Publications by authors named "Nobuya Inagaki"

396 Publications

Adrenal Venous Sampling for Subtype Diagnosis of Primary Hyperaldosteronism.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the key procedure for lateralization of primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) before surgery. Identification of the adrenal veins using computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative cortisol assay facilitates the success of catheterization. Although administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has benefits such as improving the success rate, some unilateral cases could be falsely diagnosed as bilateral. Selectivity index of 5 with ACTH stimulation to assess the selectivity of catheterization and lateralization index (LI) >4 with ACTH stimulation for unilateral diagnosis is used in many centers. Co-secretion of cortisol from the tumor potentially affects the lateralization by the LI. Patients aged <35 years with hypokalemia, marked aldosterone excess, and unilateral adrenal nodule on CT have a higher probability of unilateral disease. Patients with normokalemia, mild aldosterone excess, and no adrenal tumor on CT have a higher probability of bilateral disease. Although no methods have 100% specificity for subtype diagnosis that would allow bypassing AVS, prediction of the subtype should be considered when recommending AVS to patients. Methodological standardization and strict indication improve diagnostic quality of AVS. Development of non-invasive imaging and biochemical markers will drive a paradigm shift in the clinical practice of PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1192DOI Listing
October 2021

Serum vitamin D status inversely associates with a prevalence of severe sarcopenia among female patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 14;11(1):20485. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Advanced Medicine for Rheumatic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Sarcopenia is an age-related disease with an increased risk of mortality. It is emerging that low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] affects the sarcopenic state in general, but in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), these associations are not understood although the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is high in RA. We conducted a cross-sectional study of older female outpatients from our cohort (KURAMA) database. We measured skeletal muscle mass, handgrip strength, and gait-speed to diagnose severe sarcopenia. The serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A total of 156 female patients with RA (sarcopenia:44.9%, severe sarcopenia: 29.5%, and without sarcopenia: 25.6%) were enrolled. Classification of vitamin D status at a cutoff point of median 25(OH)D concentration revealed that low 25(OH)D status was associated with a high prevalence of severe sarcopenia and with low measured values of muscle mass, handgrip, and gait speed. Furthermore, multivariable logistic regression analysis identified that low 25(OH)D status was associated with a high prevalence of severe sarcopenia (OR 6.00; 95% CI 1.99-18.08).The same association was observed when the cut-off value was set at 20 ng/ml. In components of sarcopenia, both low physical performance and muscle mass were associated with low 25(OH)D status. In conclusion, vitamin D status was inversely associated with severe sarcopenia, low physical performance, and low skeletal muscle mass. Modification of vitamin D status including vitamin D supplementation should be investigated as a therapeutic strategy for sarcopenic patients with RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99894-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516961PMC
October 2021

Obituary of Dr. Susumu Seno.

Authors:
Nobuya Inagaki

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Kyoto University Graduate School of medicine.

I am deeply saddened to report that my esteemed mentor Susumu Seino passed away on April 14, 2021. Susumu left a remarkable scientific legacy to his colleagues, former students, and physicians who benefitted from his many academic accomplishments in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13686DOI Listing
October 2021

Bezafibrate induces hypothyroidism in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone β due to a G347R variant.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Objective: A unique clinical course was observed in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone β (RTHβ) caused by a variant of the THRB gene leading to the replacement of glycine with arginine in codon 347 (p.G347R). He presented with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of thyrotropin (TSH) (free T4 [fT4]: 32.43 pmol/L, TSH: 4.67 mIU/L), but slowly developed progressive hypothyroidism (fT4: 8.37 pmol/L, TSH: 100.90 mIU/L) that resolved after suspending bezafibrate (BZ) treatment (fT4: 32.18 pmol/L, TSH: 7.14 mIU/L). This study clinically and experimentally evaluated this interesting phenomenon.

Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis of non-RTHβ patients was performed at Kyoto University Hospital. Data before BZ treatment were compared to the first data after treatment. Using reporter assays of iodothyronine deiodinases (DIO1, DIO2, DIO3) in HEK293T cells, we performed functional analyses of mutant thyroid hormone receptor β with p.G347R (G347R TRβ). Mice with G347R TRβ were generated by hydrodynamic gene delivery.

Results: In non-RTHβ patients (n = 7), BZ treatment did not change serum free T3 and TSH but significantly increased fT4 (p = .008). BZ administration increased DIO3 reporter activity in the context of G347R TRβ, whereas did not change DIO1 and DIO2 reporter activity. In the livers of mice with G347R TRβ, BZ administration increased reverse T3 content, which corresponded to an increase in Dio3 messenger RNA.

