Publications by authors named "Nobuyuki Sakai"

268 Publications

Intensive blood pressure lowering with nicardipine and outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage: An individual participant data systematic review.

Int J Stroke 2021 Sep 20:17474930211044635. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

Background And Aims: Nicardipine has strong, rapidly acting antihypertensive activity. The effects of acute systolic blood pressure levels achieved with intravenous nicardipine after onset of intracerebral hemorrhage on clinical outcomes were determined.

Methods: A systematic review and individual participant data analysis of articles before 1 October 2020 identified on PubMed were performed (PROSPERO: CRD42020213857). Prospective studies involving hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage adults treated with intravenous nicardipine whose outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale were eligible. Outcomes included death or disability at 90 days, defined as the modified Rankin Scale score of 4-6, and hematoma expansion, defined as an increase ≥6 mL from baseline to 24-h computed tomography.

Summary Of Review: Three studies met the eligibility criteria. For 1265 patients enrolled (age 62.6 ± 13.0 years, 484 women), death or disability occurred in 38.2% and hematoma expansion occurred in 17.4%. Mean hourly systolic blood pressure during the initial 24 h was positively associated with death or disability (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.26 per 10 mmHg) and hematoma expansion (1.16, 1.02-1.32). Mean hourly systolic blood pressure from 1 h to any timepoint during the initial 24 h was positively associated with death or disability. Later achievement of systolic blood pressure to ≤140 mmHg increased the risk of death or disability (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.05 per hour).

Conclusions: Rapid lowering of systolic blood pressure by continuous administration of intravenous nicardipine during the initial 24 h in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with lower risks of hematoma expansion and 90-day death or disability without increasing serious adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211044635DOI Listing
September 2021

Radical treatment of ruptured dissecting aneurysm on the P1 segment with monotherapy using multiple LVIS stents.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Sep 14;14(9). Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Neurosurgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.

The standard endovascular treatment for ruptured dissecting aneurysm is a parent artery occlusion. However, this treatment is unsuitable when the artery of the lesion gives off perforating vessels that supply blood to critical regions or when the collateral flow cannot be expected due to the sacrifice of the parent artery. Here, we present an infrequent case of ruptured dissecting aneurysm on P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. The aneurysm had little sac for coiling and the artery of the lesion had some perforator branches; thus, we selected the monotherapy with three overlapping low-profile visualised intraluminal support stents as radical treatment, which resulted in prompt obliteration of the aneurysm. The patient was fully recovered at 3 months after the procedure. Previous studies have reported the effectiveness of multiple stents alone for dissecting aneurysms, whereas this case showed that overlapping stents may also be effective on the P1 segment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-244950DOI Listing
September 2021

Serial Radiological Findings in Meningovascular Neurosyphilis Presenting as Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Case Report.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Sep 6;30(11):106087. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Neurology, Kobe City Hospital Organization, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, 2-1-1 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Meningovascular neurosyphilis, a form of early neurosyphilis, can cause infectious arteritis, which can be complicated by cerebral infarction. High-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI) is one of the techniques used to directly visualize the vessel wall. Herein, we present a rare case of meningovascular neurosyphilis, in which intracranial arterial vasculitis was evaluated using HR-VWI.

Case Presentation: A 22-year-old man with no medical history of any condition was brought to the emergency room with one day history of right upper and lower extremity weakness. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a high signal from the left putamen to the corona radiata, and MR angiography showed stenosis of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) and the bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). HR-VWI showed thickening, along with smooth, intense, and concentric enhancement of the right ICA and the bilateral MCAs. The patient was diagnosed with neurosyphilis based on the findings of the blood tests and cerebrospinal fluid examination. The patient's symptoms gradually improved after treatment with intravenous penicillin G and oral antiplatelet agents. HR-VWI, performed approximately 6 months after the treatment, revealed improvement in the contrast enhancement of the vessel wall and the vascular stenosis.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of meningovascular neurosyphilis that evaluated the course of treatment using HR-VWI. Our report highlights the effectiveness of HR-VWI to determine the effects of treatment on meningovascular neurosyphilis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106087DOI Listing
September 2021

Construction of Multilayer Films and Superlattice- and Mosaic-like Heterostructures of 2D Metal Oxide Nanosheets via a Facile Spin-Coating Process.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 30;13(36):43258-43265. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan.

