revealed that the interaction between parkin and PLCgamma1 is consistent throughout these regions, suggesting that the interaction is likely to have a physiological relevance for humans. Unlike many of the previously identified substrates, we could also show that the steady-state levels of PLCgamma1 is significantly higher in parkin KO mice and lower in parkin WT human neuroblastoma cells, suggesting that parkin ubiquitination of PLCgamma1 is required for proteasomal degradation. In line with this idea, we show that the ability to ubiquitinate PLCgamma1 in vitro differs significantly between WT and familial mutant parkin. In this study, we demonstrate that parkin interacts with PLCgamma1, affecting PLCgamma1 steady state protein levels in human and murine models with manipulated parkin function and expression levels. This finding could be of relevance for finding novel pathogenic mechanisms leading to PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00443.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2832102PMC
September 2009

Presenilin regulates extracellular regulated kinase (Erk) activity by a protein kinase C alpha dependent mechanism.

Neurosci Lett 2008 May 5;436(1):77-80. Epub 2008 Mar 5.

Karolinska Institutet, NVS, KI-Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Novum, Stockholm, Sweden.

Presenilin (PS1 and PS2) mutations cause early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to affecting beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and Abeta generation, PSs regulate a number of signaling pathways. We previously showed that PSs regulate both phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and gamma activities. We also reported that PS double knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) have reduced levels of PKCalpha and enhanced levels of PKCdelta. Here, we determined whether the PS modulation of PLC/PKC has consequences for extracellular regulated kinase (Erk) signaling. Erk has been suggested to be important in AD pathology by modulating APP processing and tau phosphorylation. We found that knocking out PS1 or PS2 alone resulted in increased Erk activity and that this effect could be reversed by the PKCalpha inhibitor Gö6976. We also found that Erk activity following either PLC or PKC stimulation was significantly lower in PS double knockout cells and that treatment with the PKC activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu) down-regulated total-Erk levels in all cells except PS double knockouts. These results demonstrate that PSs regulate Erk activity through a PKCalpha dependent pathway and that disruption of PLC/PKC signaling in the absence of both PS1 and PS2 results in lower downstream activation of Erk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.02.063DOI Listing
May 2008

Presenilin-mediated signal transduction.

Physiol Behav 2007 Sep 25;92(1-2):93-7. Epub 2007 May 25.

Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, KI-Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Novum, plan 5, S-141 57 Huddinge, Sweden.

Presenilin proteins, mutated forms of which cause early onset familial Alzheimer's disease, are capable of modulating various cell signal transduction pathways, the most extensively studied of which has been intracellular calcium signalling. Disease causing presenilin mutations can potentiate inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (InsP3) mediated endoplasmic reticulum release due to calcium overload in this organelle, as well as attenuate capacitative calcium entry. Our own studies have shown a novel function for presenilins that involves regulation of acetylcholine muscarinic receptor-stimulated phospholipase C upstream of InsP3 regulated calcium release. This article reviews the mechanisms by which presenilins modulate intracellular calcium signalling and the role that deregulated calcium homeostasis could play in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.053DOI Listing
September 2007

Presenilin dependence of phospholipase C and protein kinase C signaling.

J Neurochem 2007 Aug 16;102(3):848-57. Epub 2007 Apr 16.

Karolinska Institutet, NVS, KI-Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Novum, Stockholm, Sweden.

Presenilins (PSs) are involved in processing several proteins such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP), as well as in pathways for cell death and survival. We previously showed that some familial Alzheimer's disease PS mutations cause increased basal and acetylcholine muscarinic receptor-stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activity which was gamma-secretase dependent. To further evaluate the dependence of PLC on PSs we measured PLC activity and the activation of variant protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking either PS1, PS2, or both. PLC activity and PKCalpha and PKCgamma activations were significantly lower in PS1 and PS2 double knockout MEFs after PLC stimulation. Protein levels of PKCalpha and PKCgamma were lower in PS1 and PS2 double knockout MEFs. In contrast, PKCdelta levels were significantly elevated in PS1 and PS2 double knockout as well as in PS1 knockout MEFs. Also, PKCdelta levels were lowered after transfection of PS1 into PS1 knockout or PS double knockout MEFs. Using APP knockout MEFs we showed that the expression of PKCalpha, but not the other PKC isoforms is partially dependent on APP and can be regulated by APP intracellular domain (AICD). These results show that PLC and PKC activations are modulated by PS and also that PSs differentially regulate the expression of PKC isoforms by both APP/AICD-dependent and independent mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04571.xDOI Listing
August 2007

Glutamate treatment and p25 transfection increase Cdk5 mediated tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 Jun 6;345(1):324-31. Epub 2006 May 6.

Karolinska Institutet, NVS, Division of Experimental Geriatrics, Novum, S-141 86 Huddinge, Sweden; AstraZeneca R&D, Forskargatan 20, Building 212, S-151 85 Södertälje, Sweden.

Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the tau phosphorylating kinases with pathological relevance in AD has been suggested to be the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). The proposed mechanism leading to pathological Cdk5 activity is through induced cleavage of p35 to a proteolytic product, p25. To further study activation of Cdk5 and its role in tau phosphorylation in vitro, we used differentiated SH-SY5Y cells treated with neurotoxic stimuli or transfected with p25. We show that glutamate increased tau phosphorylation, concomitant with an increased Cdk5 activity achieved by upregulation of Cdk5 and p35 protein levels. Treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 generated the calpain cleaved p25 fragment but only in toxic conditions that caused dephosphorylation and loss of tau. When p25 was transfected to the cells, increased tau phosphorylation was achieved. However, application of the Cdk5 inhibitor Roscovitine did not result in inhibition of tau phosphorylation possibly due to activation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), which also is capable of phosphorylating tau. Cdk5 and Erk1/2 kinases share some common substrates but impact of their cross talk on tau phosphorylation has not previously been demonstrated. We also show that p25 is degraded via the proteasome in Roscovitine treated cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.04.032DOI Listing
June 2006