Conclusions: While hypothyroidism associated with BZ treatment did not occur in non-RTHβ patients, it was observed in a patient with RTHβ due to the p.G347R variant. Liver DIO3 upregulation might involve this hypothyroidism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14591DOI Listing
September 2021

First-in-Human Evaluation of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography With [F]FB(ePEG12)12-Exendin-4: A Phase 1 Clinical Study Targeting GLP-1 Receptor Expression Cells in Pancreas.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 19;12:717101. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM) has a central importance in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. Recently, pancreatic β-cell-specific imaging, especially positron emission tomography (PET) with exendin-based probes, has emerged for non-invasive evaluation of BCM. We developed a novel exendin-based probe labeled with fluorine-18, [F]FB(ePEG12)12-exendin-4 (F-Ex4) for PET imaging. We subsequently conducted a first-in-human phase 1 study of F-Ex4 PET/computed tomography (CT) and investigated the safety and utility for visualizing the pancreas. Six healthy male subjects were enrolled in this study. A low dose (37.0 MBq) of F-Ex4 PET/CT was administered (first cohort: n = 2), and subsequently a higher dose (74.0 MBq) was administered (second cohort: n = 4). In the first and second cohorts, 38.6 ± 4.8 and 71.1 ± 4.8 MBq of F-Ex4 were administered, respectively. No serious adverse events were observed in both groups. Only one participant in the first cohort showed transient hypoglycemia during the PET scans. F-Ex4 PET/CT successfully visualized the pancreas in all participants. The mean standardized uptake value of the pancreas was found to be higher than that in the surrounding organs, except for the bladder and kidney, during the observation. Dosimetry analyses revealed the effective systemic doses of F-Ex4 as 0.0164 ± 0.0019 mSv/MBq (first cohort) and 0.0173 ± 0.0020 mSv/MBq (second cohort). F-Ex4 PET/CT demonstrated the safety and utility for non-invasive visualization of the pancreas in healthy male subjects. F-Ex4 is promising for clinical PET imaging targeting pancreatic β cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.717101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417326PMC
August 2021

Opioid-induced adrenal insufficiency in transdermal fentanyl treatment: a revisited diagnosis in clinical setting.

Endocr J 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

Opioids are widely used for treatment of acute and chronic pain. However, opioids have several well-known clinical adverse effects such as constipation, nausea, respiratory depression and drowsiness. Endocrine dysfunctions are also opioid-induced adverse effects but remain under-diagnosed in clinical settings, especially opioid-induced adrenal insufficiency (OIAI). A 46-year-old woman was treated with transdermal fentanyl at a dose of 90-120 mg daily morphine milligram equivalent for non-malignant chronic pain for four years. Fatigue, loss of appetite and decrease in vitality began about two years after starting fentanyl. Subsequently, constipation and abdominal pain appeared and became worse, which led to suspicion of adrenal insufficiency. Clinical diagnosis of OIAI was established based on laboratory findings of secondary adrenal insufficiency, including corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test, clinical history of long-term fentanyl use, and exclusion of other hypothalamic-pituitary diseases. Oral corticosteroid replacement therapy was unable to relieve her abdominal pain and constipation; opioid-rotation and dose-reduction of fentanyl were not feasible because of her persistent pain and severe anxiety. While her clinical course clearly suggested that long-term, relatively high-dose transdermal fentanyl treatment may have contributed to the development of secondary adrenal insufficiency, the symptoms associated with OIAI are generally non-specific and complex. Together with under-recognition of OIAI as a clinical entity, the non-specific, wide range of symptoms can impede prompt diagnosis. Thus, vigilance for early symptoms enabling treatments including corticosteroid replacement therapy is necessary for patients taking long-term and/or high dose opioid treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ21-0359DOI Listing
September 2021

Medium-chain triglycerides inhibit long-chain triglyceride-induced GIP secretion through GPR120-dependent inhibition of CCK.

iScience 2021 Sep 9;24(9):102963. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

Long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) intake strongly stimulates GIP secretion from enteroendocrine K cells and induces obesity and insulin resistance partly due to GIP hypersecretion. In this study, we found that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) inhibit GIP secretion after single LCT ingestion and clarified the mechanism underlying MCT-induced inhibition of GIP secretion. MCTs reduced the CCK effect after single LCT ingestion in wild-type (WT) mice, and a CCK agonist completely reversed MCT-induced inhibition of GIP secretion. studies showed that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) inhibit long-chain fatty acid (LCFA)-stimulated CCK secretion and increase in intracellular Ca concentrations through inhibition of GPR120 signaling. Long-term administration of MCTs reduced obesity and insulin resistance in high-LCT diet-fed WT mice, but not in high-LCT diet-fed -knockout mice. Thus, MCT-induced inhibition of GIP hypersecretion reduces obesity and insulin resistance under high-LCT diet feeding condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382997PMC
September 2021

Influence of dietary habits on depression among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-sectional study using KURAMA cohort database.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(8):e0255526. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Objective: Although mental disorder is one of the most common comorbidities of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is known as a critical influence on RA remission rates, there is little knowledge regarding a possible therapeutic strategy for depression or anxiety in a RA population. Most recently, clinical evidence of dietary improvement for depression has emerged in a general population, but the relationship between dietary habits and mental disorder has not been investigated in RA. The purpose of this study is to elucidate clinical associations between mental disorder (depression/anxiety), dietary habits and disease activity/physical function in patients with RA.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 267 female outpatients from the KURAMA database. Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), we classified the participants into three groups by depression state, and their characteristics were compared. Using the 20-items on the self-reported food frequency questionnaire, we investigated the relationship between dietary habits and depression or anxiety, adopting a trend test and a multivariate standardized linear regression analysis for the HADS score of depression or that of anxiety as a dependent variable.

