Publications by authors named "Nobunao Ikewaki"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Commentary: Beyond "TRIM" Benefits of β-Glucan by Blood Glucose and Lipid Balancing Potentials in Its Defense Against COVID-19.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:620658. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

The Mary-Yoshio Translational Hexagon (MYTH), Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM), Chennai, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.620658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039283PMC
March 2021

β-glucans: wide-spectrum immune-balancing food-supplement-based enteric (β-WIFE) vaccine adjuvant approach to COVID-19.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Mar 2:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

The Fujio-Eiji Academic Terrain (FEAT), Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM), Chennai, India.

Conventional vaccines to combat COVID-19 through different approaches are at various stages of development. The complexity of COVID-19 such as the potential mutations of the virus leading to antigenic drift and the uncertainty on the duration of the immunity induced by the vaccine have hampered the efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, we suggest an alternative interim treatment strategy based on biological response modifier glucans such as the AFO-202-derived β-glucan, which has been reported to induce trained immunity, akin to that induced by the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, by epigenetic modifications at the central level in the bone marrow. These β-glucans act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, activating mucosal immunity by binding with specific pathogen recognition receptors such as dectin-1 and inducing both the adaptive and innate immunity by reaching distant lymphoid organs. β-Glucans have also been used as immune adjuvants for vaccines such as the influenza vaccine. Therefore, until a conventional vaccine is widely available, an orally consumable vaccine adjuvant that acts like biosimilars, termed as the wide-spectrum immune-balancing food-supplement-based enteric (β-WIFE) vaccine adjuvant approach, with well-reported safety is worth in-depth investigation and can be considered for a clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1880210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938654PMC
March 2021

Biological response modifier glucan through balancing of blood glucose may have a prophylactic potential in COVID-19 patients.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Oct 21:1-4. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Yamanashi University- School of Medicine, Yamanashi Chuo, Japan.

With the COVID-19 pandemic causing huge threat to public health and definite treatment modalities and preventive vaccines yet to be arrived at, some of the key indicators of relevance to its prognosis have started emerging. One such independent predictor of outcome has been fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at the time of admission. Earlier, co-morbidities such as diabetes also have been reported to have a risk of relatively increased mortality due to COVID-19. In this background, we herein report on the beneficial effects of Biological response modifier glucan (BRMG) secreted by the black yeast AFO-202 which has been proven to bring under control blood sugar levels in human subjects and also has potential in enhancing & regulating the immune parameters in relevance to COVID-19. We further recommend that this BRMG be tried in clinical studies of COVID-19 to provide a prophylactic effect for validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00664-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575334PMC
October 2020

Coagulopathy associated with COVID-19 - Perspectives & Preventive strategies using a biological response modifier Glucan.

Thromb J 2020 16;18:27. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

II Department of Surgery & Centre for Advancing Clinical Research (CACR), Yamanashi University- School of Medicine, Chuo, Japan.

Direct endothelial injury by viruses and dysregulation of clotting mechanisms due to cytokine storm are the major precipitating factors of mortality in COVID-19; both are attributed to a fundamental dysregulation of the immune system. While immune dysregulation can be attributed to several factors, the risk of associated thrombogenic disruption varies across individuals. This variation depends on several factors, such as comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. When considering ethnic variations, the vulnerability of Caucasians, African Americans and Hispanics needs to be addressed before arriving at strategies to handle thromboembolic complications, which have been identified in recent reports as the leading causes of mortality in COVID-19. Although evaluation of D-dimer and prothrombin during admission is considered to predict prognosis and mortality, there are no preventive or prophylactic strategies before hospital admission. Herein, we present our perspectives on the effect of regular supplementation with the biological response modifier beta glucan based on its relevance to immune modulation. This effect is of paramount importance in decreasing the development of severe COVID-19 and reducing mortality against the background of coagulopathy, especially in vulnerable populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12959-020-00239-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563912PMC
October 2020

Role of Immune Dysregulation in Increased Mortality Among a Specific Subset of COVID-19 Patients and Immune-Enhancement Strategies for Combatting Through Nutritional Supplements.

Front Immunol 2020 9;11:1548. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

The Mary-Yoshio Translational Hexagon, Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Chennai, India.