This study reports a design of a variety of nanostructured films of 2D oxide nanosheets. We systematically examined the deposition of perovskite-type CaNbO nanosheets by spin-coating their dimethyl sulfoxide dispersion. Neat and homogeneous monolayer tiling was attained on various substrates by selecting an optimum rotation speed, which was dependent on the nanosheet concentration. Repeating the optimized spin-coating process allowed for layer-by-layer deposition of the nanosheets into multilayer films with a designed layer number. Vertical superlattice heterostructures could also be assembled by alternately spin-coating the suspensions of CaNbO and TiO nanosheets. Furthermore, spin-coating of a mixed suspension of CaNbO and TiO nanosheets led to a mixed mosaic-like monolayer of these two nanosheets. The present study thus demonstrated spin-coating as a facile and powerful route to construct various nanostructures based on 2D oxide nanosheets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c11463DOI Listing
September 2021

Crispness, the Key for the Palatability of "Kakinotane": A Sensory Study with Onomatopoeic Words.

Foods 2021 Jul 26;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Psychology, Tohoku University, 27-1 Kawauchi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Crispness is among the most important food textures that contribute significantly to palatability. This study investigated the association between the perceived crispness and palatability of five types of Japanese rice crackers known as "kakinotane." Two experiments were conducted using the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) and temporal drivers of liking (TDL) methods. As descriptors for the TDS evaluation, we used 10 Japanese onomatopoeias to indicate various attributes of crispness. We also measured the mastication sounds and electromyography (EMG) activity during mastication. Principal component analysis data revealed that principal component 1, representing moisture characteristics, contributed more than 60% in both experiments. The palatability of the stimulus, which was described as having a very soft, moist, and sticky texture, BETA-BETA, was significantly lower than the others. However, there was no significant relationship between the amplitude of mastication sound or EMG activity and palatability. We demonstrated that naïve university students can discriminate the fine nuances of the crispness of "kakinotane" using the TDS and TDL methods. Our findings also suggested that the onomatopoeias used as descriptors in the TDS method had a greater influence on describing the nuances of food texture than the physiological data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10081724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394262PMC
July 2021

Solution-Processed Two-Dimensional Metal Oxide Anticorrosion Nanocoating.

Nano Lett 2021 Aug 16;21(16):7044-7049. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan.

Molecularly thin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are attractive building blocks for constructing anticorrosion nanocoatings as an ultimate pursuit in the metal-related industry. However, the nanocoating of prefocused graphene is far from industrial demands due to its high cost, low scalability, and insufficient quality. We propose all requirements to realize rational anticorrosion nanocoating of metal oxide nanosheets. The proof-of-concept study with TiO and CaNbO nanosheets demonstrates that the 10 and 20 nm thick coatings fabricated by a facile layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly on stainless steel (SUS) give perfect inhibition efficiency (IE) values of 99.92% and 99.89%, respectively. A driving test with a nanosheet-coated car-baffle demonstrated suitable corrosion resistance and mechanical and thermal robustness for industrial applications. The revealed and controlled thermal oxidation mechanisms are critical toward high-temperature application of the 2D oxide anticorrosion nanocoating. The advantages of nanosheet coating and extensible materials design will open a solid but exciting route to anticorrosion nanotechnology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02581DOI Listing
August 2021

Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Using Cilostazol With Aspirin or Clopidogrel: Subanalysis of the CSPS.com Trial.

Stroke 2021 Aug 18:STROKEAHA121034378. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan. (K. Toyoda, T.Y.).

Background And Purpose: Although dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel reduces the recurrence of ischemic stroke while significantly increasing the bleeding events compared with monotherapy, the CSPS.com trial (Cilostazol Stroke Prevention Study combination) showed that DAPT using cilostazol was more effective without the bleeding risk. In the CSPS.com trial, aspirin or clopidogrel was used as the underlying antiplatelet drug. The effectiveness and safety of each combination were examined and clarified.

Methods: In the CSPS.com trial, a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled study, patients with high-risk, noncardioembolic ischemic stroke 8 to 180 days after onset treated with aspirin or clopidogrel alone at the discretion of the physician in charge were recruited. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either monotherapy or DAPT using cilostazol and followed for 0.5 to 3.5 years. The primary efficacy outcome was first recurrence of ischemic stroke. The safety outcome was severe or life-threatening bleeding. The analysis was based on the underlying antiplatelet agents.

Results: A total of 763 patients taking aspirin and 1116 taking clopidogrel were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Although the clopidogrel group had more risk factors than the aspirin group, the primary efficacy outcome and safety outcome did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. In the aspirin group, the primary efficacy outcome and safety outcome did not differ significantly between the DAPT group and the aspirin-monotherapy group. In the clopidogrel group, the primary end point occurred at a rate of 2.31 per 100 patient-years in the DAPT group and 5.19 per 100 patient-years in the clopidogrel-monotherapy group (hazard ratio, 0.447 [95% CI, 0.258-0.774]). Safety outcome did not differ significantly between groups (0.51 per 100 patient-years versus 0.71 per 100 patient-years, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.730 [95% CI, 0.206-2.588]).