Results: According to the classified stage of depression, current disease activity (DAS28-CRP: 28-Joint RA Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein) and the health assessment questionnaire disability Index (HAQ-DI) were significantly increased. Trend analyses revealed that the depression score was inversely associated with the consumption of three food (fish, vegetables and fruit) out of twenty as was the anxiety score with only fish intake. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the depression score was negatively associated with frequent fish intake (≥ 3 times per week) (Estimate -0.53, p = 0.033), HAQ-DI score within normal range (Estimate -0.88, p ≤ 0.001) and MTX use (Estimate -0.60, p ≤ 0.023). For the anxiety score, multivariate analysis showed similar but not significant associations with variables except for HAQ-DI score.

Conclusions: In a RA population, both depression and anxiety had a significant and negative association with HAQ-DI score, and depression rather than anxiety had negative association with frequent fish intake. Modification of dietary habits such as increased fish consumption may have a beneficial effect on the depression state in RA patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255526PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341538PMC
August 2021

The Multi-Domain Intervention Trial in Older Adults With Diabetes Mellitus for Prevention of Dementia in Japan: Study Protocol for a Multi-Center, Randomized, 18-Month Controlled Trial.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 12;13:680341. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Center for Comprehensive Care and Research on Memory Disorders, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Japan.

The Japan-Multi-domain Intervention Trial for Prevention of Dementia in Older Adults with Diabetes (J-MIND-Diabetes) is an 18-month, multi-centered, open-labeled, randomized controlled trial designed to identify whether multi-domain intervention targeting modifiable risk factors for dementia could prevent the progression of cognitive decline among older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This manuscript describes the study protocol for the J-MIND-Diabetes trial. Subjects of this trial will comprise a total of 300 T2DM outpatients aged 70-85 years with mild cognitive impairment. Subjects will be centrally randomized into intervention and control groups at a 1:1 allocation ratio using the stratified permuted-block randomization methods. The intervention group will participate in multi-domain intervention programs aimed at: (1) management of metabolic and vascular risk factors; (2) physical exercise and self-monitoring of physical activity; (3) nutritional guidance; and (4) social participation. The control group will receive usual T2DM care and general instructions on dementia prevention. The primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed at baseline, at 6- and 18-month follow-up. The primary outcome is change from baseline at 18 months in a global composite score combining several neuropsychological domains, including global cognitive function, memory, attention, executive function, processing speed and language. Secondary outcomes include: (1) cognitive changes in neuropsychological tests; (2) changes in geriatrics assessments; (3) metabolic control and diabetic complications; (4) changes in blood and urinary markers. This trial will be the first trial to demonstrate the effectiveness of multi-domain intervention in preventing cognitive decline in older adults with T2DM at increased risk of dementia in Japan. UMIN000035911; Registered on the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) 18 February 2019. (https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000040908).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.680341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312849PMC
July 2021

Distinctive detection of insulinoma using [F]FB(ePEG12)12-exendin-4 PET/CT.

Sci Rep 2021 07 22;11(1):15014. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

Specifying the exact localization of insulinoma remains challenging due to the lack of insulinoma-specific imaging methods. Recently, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-targeted imaging, especially positron emission tomography (PET), has emerged. Although various radiolabeled GLP-1R agonist exendin-4-based probes with chemical modifications for PET imaging have been investigated, an optimal candidate probe and its scanning protocol remain a necessity. Thus, we investigated the utility of a novel exendin-4-based probe conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for [F]FB(ePEG12)12-exendin-4 PET imaging for insulinoma detection. We utilized [F]FB(ePEG12)12-exendin-4 PET/CT to visualize mouse tumor models, which were generated using rat insulinoma cell xenografts. The probe demonstrated high uptake value on the tumor as 37.1 ± 0.4%ID/g, with rapid kidney clearance. Additionally, we used Pdx1-Cre;Trp53;Rb mice, which developed endogenous insulinoma and glucagonoma, since they enabled differential imaging evaluation of our probe in functional pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. In this model, our [F]FB(ePEG12)12-exendin-4 PET/CT yielded favorable sensitivity and specificity for insulinoma detection. Sensitivity: 30-min post-injection 66.7%, 60-min post-injection 83.3%, combined 100% and specificity: 30-min post-injection 100%, 60-min post-injection 100%, combined 100%, which was corroborated by the results of in vitro time-based analysis of internalized probe accumulation. Accordingly, [F]FB(ePEG12)12-exendin-4 is a promising PET imaging probe for visualizing insulinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94595-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298522PMC
July 2021

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma with negative results for urinary metanephrines show higher risks for metastatic diseases.

Endocrine 2021 10 16;74(1):155-162. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Division of Endocrinology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Few studies have assessed the clinical features of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) not producing excessive catecholamine. We aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of PPGL patients with negative results for urinary metanephrines.

Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. We established a database by combining datasets from the Nationwide Cohort Study on the Development of Diagnosis and Treatment of Pheochromocytoma in Japan (PHEO-J) and the Advancing Care and Pathogenesis of Intractable Adrenal diseases in Japan (ACPA-J). We compared the clinical differences between PPGL patients with negative results for urinary metanephrines and those with catecholamine-producing PPGL.

Results: Five hundred PPGL patients in the combined database were analyzed. Among them, 31 were negative for metanephrines. PPGL with negative results for urinary metanephrines was significantly associated with extra-adrenal disease (Odds ratio (OR) 6.58, 95% CI (confidence interval) 3.03-14.3, p < 0.001), the presence of metastatic disease (OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.58-11.3, p = 0.004), and negativity on meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03-0.77, p = 0.023).