The COVID-19 pandemic has been causing varying severities of illness. Some are asymptomatic and some develop severe disease leading to mortality across ages. This contrast triggered us explore the causes, with the background that a vaccine for effective immunization or a drug to tackle COVID-19 is not too close to reality. We have discussed strategies to combat COVID-19 through immune enhancement, using simple measures including nutritional supplements. A literature search on mortality-related comorbid conditions was performed. For those conditions, we analyzed the pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could cause the draining of the immune reservoir. We also analyzed the immune markers necessary for the defense mechanism/immune surveillance against COVID-19, especially through simple means including immune enhancing nutritional supplement consumption, and we suggest strategies to combat COVID-19. Major comorbid conditions associated with increased mortality include cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, being immunocompromised by cancer, and severe kidney disease with a senile immune system. Consumption of strain (AFO-202) beta 1,3-1,6 glucan supported enhanced IL-8, sFAS macrophage activity, and NK cells' cytotoxicity, which are major defense mechanisms against viral infection. People with co-morbid conditions who are more prone to COVID-19-related deaths due to immune dysregulation are likely to benefit from consuming nutritional supplements that enhance the immune system. We recommend clinical studies to validate AFO-202 beta glucan in COVID-19 patients to prove its efficacy in overcoming a hyper-inflammation status, thus reducing the mortality, until a definite vaccine is made available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363949PMC
August 2020

CD93 is a cell surface lectin receptor involved in the control of the inflammatory response stimulated by exogenous DNA.

Immunology 2019 10 23;158(2):85-93. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

GRI, Groupe de recherche en immunopathologie, EA4517, Université de la Réunion, Saint-Denis, France.

Bacterial DNA contains CpG oligonucleotide (ODN) motifs to trigger innate immune responses through the endosomal receptor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). One of the cell surface receptors to capture and deliver microbial DNA to intracellular TLR9 is the C-type lectin molecule DEC-205 through its N-terminal C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). CD93 is a cell surface protein and member of the lectin group XIV with a CTLD. We hypothesized that CD93 could interact with CpG motifs, and possibly serve as a novel receptor to deliver bacterial DNA to endosomal TLR9. Using ELISA and tryptophan fluorescence binding studies we observed that the soluble histidine-tagged CD93-CTLD was specifically binding to CpG ODN and bacterial DNA. Moreover, we found that CpG ODN could bind to CD93-expressing IMR32 neuroblastoma cells and induced more robust interleukin-6 secretion when compared with mock-transfected IMR32 control cells. Our data argue for a possible contribution of CD93 to control cell responsiveness to bacterial DNA in a manner reminiscent of DEC-205. We postulate that CD93 may act as a receptor at plasma membrane for DNA or CpG ODN and to grant delivery to endosomal TLR9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6742780PMC
October 2019

Unique properties of cluster of differentiation 93 in the umbilical cord blood of neonates.

Microbiol Immunol 2013 Dec;57(12):822-32

Laboratories of Clinical Immunology, Department of Animal Pharmaceutical Science, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1714-1 Yoshino-machi, Nobeoka-shi, Miyazaki, 882-8508.

It has previously been reported by these authors that cluster of differentiation (CD) 93 is co-expressed on naive T-lymphocytes (CD4(+) CD45RA(+) cells) in neonatal umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs) but not on normal adult peripheral blood cells (PBCs). In this study, expression of CD93 on other lymphocyte subsets and the concentration of soluble formed CD93 (sCD93) in serum or culture supernatants from neonatal umbilical cord blood (UCB) was examined. It was found that CD93 is also co-expressed on CD2(+) , CD16(+) , CD56(+) or CD25(+) cells in the lymphocyte population of neonatal UCBCs, but not on normal adult PBCs. The concentrations of sCD93 in serum and culture supernatants from neonatal UCB were significantly greater than those from normal adult peripheral blood. The concentrations of sCD93 in culture supernatants from neonatal UCBCs and normal adult PBCs treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were significantly enhanced compared with those without PMA treatment. The degree of enhancement of sCD93 by PMA in culture supernatants from neonatal UCBCs was significantly greater than that of normal adult PBCs and enhancement of sCD93 by PMA in the culture supernatants from neonatal UCBCs and normal adult PBCs was significantly suppressed by PKC inhibitor. Interestingly, the high concentration of serum sCD93 in neonates was significantly decreased in sera from infants at 1 month after birth. Expression of CD93 on the lymphocyte population of PBCs from infants at 1 month after birth was also significantly decreased, compared with that for neonatal UCBCs. These findings indicate that CD93 in neonatal UCB has unique properties as an immunological biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12097DOI Listing
December 2013

Flow cytometric identification of CD93 expression on naive T lymphocytes (CD4(+)CD45RA (+) cells) in human neonatal umbilical cord blood.