Conclusions: The combination of cilostazol and clopidogrel significantly reduced the recurrence of ischemic stroke without increasing the bleeding risk in noncardioembolic, high-risk patients.

Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01995370. URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/; Unique identifier: UMIN000012180.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.034378DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of prior antiplatelet therapy on large vessel occlusion in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation newly initiated on apixaban.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Sep 4;428:117603. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: We evaluated the effect of prior antiplatelet therapy on large vessel occlusion (LVO) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) newly initiated on apixaban.

Methods: Patients with acute LVO with acute stroke due to NVAF or stenosis with NVAF started on apixaban within 14 days of onset were enrolled. We compared incidence of major bleeding, cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic events, cerebral infarction, and all-cause mortality between patients with and without prior antiplatelet therapy for acute LVO. We also compared these events between patients who continued antiplatelet therapy after onset (continued group) and those who discontinued it (discontinued group). Hazard ratios were estimated after adjusting for confounders; interaction was evaluated considering intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) or endovascular treatment (EVT) according to major bleeding.

Results: The study comprised 686 eligible patients (excluded [n = 194]; enrolled [n = 492]). The antiplatelet group consisted of older patients (mean: 79 vs. 76 years; p = 0.006) and had a higher cumulative incidence of major bleeding (7.3% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.003). The incidence of ischemic events and all-cause mortality was similar between the groups. Among the 109 patients in the antiplatelet group, the cumulative incidence of major bleeding, ischemic events, and all-cause mortality was comparable between continued group (n = 26) and discontinued group (n = 83). There were no significant differences between groups with and without IVT/EVT. However, major bleeding occured more frequently in the antiplatelet group without IVT.

Conclusion: Prior antiplatelet therapy for LVO in patients with NVAF newly initiated on apixaban was associated with major bleeding, which was more frequent in the antiplatelet group without IVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117603DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparing Meal Satisfaction Based on Different Types of Tableware: An Experimental Study of Japanese Cuisine Culture.

Foods 2021 Jul 4;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Graduate School of Arts & Letters, Tohoku University, 27-1 Kawauchi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8756, Japan.

In Japan, as in other countries, the externalization of food preparation is increasing. Japanese people are interested in the combination of food and tableware and they are concerned about transferring ready-made meals from plastic containers to natural tableware. This study aimed to examine the varying evaluations of meals due to differences in tableware. In this study, we investigated the effect of tableware on meal satisfaction, which is emphasized in Japanese culture. We studied the difference in the evaluation of ready-made meals (a rice ball, salad, croquette, and corn soup) before, during, and after a meal under two conditions: plastic tableware and natural wooden tableware. The results showed that there was no difference in the perceptual evaluation of taste and texture during the meal, except for the color of the salad and the temperature of the soup. On the other hand, meals served on natural wooden tableware were rated more positively than those served on plastic tableware before and after meals. These results suggest that, in Japan, the use of tableware, even for ready-made meals, increases the level of meal satisfaction. These findings have implications for both the providers and consumers of ready-made meals as well as the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307919PMC
July 2021

Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Large-Vessel Occlusion due to Atherosclerotic Stenosis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 24;30(10):105960. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Objectives: Endovascular therapy (EVT) is safe and effective for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large-vessel occlusion (LVO). However, the influence of the AIS subtype (large-artery atherosclerosis [LAA] or cardioembolism [CE]) on clinical outcome in patients treated with EVT remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in clinical results between the two subtypes using data from a multicenter prospective registry (RESCUE-Japan Registry 2).

Materials And Methods: Among 2420 patients in RESCUE-Japan Registry, 682 patients who were diagnosed with LAA or CE were enrolled. The primary outcome was a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2 at 90 days. The secondary outcomes were 90-day mRS 0-1, 0-3, and 6. The relationship between time from onset and clinical outcome was also analyzed.

Results: Among the 682 patients, 124 were classified into the LAA group and 558 into the CE group. The baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was significantly lower (median 15 vs. 18, p < 0.001). At 90 days, mRS 0-2 was observed in 54 of 124 patients (44%) in the LAA group and 232 of 558 patients (42%) in the CE group (p = 0.69). The proportion of patients with mRS 0-2 tended to decrease according to onset-to-puncture time in the CE group but not in the LAA group (p=0.0007).

Conclusions: The rate of good outcome was similar between LVO due to LAA and CE. However, the rate of favorable outcome did not decrease according to onset-to-puncture time in the LAA group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105960DOI Listing
July 2021

Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Prestroke Disability.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Aug 21;10(15):e020783. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurosurgery Hyogo College of Medicine Nishinomiya Japan.