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that PPGL patients with negative results for urinary metanephrines are associated with extra-adrenal lesions, metastatic disease, and negative MIBG findings. This suggests that PPGL patients with negative results for urinary metanephrines have a greater need for systemic whole-body imaging other than MIBG scintigraphy and close follow-up to monitor for metastasis than do patients with PPGL overtly producing excessive catecholamine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-021-02816-9DOI Listing
October 2021

Non-invasive Beta-cell Imaging: Visualization, Quantification, and Beyond.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 25;12:714348. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Pancreatic beta (β)-cell dysfunction and reduced mass play a central role in the development and progression of diabetes mellitus. Conventional histological β-cell mass (BCM) analysis is invasive and limited to cross-sectional observations in a restricted sampling area. However, the non-invasive evaluation of BCM remains elusive, and practical and clinical techniques for β-cell-specific imaging are yet to be established. The lack of such techniques hampers a deeper understanding of the pathophysiological role of BCM in diabetes, the implementation of personalized BCM-based diabetes management, and the development of antidiabetic therapies targeting BCM preservation and restoration. Nuclear medical techniques have recently triggered a major leap in this field. In particular, radioisotope-labeled probes using exendin peptides that include glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist and antagonist have been employed in positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. These probes have demonstrated high specificity to β cells and provide clear images accurately showing uptake in the pancreas and transplanted islets in preclinical and clinical studies. One of these probes, indium-labeled exendin-4 derivative ([Lys(In-BnDTPA-Ahx)]exendin-4), has captured the longitudinal changes in BCM during the development and progression of diabetes and under antidiabetic therapies in various mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1R-targeted imaging is therefore a promising tool for non-invasive BCM evaluation. This review focuses on recent advances in non-invasive β-cell imaging for BCM evaluation in the field of diabetes; in particular, the exendin-based GLP-1R-targeted nuclear medicine techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.714348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270651PMC
June 2021

Subtype-specific trends in the clinical picture of primary aldosteronism over a 13-year period.

J Hypertens 2021 Nov;39(11):2325-2332

Clinical Research Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto.

Objective: Primary aldosteronism has two main clinically and biologically distinct subtypes: unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH). We aimed to evaluate the changes of each subtype's clinical characteristics over a 13-year period.

Methods: This retrospective study involved time-trend analyses to identify changes in the clinical features of APA and BAH at diagnosis (2006-2018). A nationwide database from 41 Japanese referral centers was searched, which identified 2804 primary aldosteronism patients with complete baseline information and adrenal venous sampling (AVS) data.

Results: The proportion of patients with APA decreased from 51% in 2006-2009 to 22% in 2016-2018. Among the 1634 patients with BAH, trend analyses revealed decreases in hypertension duration (median 7--3 years; P < 0.01) and hypokalemia prevalence (18--11%; P < 0.01). However, among the 952 patients with APA, there were no significant changes in hypertension duration (median 8 years) and hypokalemia prevalence (overall 70%). Furthermore, the APA group had a trend towards increased use of multiple hypertensive drugs at diagnosis (30--43%; P < 0.01). When subtypes were reclassified according to the precosyntropin stimulation AVS data, APA patients tended to be diagnosed earlier and at milder forms, consistent with the trend in overall primary aldosteronism patients.

Conclusion: During 2006-2018, we identified marked subtype-specific trends in the clinical findings at the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. Our results suggested that the emphasis on the implementing cosyntropin stimulation during AVS might lead to under-identification of APA, especially in patients with mild or early cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002924DOI Listing
November 2021

Voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease utility as a screening tool for unrecognized cognitive dysfunction of elderly patients in diabetes outpatient clinics: Multicenter retrospective exploratory study.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

Aims/introduction: An efficient screening strategy for identification of cognitive dysfunction remains a clinical issue in the management of elderly adults with diabetes. A magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) has been developed as an automated brain morphometry system that includes the hippocampus. We carried out a multicenter retrospective study to evaluate the utility of VSRAD for screening cognitive dysfunction in diabetes outpatient clinics.

Materials And Methods: We enrolled patients with diabetes aged >65 years who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scans for the purpose of a medical checkup between November 2018 and May 2019. Patients who were already suspected or diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and/or dementia as well as those with a history of cerebrovascular disease were excluded.

Results: A total of 67 patients were enrolled. Five patients were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or dementia (clinical cognitive dysfunction). Patients with clinical cognitive dysfunction showed a significantly higher z-score in VSRAD analysis (2.57 ± 0.47 vs 1.15 ± 0.55, P < 0.01). The sensitivities and specificities for diagnosis of clinical cognitive dysfunction were 80 and 48% for the Mini-Mental State Examination, 100 and 89% for the z-score, and 100 and 90% for the combination of the Mini-Mental State Examination score and z-score, respectively.

Conclusions: VSRAD analysis can distinguish patients with clinical cognitive dysfunction in the elderly with diabetes, and also shows reasonable sensitivity and specificity compared with the Mini-Mental State Examination alone. Thus, VSRAD analysis can be useful for early identification of clinical cognitive dysfunction in the elderly with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13622DOI Listing
June 2021

Development of a preoperative prediction model for new-onset diabetes mellitus after partial pancreatectomy: A retrospective cohort study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26311

Department of Healthcare Epidemiology, School of Public Health in the Graduate School of Medicine.