J Clin Immunol 2010 Sep 29;30(5):723-33. Epub 2010 May 29.

Department of Animal Pharmaceutical Science, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1714-1 Yoshino-cho, Nobeoka, Miyazaki 882-8508, Japan.

Human CD93 has a molecular weight of about 100 kDa and is selectively expressed by myeloid cell lineages in peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells. Although CD93 was initially identified as a receptor for complement component 1, subcomponent q phagocytosis (C1qRp) involved in the C1q-mediated enhancement of the phagocytosis of various antigens, several recent studies have reported that CD93 is not a receptor for the C1q-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis. The expression patterns of CD93 have been previously investigated in PB mononuclear cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes) from adult PB and neonatal umbilical cord blood (UCB), and the expression of CD93 was not found on lymphocytes from either normal adult PB or neonatal UCB. However, the detection of CD93 expression in neonatal UCB using CD93 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize different antigenic epitopes remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the expression of CD93 on lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes from neonatal UCB using four different types of CD93 mAb detection probes, mNI-11, R139, R3, and X-2, using flow cytometric and western blot analyses. We found that CD93, as defined using all four mAbs, was expressed on monocytes and granulocytes in PB mononuclear cells from adult PB and neonatal UCB. On the other hand, we observed for the first time that the expression of CD93 on lymphocytes in neonatal UCB can only be detected using the mNI-11 mAb, established in our laboratory, and not with commercially available CD93 mAbs (R139, R3, and X-2). However, CD93 expression on lymphocytes from normal adults was not detected using any of the four CD93 mAbs. Two-color flow cytometric analyses showed that the CD93 recognized by mNI-11 mAb was expressed on CD3(+) T lymphocytes (mainly CD4(+) helper T lymphocytes), but not on CD19(+) B lymphocytes or on CD8(+) suppressor/cytotoxic T lymphocytes from neonatal UCB. In addition, CD93 was expressed on CD45RA(+) (naive antigen) lymphocytes from neonatal UCB, but not on CD45RO(+) (memory antigen) lymphocytes from neonatal UCB or on CD45RA(+) and CD45RO(+) lymphocytes from normal adult PB. Three-color flow cytometric analysis showed that CD93 was co-expressed on naive T lymphocytes (CD4(+)CD45RA(+)) from neonatal UCB. In a western blot analysis, the CD93 mAb (mNI-11) immunoprecipitated at a molecular weight of 98 kDa, identified as a CD93 molecule, in the CD4(+)CD45RA(+) cells from neonatal UCB but not from adult PB, similar to the results in the human monocyte-like cell line U937 (human CD93-positive cells). Taken together, these results provide the first direct evidence of a novel/naive cell population (CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD93(+)) in neonatal UCB that may have an important role in cell biology, transplantation, and immature/mature immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-010-9426-1DOI Listing
September 2010

Anti-human very late antigen-alpha4 (CD49d) monoclonal antibody (BU49) cross-reacts with the canine B-cell leukemia cell line GL-1, resulting in the induction of homotypic cell aggregation.

Cell Immunol 2010 26;263(1):55-64. Epub 2010 Feb 26.

Department of Animal Pharmaceutical Science, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Institute of Immunology, Takahashi Educational Institute, 1714-1 Yoshino-cho, Nobeoka, Miyazaki 882-8508, Japan.

We have found that the anti-human very late antigen-alpha4 (VLA-alpha4) (CD49d) monoclonal antibody (mAb) BU49 cross-reacts with the canine B-cell leukemia cell line GL-1. Interestingly, the BU49 mAb specifically induced the homotypic cell aggregation of GL-1 cells accompanied by morphological changes. Homotypic cell aggregates induced by BU49 mAb were blocked by the presence of a protein kinase C inhibitor, a protein kinase A inhibitor, an actin filament formation inhibitor, and an EDTA. On the other hand, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, a DNA-synthesis inhibitor, and an anti-canine CD45 mAb did not affect the GL-1 homotypic cell aggregation induced by BU49 mAb. The BU49 mAb immunoprecipitated at a molecular weight of about 150kDa in the GL-1 cells, similar to the results in the human monocyte-like cell line U937. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that human CD49d recognized by BU49 mAb has unique immunological functions against canine cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2010.02.016DOI Listing
August 2010

Decrease in CD93 (C1qRp) expression in a human monocyte-like cell line (U937) treated with various apoptosis-inducing chemical substances.

Microbiol Immunol 2007 ;51(12):1189-200

Kyushu University of Health, Welfare School of Health Science, Takahashi Educational Institute, Nobeoka, Miyazaki, Japan.