Background Outcomes after stroke as a result of large-vessel occlusion in patients with prestroke disability were compared between endovascular therapy (EVT) and medical management. Methods and Results Of 2420 patients with acute stroke with large-vessel occlusion in a prospective, multicenter, nationwide registry in Japan, patients with prestroke modified Rankin Scale scores 2 to 4 with occlusion of the internal carotid artery, or M1 of the middle cerebral artery were analyzed. The primary effectiveness outcome was the favorable outcome, defined as return to at least the prestroke modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months. Safety outcomes included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. A total of 339 patients (237 women; median 85 [interquartile range (IQR), 79-89] years of age; median prestroke modified Rankin Scale score of 3 [IQR, 2-4]) were analyzed. EVT was performed in 175 patients (51.6%; mechanical thrombectomy, n=139). The EVT group was younger (<0.01) and had lower prestroke modified Rankin Scale scores (<0.01) than the medical management group. The favorable outcome was seen in 28.0% of the EVT group and in 10.9% of the medical management group (<0.01). EVT was associated with the favorable outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.55-5.85; mixed effects multivariable model with inverse probability of treatment weighting). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates were similar between the EVT (4.0%) and medical management (4.3%) groups (=1.00). Conclusions Patients who underwent EVT showed better functional outcomes than those with medical management. Given proper patient selection, withholding EVT solely on the basis of prestroke disability might not offer the best chance of favorable outcome. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02419794.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.020783DOI Listing
August 2021

Exfoliated Ferrierite-Related Unilamellar Nanosheets in Solution and Their Use for Preparation of Mixed Zeolite Hierarchical Structures.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 15;143(29):11052-11062. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 2, Kraków 30-387, Poland.

Direct exfoliation of layered zeolites into solutions of monolayers has remained unresolved since the 1990s. Recently, zeolite MCM-56 with the MWW topology (layers denoted mww) has been exfoliated directly in high yield by soft-chemical treatment with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH). This has enabled preparation of zeolite-based hierarchical materials and intimate composites with other active species that are unimaginable via the conventional solid-state routes. The extension to other frameworks, which provides broader benefits, diversified activity, and functionality, is not routine and requires finding suitable synthesis formulations, viz. compositions and conditions, of the layered zeolites themselves. This article reports exfoliation and characterization of layers with ferrierite-related structure, denoted bifer, having rectangular lattice constants like those of the FER and CDO zeolites, and thickness of approximately 2 nm, which is twice that of the so-called fer layer. Several techniques were combined to prove the exfoliation, supported by simulations: AFM; in-plane, in situ, and powder X-ray diffraction; TEM; and SAED. The results confirmed (i) the structure and crystallinity of the layers without unequivocal differentiation between the FER and CDO topologies and (ii) uniform thickness in solution (monodispersity), ruling out significant multilayered particles and other impurities. The bifer layers are zeolitic with Brønsted acid sites, demonstrated catalytic activity in the alkylation of mesitylene with benzyl alcohol, and intralayer pores visible in TEM. The practical benefits are demonstrated by the preparation of unprecedented intimately mixed zeolite composites with the mww, with activity greater than the sum of the components despite high content of inert silica as pillars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c04081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397323PMC
July 2021

-infected chronic subdural hematoma mimicking an expanding hematoma: A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 14;12:288. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.

Background: We present the rare case of a spontaneous intracranial subdural empyema caused by in a preexisting chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH).

Case Description: A 72-year-old man with a history of the right CSDH that remained radiologically unchanged for the past 2 years with conservative management was transferred to our hospital because of fever and convulsive seizure. Systemic sources of infection were not identified. Fever and extremely high levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) spontaneously improved without antibacterial therapy. One month after the fever disappeared, brain computed tomography (CT) showed an increase in CSDH size. Mildly elevated CRP levels persisted without fever. Interval changes in shape on CT and hyperintense signals on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) within the CSDH were observed with no neurological deficits. Five months later, the patient underwent craniotomy for a progressively enlarged CSDH. An infected organized hematoma was found, and copious pus was evacuated. Subsequently, an infected subdural hematoma (ISH) was diagnosed. Although bacterial cultures of the purulent specimen were negative, was identified by gene sequencing analysis. Six months post antibiotic therapy, the ISH was under control, and abnormal DWI signals disappeared.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ISH caused by . This case suggests that ISH can follow a chronic course, mimicking the progressive expansion of subdural hematoma, and that should be considered as a causative organism of ISH especially when conventional cultures are negative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI_387_2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247720PMC
June 2021

Mechanical thrombectomy for stroke patients anticoagulated with direct oral anticoagulants versus warfarin.

J Neurol Sci 2021 08 17;427:117545. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Background Outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion (LVO) were compared between stroke patients anticoagulated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and those anticoagulated with warfarin.