Abstract: Pancreatectomy is an invasive surgery that is sometimes associated with complications. New-onset diabetes mellitus sometimes develops after partial pancreatectomy and severely affects the patient's quality of life. This study aimed to develop a preoperative prediction model of new-onset diabetes mellitus after partial pancreatectomy, which will help patients and surgeons to achieve more easily better common decisions on regarding whether to perform partial pancreatectomy. This retrospective cohort study analyzed medical records of patients who underwent partial pancreatectomy (total pancreatectomy excluded) from April 1, 2008, to February 28, 2016, which were available in the database provided by Medical Data Vision Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan). The predictors were preoperative age, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c level, blood glucose level, and indication for partial pancreatectomy. The outcome was the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus at 1 to 12 months after partial pancreatectomy. We used a logistic regression model and calculated the scores of each predictor. To determine test performance, we assessed discrimination ability using the receiver operating characteristic curve and calibration with a calibration plot and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. We also performed internal validation using the bootstrap method. Of 681 patients, 125 (18.4%) had new-onset diabetes mellitus after partial pancreatectomy. The developed prediction model had a possible range of 0 to 46 points. The median score was 13, and the interquartile range was 9 to 22. The C-statistics of the receiver operating characteristic curve on the score to predict the outcome was .70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .65-.75). Regarding the test performance, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (P = .17), and calibration was good. In the bootstrapped cohorts, the C-statistics was .69 (95% CI, .62-.76). We developed a preoperative prediction model for new-onset diabetes mellitus after partial pancreatectomy. This would provide important information for surgeons and patients when deciding whether to perform partial pancreatectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213311PMC
June 2021

Characterization of genetically modified mice for phosphoglycerate mutase, a vitally-essential enzyme in glycolysis.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250856. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Geriatric Unit, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Glycolytic metabolism is closely involved in physiological homeostasis and pathophysiological states. Among glycolytic enzymes, phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) has been reported to exert certain physiological role in vitro, whereas its impact on glucose metabolism in vivo remains unclear. Here, we report the characterization of Pgam1 knockout mice. We observed that homozygous knockout mice of Pgam1 were embryonic lethal. Although we previously reported that both PGAM-1 and -2 affect global glycolytic profile of cancers in vitro, in vivo glucose parameters were less affected both in the heterozygous knockout of Pgam1 and in Pgam2 transgenic mice. Thus, the impact of PGAM on in vivo glucose metabolism is rather complex than expected before.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250856PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084212PMC
September 2021

Should Adrenal Venous Sampling Be Performed in PA Patients Without Apparent Adrenal Tumors?

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 12;12:645395. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan.

Introduction: Some aldosterone-producing micro-adenomas cannot be detected through image inspection. Therefore, adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is often performed, even in primary aldosteronism (PA) patients who have no apparent adrenal tumors (ATs) on imaging. In most of these cases, however, the PA is bilateral.

Objective: To clarify the clinical need for AVS in PA patients without apparent ATs, taking into consideration the rates of adrenalectomy.

Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study assessing 1586 PA patients without apparent ATs in the multicenter Japan PA study (JPAS). We analyzed which parameters could be used to distinguish unilateral PA patients without apparent ATs from bilateral patients. We also analyzed the prevalences of adrenalectomy in unilateral PA patients.

Results: The unilateral subtype without an apparent AT was diagnosed in 200 (12.6%) of 1586 PA patients. Being young and female with a short hypertension duration, normokalemia, low creatinine level, low plasma aldosterone concentration, and low aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) was significantly more common in bilateral than unilateral PA patients. If PA patients without apparent ATs were female and normokalemic with a low ARR (<560 pg/ml per ng/ml/h), the rate of unilateral PA was only 5 (1.1%) out of 444. Moreover, 77 (38.5%) of the 200 did not receive adrenalectomy, despite being diagnosed with the unilateral subtype based on AVS.

Conclusion: The low prevalence of the unilateral subtype in PA patients without apparent ATs suggests AVS is not indicated for all of these patients. AVS could be skipped in female normokalemic PA patients without apparent ATs if their ARRs are not high. However, AVS should be considered for male hypokalemic PA patients with high ARRs because the rates of the unilateral subtype are high in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.645395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072456PMC
April 2021

Cell-autonomous defects contribute to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Jul 19;12(7):1136-1137. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Major pathogenesis and signaling underlying cell-autonomous muscle insulin resistance in type2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264409PMC
July 2021

Association of aldosterone and blood pressure with the risk for cardiovascular events after treatments in primary aldosteronism.

Atherosclerosis 2021 05 29;324:84-90. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Clinical Research Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, Endocrine Center, Ijinkai Takeda General Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

Background And Aims: We used a dataset from a Japanese nationwide registry of patients with primary aldosteronism, to determine which of the parameters of hyperaldosteronism and blood pressure before or after treatments for primary aldosteronism (i.e., surgical adrenalectomy or a medication treatment) are important in terms of cardiovascular prognosis.

Methods: We assessed whether plasma aldosterone-to-renin ratio and pulse pressure levels before treatment and 6 months after treatment were associated with composite cardiovascular disease events during the 5-year follow-up period.