Materials And Methods: From data for 2399 LVO stroke patients in a prospective, multicenter registry, patients with prior oral anticoagulation who underwent MT were analyzed. Angiographic outcomes included successful recanalization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b/3). Clinical outcomes included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2 at 3 months and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Results: A total of 235 patients (95 women, median age 78 [interquartile range, 72-84] years) were included. Prescribed anticoagulants were DOACs in 61 patients and warfarin in 174 patients. Of patients on warfarin, 135 (77.6%) had a non-therapeutic therapy (international normalized ration [INR] ≤1.7). Patients on therapeutic warfarin (INR >1.7) had younger age and shorter onset to hospital arrival time than those on non-therapeutic warfarin and DOACs. The achievement of successful recanalization in warfarin groups was similar to the DOACs group, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for therapeutic warfarin versus DOACs of 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-4.89) and non-therapeutic warfarin versus DOACs of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.39-2.20), respectively. The frequency of mRS score 0-2 at 3 months in the therapeutic (aOR, 2.63; 95% CI, 0.86-7.98) and non-therapeutic warfarin (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 0.76-4.09) groups were similar to those in the DOACs group. There was no significant difference in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage between groups.

Conclusions: Angiographic and clinical outcomes after MT were similar between patients anticoagulated with DOACs and warfarin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117545DOI Listing
August 2021

Time-outcome relationship in acute large-vessel occlusion exists across all ages: subanalysis of RESCUE-Japan Registry 2.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 17;11(1):12782. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.

Early reperfusion after endovascular thrombectomy is associated with an improved outcome in ischemic stroke patients; however, the time dependency in elderly patients remains unclear. We investigated the time-outcome relationships in different age subgroups. Of 2420 patients enrolled in the RESCUE-Japan Registry 2 study, a study based on a prospective registry of stroke patients with acute cerebral large-vessel occlusion at 46 centers, we analyzed the data of 1010 patients with successful reperfusion after endovascular therapy (mTICI of 2b or 3). In 3 age subgroups (< 70, 70 to < 80, and ≥ 80 years), the mRS scores at 90 days were analyzed according to 4 categories of onset-to-reperfusion time (< 180, 180 to < 240, 240 to < 300, and ≥ 300 min). In each age subgroup, the distributions of mRS scores were better with shorter onset-to-reperfusion times. The adjusted common odds ratios for better outcomes per 1-category delay in onset-to-reperfusion time were 0.66 (95% CI 0.55-0.80) in ages < 70 years, 0.66 (95% CI 0.56-0.79) in ages 70 to < 80 years, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.70-0.98) in ages ≥ 80 years. Early reperfusion was associated with better outcomes across all age subgroups. Achieving early successful reperfusion is important even in elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92100-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211644PMC
June 2021

Effect of early intensive rehabilitation on the clinical outcomes of patients with acute stroke.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 Aug 8;21(8):623-628. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Rehabilitation, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

Aim: Intensive rehabilitation effectively improves physical functions in patients with acute stroke, but the frequency of intervention and its cost-effectiveness are poorly studied. This study aimed to examine the effect of early high-frequency rehabilitation intervention on inpatient outcomes and medical expenses of patients with stroke.

Methods: The study retrospectively included 1759 patients with acute stroke admitted to the Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital between 2013 and 2016. Patients with a transient ischemic attack, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and those who underwent urgent surgery were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups according to the frequency of rehabilitation intervention: the high-frequency intervention group (>2 times/day, n = 1105) and normal-frequency intervention group (<2 times/day, n = 654). A modified Rankin scale score ≤2 at discharge, immobility-related complications and medical expenses were compared between the groups.

Results: The high-frequency intervention group had a significantly shorter time to first rehabilitation (median [interquartile range], 19.0 h [13.1-38.4] vs. 24.7 h [16.1-49.4], P < 0.001) and time to first mobilization (23.3 h [8.7-47.2] vs. 22.8 h [5.7-62.3], P = 0.65) than the normal-frequency intervention group. Despite higher disease severity, the high-frequency intervention group exhibited favorable outcomes at discharge (modified Rankin scale, ≤2; adjusted odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.85; P = 0.002). No significant differences were observed between the two groups concerning the rate of immobility-related complications and total medical expenses during hospitalization.

Conclusions: High-frequency intervention was associated with improved outcomes and decreased medical expenses in patients with stroke. Our results may contribute to reducing medical expenses by increasing the efficiency of care delivery. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 623-628.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.14202DOI Listing
August 2021

Influence of intravenous alteplase on endovascular treatment decision-making in acute ischemic stroke due to primary medium-vessel occlusion: a case-based survey study.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Diagnostic Imaging, University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Intravenous alteplase is currently the only evidence-based treatment for medium-vessel occlusion stroke (MeVO; M2/3, A2/3, and P2/3 vessel segment occlusions), but due to its limited efficacy, endovascular treatment (EVT) is increasingly performed in these patients. In this case-based survey study, we examined the influence of intravenous alteplase treatment on physicians' decision-making for EVT in primary MeVO stroke.

Methods: In an international web-based survey among physicians involved in acute stroke care, participants provided their EVT decision for six quasi-identical fictional MeVO case scenarios (three with and without intravenous alteplase administered). Each scenario showed radiological images and clinical information in the form of a short case vignette. We compared EVT decisions ("immediate EVT", "no EVT", or "wait for alteplase effect" [in case scenarios with alteplase treatment only]) for case scenarios with and without alteplase treatment. Clustered multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of alteplase on treatment decision.

Results: The survey was completed by 366 physicians from 44 countries, resulting in 2196 responses included in this study. In alteplase-treated cases, 641/1098 (58.4%) responses favored immediate EVT, (279/1098 [25.4%]) favored no EVT and 178/1098 (16.2%) opted to wait for alteplase effect. In non-alteplase-treated case scenarios, 846/1098 (78.7%) were in favor of and 252/1098 (21.3%) against EVT. Intravenous alteplase was associated with a lower chance of a decision in favor of immediate EVT (adjusted OR 0.38 [95%CI 0.31 to 0.46]).

Conclusions: Intravenous alteplase is an important factor in EVT decision-making for MeVO stroke. However, even in alteplase-treated patients, more than half of the physicians decided to proceed with EVT without waiting for alteplase effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017471DOI Listing
May 2021

A Damp-and-Push Technique for the Copolymer (Onyx) Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Aug 23;30(8):105853. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Hyogo, Japan.

Background: Copolymer (Onyx) embolization is an effective treatment for dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF), however, some dAVFs have multiple, high-flow feeding vessels, resulting in insufficient embolization. For the treatment of such patients, we have developed a novel flow-control technique, the 'damp-and-push technique'. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical efficiency and safety of this technique.

Methods: Seven patients who had been diagnosed with intracranial dAVF were treated by transarterial Onyx embolization using the damp-and-push technique between 2016 and 2019. This technique was designed to reduce blood flow to the shunt site using a balloon catheter in the major feeding vessel other than the one injected with Onyx, leading to better Onyx penetration and enabling more controlled embolization of complex dAVFs. Retrospectively collected data were reviewed to assess the occlusion rates and clinical outcomes.

Results: The dAVF was at a transverse sinus-sigmoid sinus junction in four patients, in the superior sagittal sinus in two, and in the tentorium in one. Five cases were Cognard type Ⅱb and two cases were Cognard type Ⅳ. All the patients were treated by transarterial Onyx injection via the main feeding vessel, combined with flow reduction in the other main feeding vessel using a balloon catheter. Complete occlusion was achieved in six patients and elimination of cerebral venous reflux was achieved in all the patients. There were no immediate or delayed post-interventional complications.

Conclusions: Transarterial Onyx embolization of dAVF using the damp-and-push technique is safe and yields a high complete occlusion rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105853DOI Listing
August 2021

Small Unruptured Aneurysm Verification-prevention Effect against Growth of Cerebral Aneurysm Study Using Statin.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2021 Jul 24;61(7):442-451. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine.

Several basic experimental studies have demonstrated that statins have beneficial effects for intracranial aneurysm (IA). Clinical studies on unruptured IAs, however, remain limited to four retrospective studies that have reached different conclusions. This study was the first open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial to assess the preventive effects of atorvastatin. Patients with unruptured small saccular IAs were randomly assigned to statin and control groups. The primary endpoint was a composite of aneurysm growth of ≥0.5 mm, new bleb formation confirmed from magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, and rupture. Enrollment was prematurely terminated due to unexpectedly slow enrollment. Of 231 patients (275 target IAs), 110 patients (128 IAs) were randomly assigned to the statin group and 121 patients (147 IAs) to the control group. After excluding 22 dropout patients, 107 IAs in the 93 statin group patients and 140 IAs in the 116 control group patients were finally analyzed. No significant differences of basic characteristics were evident between groups, except for significantly higher systolic pressure in the statin group (P = 0.03). The primary endpoint occurred in 28 IAs (20.0%) in the control group and in 17 IAs (15.9%) in the statin group. No aneurysm rupture was confirmed in either group. Significant beneficial effects of statin for IAs were not demonstrated for the primary endpoint (log-rank P = 0.359). This randomized trial did not establish any preventive effects of atorvastatin for unruptured small IAs. Further studies of larger cohorts are required to clarify the efficacy of statins for patients with unruptured IAs. Clinical trial registration: UMIN000005135.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.oa.2021-0017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280329PMC
July 2021

Factors influencing thrombectomy decision making for primary medium vessel occlusion stroke.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Diagnostic Imaging, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Background: We aimed to explore the preference of stroke physicians to treat patients with primary medium vessel occlusion (MeVO) stroke with immediate endovascular treatment (EVT) in an international cross-sectional survey, as there is no clear guideline recommendation for EVT in these patients.