Results: The cohort included 1987 patients (mean age was 53.2 years, 52.0% were female, 37.2% had undergone surgical treatment, and the remainder had been treated with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists). In the Cox proportional hazard model, the covariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the composite cardiovascular disease events risk for each one-standard-deviation increase in the aldosterone-to-renin ratio or pulse pressure before treatment, those after treatment, or the duration of hypertension were 1.24 (1.05, 1.48), 0.74 (0.54, 1.02), and 1.07 (0.79, 1.44), 1.43 (1.07, 1.92), and 1.52 (1.19, 1.95), respectively. Patients with a high pre-treatment aldosterone-to-renin ratio of more than 603 and a large post-treatment pulse pressure of more than 49 mmHg showed approximately three-fold higher hazard ratios for cardiovascular events risk compared to those with a lower aldosterone-to-renin ratio and smaller pulse pressure.

Conclusions: Higher aldosterone-to-renin ratio before treatments, higher pulse pressure after treatments, and longer duration of hypertension were prognostic factors for cardiovascular diseases. Early intervention may be important for preventing cardiovascular disease among patients with primary aldosteronism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.03.033DOI Listing
May 2021

Urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio associates with hypertension and current disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 03 27;23(1):96. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin, Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

Background: Excessive salt intake is thought to exacerbate both development of hypertension and autoimmune diseases in animal models, but the clinical impact of excessive salt in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is still unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study to clarify the associations between salt load index (urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na/K ratio)), current disease activity, and hypertension in an RA population.

Methods: Three hundred thirty-six participants from our cohort database (KURAMA) were enrolled. We used the spot urine Na/K ratio as a simplified index of salt loading and used the 28-Joint RA Disease Activity Score (DAS28-ESR) as an indicator of current RA disease activity. Using these indicators, we evaluated statistical associations between urinary Na/K ratio, DAS28-ESR, and prevalence of hypertension.

Results: Urinary Na/K ratio was positively associated with measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure and also with prevalence of hypertension even after covariate adjustment (OR 1.34, p <  0.001). In addition, increased urinary Na/K ratio was significantly and positively correlated with DAS28-ESR in multiple regression analysis (estimate 0.12, p <  0.001), as was also the case in gender-separated and prednisolone-separated sub-analyses.

Conclusion: Urinary Na/K ratio was independently associated with current disease activity as well as with prevalence of hypertension in RA patients. Thus, dietary modifications such as salt restriction and potassium supplementation should be investigated as a potential candidate for attenuating both disease activity and hypertension in RA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-021-02479-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004419PMC
March 2021

Age-stratified comparison of clinical outcomes between medical and surgical treatments in patients with unilateral primary aldosteronism.

Sci Rep 2021 03 25;11(1):6925. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan.

Although adrenalectomy (ADX) is an established treatment for unilateral primary aldosteronism (uPA), the influence of age on the surgical outcomes is poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate how age affects the clinical outcomes after treatments. We analyzed 153 older (≥ 65 years) and 702 younger patients (< 65 years) with uPA, treated either with ADX or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) in the Japan PA Study, and compared the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or blood pressure over a 36-month period after treatments. ADX-treated patients showed severer biochemical indicators than MRA-treated patients. During 6 and 36 months, the eGFR decreased more prominently in older but not in younger patients with ADX than in those with MRA, which remained significant after adjustment with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). There was a significant interaction between the age-groups and the treatment choices in the change of the eGFR with IPTW-adjusted analysis. The post-treatment dose of antihypertensive medication was lower in younger and higher in older patients with ADX than those with MRA. The clinical benefit of ADX differed between younger and older patients with uPA. These findings indicate the need for further validation on whether ADX can benefit older patients with uPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86290-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994572PMC
March 2021

Chronological Changes in Skeletal Muscle Mass Two Years after Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Surg Endosc 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

Background: Preoperative loss of skeletal muscle mass, defined as sarcopenia, has been reported to be associated with higher incidence of complications following esophagectomy in patients with esophageal cancer. Although skeletal muscle loss promotes disability and reduced quality of life (QOL), only a few studies have focused on changes in skeletal muscle mass after surgery. This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the chronological changes in skeletal muscle mass after minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE).

Methods: Patients with esophageal cancer scheduled to undergo MIE at our institution were prospectively registered. Skeletal muscle mass was evaluated before and 2, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The effects of preoperative sarcopenia on surgical outcomes and chronological changes in skeletal muscle mass were evaluated.

Results: Among the 71 eligible preoperative patients, 29 (40.8%) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Patients with sarcopenia had significantly higher incidences of total (79.3% vs 52.4%, p = 0.026) and gastrointestinal (37.9% vs 11.9%, p = 0.019) complications and a significantly longer length of hospital stay (31 vs 23 days, p = 0.005) than those without sarcopenia. The median skeletal muscle mass index (kg/m) was 7.09 before surgery, which decreased to 6.46 two months after surgery (- 7.2%, P < 0.01). Thereafter, values of 6.90, 6.86, and 7.06 were reported at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, respectively.