Methods: In the survey MeVO-Finding Rationales and Objectifying New Targets for IntervEntional Revascularization in Stroke (MeVO-FRONTIERS), participants were shown four cases of primary MeVOs (six scenarios per case) and asked whether they would treat those patients with EVT. Multivariable logistic regression with clustering by respondent was performed to assess factors influencing the decision to treat. Dominance analysis was performed to assess the influence of factors within the scenarios on decision making.

Results: Overall, 366 participants (56 women; 15%) from 44 countries provided 8784 answers to 24 scenarios. Most physicians (59.2%) would treat patients immediately with EVT. Younger patient age (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.24, 99% CI 1.19 to 1.30), higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (IRR 1.69, 99% CI 1.57 to 1.82), and small core volume (IRR 1.35, 99% CI 1.24 to 1.46) were positively associated with the decision to treat with EVT. Interventionalists (IRR 1.26, 99% CI 1.01 to 1.56) were more likely to treat patients with MeVO immediately with EVT. In the dominance analysis, factors influencing the decision in favor of EVT were (in order of importance): baseline NIHSS, core volume, alteplase use, patients' age, and occlusion site.

Conclusions: Most physicians in this survey were interventionalists and would treat patients with MeVO stroke immediately with EVT. This finding supports the need for robust clinical evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017472DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of Procedure Time on Clinical Outcomes of Patients Who Underwent Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 4;50(4):443-449. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hyogo Medical College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Background And Purpose: The time from onset to reperfusion is associated with clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO); nevertheless, the time limit of the continuing procedure remains unclear. We analyzed the relationship between procedure time and clinical outcomes in patients with LVO who underwent endovascular treatment (EVT).

Methods: We assessed 1,247 patients who underwent EVT for LVO. Data were obtained from our multicenter registry, and patients were included if data on procedure time were available. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the impact of procedure time on clinical outcomes using the following parameters: favorable outcome (the modified Rankin score of 0-2 at 90 days), mortality within 90 days, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 72 h after stroke onset, and procedure-related complications.

Results: The rate of favorable outcomes linearly decreased with increasing procedure time, but there was no linear relationship between procedure time and other outcomes. The adjusted odds ratio for 30-minute delay in procedure time was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.84) for favorable outcome, 1.15 (0.97-1.36) for mortality, 1.08 (0.87-1.33) for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and 0.92 (0.75-1.16) for complications. Significant interactions in the effect of procedure time on favorable outcome were observed between the subgroups stratified by age (≥75 or <75 years). Younger patients had a greater deleterious effect of delayed reperfusion.

Conclusions: Increasing procedure time was associated with less favorable outcomes, but not with the rate of mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, or complications in our cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515260DOI Listing
August 2021

Decline in subarachnoid haemorrhage volumes associated with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation.

Findings: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile.

Interpretation: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006491PMC
March 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

Differences in Acute Ischemic Stroke Management and Prognosis between Multiple Large-Vessel Occlusion and Single Large-Vessel Occlusion: Subanalysis of the RESCUE-Japan Registry 2.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 23;50(4):397-404. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan,

Introduction: The management and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke due to multiple large-vessel occlusion (LVO) (MLVO) are not well scrutinized. We therefore aimed to elucidate the differences in patient characteristics and prognosis of MLVO and single LVO (SLVO).

Methods: The Recovery by Endovascular Salvage for Cerebral Ultra-Acute Embolism Japan Registry 2 (RESCUE-Japan Registry 2) enrolled 2,420 consecutive patients with acute LVO who were admitted within 24 h of onset. We compared patient prognosis between MLVO and SLVO in the favorable outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤2, and in mortality at 90 days by adjusting for confounders. Additionally, we stratified MLVO patients into tandem occlusion and different territories, according to the occlusion site information and also examined their characteristics.

Results: Among the 2,399 patients registered, 124 (5.2%) had MLVO. Although there was no difference between the 2 groups in terms of hypertension as a risk factor, the mean arterial pressure on admission was significantly higher in MLVO (115 vs. 107 mm Hg, p = 0.004). MLVO in different territories was more likely to be cardioembolic (42.1 vs. 10.4%, p = 0.0002), while MLVO in tandem occlusion was more likely to be atherothrombotic (39.5 vs. 81.3%, p < 0.0001). Among MLVO, tandem occlusion had a significantly longer onset-to-door time than different territories (200 vs. 95 min, p = 0.02); accordingly, the tissue plasminogen activator administration was significantly less in tandem occlusion (22.4 vs. 47.9%, p = 0.003). However, interestingly, the endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) was performed significantly more in tandem occlusion (63.2 vs. 41.7%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-5.0). The type of MLVO was the only and significant factor associated with EVT performance in multivariate analysis. The favorable outcomes were obtained less in MLVO than in SLVO (28.2 vs. 37.1%; aOR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30-0.76). The mortality rate was not significantly different between MLVO and SLVO (8.9 vs. 11.1%, p = 0.42).