Conclusion: Patients with preoperative sarcopenia developed more postoperative complications than those without it. Additionally, patients experienced a decrease in skeletal muscle mass during the early postoperative period following MIE. Further research on perioperative countermeasures to prevent skeletal muscle loss during the early postoperative period and to prevent postoperative complications is necessary for patients undergoing MIE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08440-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical Practice Changes After Post-Market Safety Reports on Desmopressin Orally Disintegrating Tablet in Japan: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

J Clin Med Res 2021 Feb 25;13(2):92-100. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) was approved in March 2012 in Japan; the post-market safety reports, which warned about adequate initial dose of desmopressin ODT, were published in 2014. However, it is unclear how the warning affected physician and patient behavior.

Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center study to compare the clinical situation of Japanese central diabetes insipidus patients before and after the report.

Results: Thirty-four patients before October 2014 and 16 patients after November 2014 switched from intranasal desmopressin to desmopressin ODT. The mean follow-up period after the switch to desmopressin ODT was 38 ± 3 months. Patients switching after November 2014 tended to have lower ratios of oral to nasal desmopressin dose at switching and 3 months after the switch (at switching; P = 0.20, 3 months; P = 0.42, respectively), and higher ratios from 6 to 12 months than before October 2014 (6 months; P = 0.93, 9 months; P = 0.52, 12 months; P = 0.80, respectively). Relative doses per initial desmopressin ODT at 9 and 12 months were significantly higher in patients switching after November 2014 than in patients switching before October 2014 (9 months; P = 0.02, 12 months; P = 0.04, respectively). Moreover, logistic regression analysis revealed that the incidence of hyponatremia was dependent on the ratio of nasal to oral desmopressin dose (P = 0.02). In addition, in four out of six patients who had serum sodium level reduced below 130 mEq/L, hyponatremia occurred within 1 month after the switch.

Conclusions: A more gradual dose titration after the safety reports was performed, which involved the long-term safety of desmopressin ODT use. Vigilance of hyponatremia in early phase of desmopressin ODT use should be noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935623PMC
February 2021

Habitual fish intake negatively correlates with prevalence of frailty among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 3;11(1):5104. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by anabolic-catabolic imbalance and multisystem dysregulation resulting in increased adverse health outcomes, and is closely related with dietary habits in the general population. Although chronic inflammatory diseases are thought to accelerate development of frailty, correlations between rheumatoid arthritis (RA), frailty and dietary habits have not been examined. We performed a cross-sectional study using our cohort database (KURAMA cohort), and classified 306 participants into three groups (robust, prefrail and frail) according to the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF) criteria. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that the presence of frailty/prefrailty was significantly correlated with the disease activity score (DAS28-ESR) (OR 1.70 (1.30-2.22), p < 0.0001). Additional analyses of frailty and food intake showed that 5 foods (fish, meat, milk, vegetables and fruits) of 20 groups on the questionnaire were inversely associated with the prevalence of frail/prefrail categories. In multivariate analysis with the five nutrients, fish intake (> two times a week) was an independent covariate negatively correlated with frailty/prefrailty (OR 0.35 (0.19-0.63), p = 0.00060). In conclusion, habitual fish intake may play a key role in nutritional intervention to prevent progression of frailty and RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84479-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930016PMC
March 2021

Carbonic anhydrase 8 (CAR8) negatively regulates GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells in response to long-chain fatty acids.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 04 3;320(4):G617-G626. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin secreted from enteroendocrine preproglucagon (PPG)-expressing cells (traditionally known as L cells) in response to luminal nutrients that potentiates insulin secretion. Augmentation of endogenous GLP-1 secretion might well represent a novel therapeutic target for diabetes treatment in addition to the incretin-associated drugs currently in use. In this study, we found that PPG cells substantially express carbonic anhydrase 8 (CAR8), which has been reported to inhibit inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) binding to the IP3 receptor and subsequent Ca efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum in neuronal cells. In vitro experiments using STC-1 cells demonstrated that knockdown increases long-chain fatty acid (LCFA)-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. This effect was reduced in the presence of phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor; in addition, knockdown increased the intracellular Ca elevation caused by α-linolenic acid, indicating that CAR8 exerts its effect on GLP-1 secretion via the PLC/IP3/Ca pathway. null mutant mice showed significant increase in GLP-1 response to oral corn oil administration compared with that in wild-type littermates, with no significant change in intestinal GLP-1 content. These results demonstrate that CAR8 negatively regulates GLP-1 secretion from PPG cells in response to LCFAs, suggesting the possibility of augmentation of postprandial GLP-1 secretion by CAR8 inhibition. This study focused on the physiological significance of carbonic anhydrase 8 (CAR8) in GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine preproglucagon (PPG)-expressing cells. We found an inhibitory role of CAR8 in LCFA-induced GLP-1 secretion in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach to diabetes and obesity through augmentation of postprandial GLP-1 secretion by CAR8 inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00312.2020DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-term safety and efficacy of alogliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 3-year prospective, controlled, observational study (J-BRAND Registry).

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 01;9(1)

Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Introduction: Given an increasing use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the real-world setting, we conducted a prospective observational study (Japan-based Clinical Research Network for Diabetes Registry: J-BRAND Registry) to elucidate the safety and efficacy profile of long-term usage of alogliptin.

Research Design And Methods: We registered 5969 patients from April 2012 through September 2014, who started receiving alogliptin (group A) or other classes of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs; group B), and were followed for 3 years at 239 sites nationwide. Safety was the primary outcome. Symptomatic hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, skin disorders of non-extrinsic origin, severe infections, and cancer were collected as major adverse events (AEs). Efficacy assessment was the secondary outcome and included changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and urinary albumin.