Discussion/conclusion: The prognosis of MLVO was significantly worse than that of SLVO. In different territories, we might be able to consider more aggressive EVT interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514369DOI Listing
August 2021

Outcomes of Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke in Patients Aged ≥90 Years.

Stroke 2021 May 1;52(5):1561-1569. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Neurosurgery (K.U., S.Y.), Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Outcomes in patients ≥90 years of age with stroke due to large vessel occlusion were compared between endovascular therapy (EVT) and medical management.

Methods: Of 2420 acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion in a prospective, multicenter, nationwide registry in Japan, patients aged ≥90 years with occlusion of the internal carotid artery or M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery were included. The primary effectiveness outcome was a favorable outcome at 3 months, defined as achieving a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 or return to at least the prestroke modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months. Safety outcomes included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 72 hours after onset. Intergroup biases were adjusted by multivariable adjustment with inverse probability of treatment weighting.

Results: A total of 150 patients (median age, 92 [interquartile range, 90-94] years; median prestroke modified Rankin Scale score, 2 [interquartile range, 0-4]) were analyzed. EVT was performed in 49 patients (32.7%; mechanical thrombectomy, n=43). The EVT group showed shorter time from onset to hospital arrival (=0.03), higher Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (<0.01), and a higher rate of treatment with intravenous thrombolysis (<0.01) than the medical management group. The favorable outcome was seen in 28.6% of the EVT group and 6.9% of the medical management group (<0.01). EVT was associated with the favorable outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 8.44 [95% CI, 1.88-37.97]). Rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were similar between the EVT group (0.0%) and the medical management group (3.9%; =0.30).

Conclusions: Patients who underwent EVT showed better functional outcomes than those with medical management without increased symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages. Given proper patient selection, withholding EVT solely on the basis of the age of patients may not offer the best chance of good outcome. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02419794.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031386DOI Listing
May 2021

Candidate drugs for preventive treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(2):e0246865. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Establishment of drug therapy to prevent rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is needed. Previous human and animal studies have gradually clarified candidate drugs for preventive treatment of IA rupture. However, because most of these candidates belong to classes of drugs frequently co-administered to prevent cardiovascular diseases, epidemiological studies evaluating these drugs simultaneously should be performed. Furthermore, because drugs included in the same class may have different effects in terms of disease prevention, drug-by-drug assessments are important for planning intervention trials.

Materials And Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study enrolling patients diagnosed with IAs between July 2011 and June 2019 at our institution. Patients were divided into ruptured or unruptured groups. The drugs investigated were selected according to evidence suggested by either human or animal studies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of drug treatment with rupture status. We also performed drug-by-drug assessments of the association, including dose-response relationships, with rupture status.

Results: In total, 310 patients with ruptured and 887 patients with unruptured IAs were included. Multivariate analysis revealed an inverse association of statins (odds ratio (OR), 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.77), calcium channel blockers (OR, 0.41; 95% CI 0.30-0.58), and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (OR, 0.67; 95% CI 0.48-0.93) with ruptured IAs. Moreover, inverse dose-response relationships with rupture status were observed for pitavastatin and rosuvastatin among statins, benidipine, cilnidipine, and amlodipine among calcium channel blockers, and valsartan, azilsartan, candesartan, and olmesartan among ARBs. Only non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were positively associated with ruptured IAs (OR, 3.24; 95% CI 1.71-6.13).

Conclusions: The present analysis suggests that several types of statins, calcium channel blockers, and ARBs are candidate drugs for preventive treatment of unruptured IAs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246865PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880482PMC
September 2021

[Effects of the prehospital care with and without suspecting acute stroke: a single stroke center study].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2021 Feb 26;61(2):103-108. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Neurology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital.

We retrospectively examined the differences between paramedic triage and final diagnosis in the cases that were transported to our hospital between May 2016 and March 2019. About 30% of the patients with suspected stroke were diagnosed other than stroke. Some of the patients without suspected stroke were diagnosed with large vessel occlusion and were treated with mechanical thrombectomy. The time from arrival at the hospital to treatment was significantly longer in the patients without suspected stroke than with suspected stroke. To achieve a better prehospital care, we need to accept a wide range of stroke mimics, and to continuously feedback the paramedics about the importance of paralysis, cortical symptoms in stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001487DOI Listing
February 2021
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