Results: Of the registered, 5150 (group A: 3395 and group B: 1755) and 5096 (3358 and 1738) were included for safety and efficacy analysis, respectively. Group A patients mostly (>90%) continued to use alogliptin. In group B, biguanides were the primary agents, while DPP-4 inhibitors were added in up to ~36% of patients. The overall incidence of AEs was similar between the two groups (42.7% vs 42.2%). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed the incidence of cancer was significantly higher in group A than in group B (7.4% vs 4.8%, p=0.040), while no significant incidence difference was observed in the individual cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the imbalanced patient distribution (more elderly patients in group A than in group B), but not alogliptin usage per se, contributed to cancer development. The incidence of other major AE categories was with no between-group difference. Between-group difference was not detected, either, in the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications. HbA1c and fasting glucose decreased significantly at the 0.5-year visit and nearly plateaued thereafter in both groups.

Conclusions: Alogliptin as a representative of DPP-4 inhibitors was safe and durably efficacious when used alone or with other OHAs for patients with type 2 diabetes in the real world setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812112PMC
January 2021

A novel splice-site mutation of the HNF1B gene in a family with maturity onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5).

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2020 Sep 23;2020. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Summary: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a form of monogenic diabetes mellitus characterised by early onset and dominant inheritance. Delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis as type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus is common. Definitive genetic diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment of patients with MODY. The hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1B) gene is responsible for MODY type 5 (MODY5), which has distinctive clinical features including renal disease. MODY5 should always be considered by clinicians in patients with early onset diabetes and renal anomalies. We report a case of a 30-year-old Japanese male with early-onset diabetes mellitus, renal anomalies and family history of diabetes that was suggestive of MODY5. Renal histology showed no evidence of diabetic nephropathy. Genetic testing revealed a novel heterozygous splice-site mutation of the HNF1B gene in the family members. It was strongly suggested that the mutation could underlie our patient's MODY5.

Learning Points: Genetic diagnosis of MODY is relevant for appropriate treatment. Dominantly inherited early-onset diabetes mellitus with renal cysts suggests MODY5. Scanning the non-coding regions is important for not missing a mutation in HNF1B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EDM-20-0092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576636PMC
September 2020

Benefits of the fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 units/mL and lixisenatide (iGlarLixi) in Japanese people with type 2 diabetes: A subgroup and time-to-control analysis of the LixiLan JP phase 3 trials.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2020 09;22 Suppl 4:35-47

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Aims: To explore the impact of baseline characteristics on clinical outcomes in the phase 3 LixiLan JP trials which evaluated the efficacy and safety of iGlarLixi, a titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 units/mL (iGlar) and GLP-1 RA lixisenatide (Lixi), vs Lixi (JP-O1, NCT02749890) or iGlar (LixiLan JP-O2, NCT02752828; JP-L, NCT02752412) in Japanese people with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs; JP-O1, JP-O2) or OADs and basal insulin (JP-L).

Materials And Methods: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) change from baseline to week 26 was assessed within patient subgroups. Subgroups were defined by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor use at screening (JP-O1, JP-O2 only), baseline HbA1c (<8%, ≥8%), baseline BMI (<25, ≥25 kg/m) and age (<65, ≥65 years). Incidences of hypoglycaemia (baseline HbA1c, BMI and age subgroups) and gastrointestinal disorders (age subgroup) were evaluated over 52 (JP-O1) or 26 weeks (JP-O2, JP-L). Time to control (first HbA1c <7% or fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≤130 mg/dL; JP-O2 only) was also assessed.

Results: HbA1c reductions were consistently greater with iGlarLixi vs iGlar or Lixi across all subgroups, and iGlarLixi was equally effective in all subgroups. Incidences of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose ≤3.9 mmol/L) were higher with iGlarLixi vs Lixi and generally comparable with iGlar. Across age subgroups, incidences of gastrointestinal disorders with iGlarLixi were higher vs iGlar, but lower vs Lixi. Median time to HbA1c or FPG control was shorter with iGlarLixi vs iGlar.

Conclusions: iGlarLixi was consistently effective across all baseline characteristic subgroups, with more patients achieving glycaemic control vs iGlar early in treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14139DOI Listing
September 2020

Senescence research from historical theory to future clinical application.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 Feb 28;21(2):125-130. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Geriatric unit, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Historically, the findings from cellular lifespan studies have greatly affected aging research. The discovery of replicative senescence by Hayflick developed into research on telomeres and telomerase, while stress-induced senescence became known as a telomere-independent event. Senescence-inducing signals comprise several tumor suppressors or cell cycle inhibitors, e.g., p53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 Ink4a and others. Stress-induced senescence serves as a physiological barrier to oncogenesis in vivo, while it activates senescence-associated secretary phenotype, inducing chronic inflammation. Thus, beside telomere length, p16, p53 and inflammatory cytokines have been utilized as biomarkers for cellular senescence. Telomere lengths in human leukocytes correlate well with events of aging-related lifestyle diseases, indicating the importance of cellular senescence in organismal aging. As such, the development of senescence research will have significant future clinical applications, e.g., senolysis. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 125-130.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.14121DOI Listing
February 2021
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