Human CD93, a receptor for complement component 1, subcomponent q phagocytosis (C1qRp), has been shown to be selectively expressed by cells of a myeloid lineage and was originally reported to be involved in the C1q-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis in innate and adaptive immune responses. The modulation of CD93 expression has been investigated in various cells, particularly in granulocytes and monocytes . We previously reported that a protein kinase C activator (PKC), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), effectively up-regulated CD93 expression on several cultured cell lines and that its regulation was mainly controlled by a PKC delta-isoenzyme. However, the expression pattern of CD93 in myeloid cells with apoptotic properties remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the modulation of CD93 expression on a human monocyte-like cell line (U937) treated with various apoptosis-inducing chemical substances : an RNA-synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D (ActD); a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor, camptothecin (CPT); a protein-synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX); a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor, etoposide (EPS); and a DNA-synthesis inhibitor, mitomycin C (MMC). Apoptosis was monitored using two-color flow cytometry with Annexin V and 7-amino actinomycin D (7AAD). The above-mentioned substances sufficiently induced the early and late stages of apoptosis, identified as Annexin V positive (+)/7AAD negative (-) cells and Annexin V positive (+)/7AAD positive (+) cells, respectively, in U937 cells after 6 hr of treatment. The modulation of CD93 expression on U937 cells during the early stage of apoptosis, gated as Annexin V positive (+)/7AAD negative (-) cells, was then investigated using a CD93 mAb (mNI-11), originally established in our laboratories, and flow cytometry using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cells that stained positive for CD93 mAb (mNI-11) among the treated U937 cells showed a dramatic decrease in expression. In addition, the expressions of HLA-class I (HLA-A, B, C), HLA-class II (HLA-DR), CD18 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 beta; LFA-1beta) and CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1; ICAM-1) were also markedly decreased on the treated U937 cells identified as Annexin V positive (+)/7AAD negative (-) cells (early stage of apoptosis). Interestingly, the expression patterns of CD93 on the U937 cells treated with the above-mentioned chemical substances closely resembled those of HLA-class I (HLA-A, B, C). An immunoblotting analysis showed that the expression of a surface antigen (molecular size, about 97 kDa) targeted by the CD93 mAb (mNI-11) on the U937 cells treated with various apoptosis-inducing chemical substances had clearly decreased. On the other hand, an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) showed that although PMA-treated U937 cells had strongly secreted soluble CD93 (sCD93) into the culture supernatant, the secretion of sCD93 in the culture supernatant of the U937 cells treated with the above-mentioned chemical substances was not enhanced, compared with that of untreated U937 cells. Importantly, however , the U937 cells with apoptotic properties induced by various apoptosis-inducing chemical substances also rapidly (in 30 min) and strongly secreted sCD93 into the culture supernatant in the presence of PMA. Taken together, these findings indicate that the expression of the CD93 molecule identified by CD93 mAb (mNI-11) is dramatically decreased on U937 cells with apoptotic properties, and that the decrease in CD93 expression on U937 cells treated with apoptosis-inducing chemical substances may be a good model for analyzing the regulation of CD93 expression on apoptotic myeloid cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2007.tb04014.xDOI Listing
April 2008

Immunological actions of Sophy beta-glucan (beta-1,3-1,6 glucan), currently available commercially as a health food supplement.

Microbiol Immunol 2007 ;51(9):861-73

Kyushu University of Health and Welfare School of Health Science, and Institute of Immunology, Takahashi Educational Institute, Nobeoka, Miyazaki, Japan.

We examined the immunological actions of Sophy beta-glucan(Ikewaki N., et al. United States Patent 6956120 and Japan Patent 2004-329077), a type of beta-1,3-1,6 glucan produced by the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans) strain AFO-202, currently available commercially as a health food supplement, using different human in vitro experimental systems. Sophy beta-glucan significantly (P<0.01) stimulated the (3)H-thymidine incorporation rates (marker of DNA synthesis) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from normal adult donors, in vitro. Enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIAs) revealed that Sophy beta-glucan stimulated the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) or soluble Fas (sFas), but not that of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12 (p70+40), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), in either cultured PBMCs or cells of the human monocyte-like cell line, U937. The induction by Sophy beta-glucan of DNA synthesis in PBMCs was completely blocked by the addition of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CD11a, CD54, human leukocyte antigen-class II (HLA-class II), Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4). In these blocking experiments using the mAbs, the main differences in the results between PBMCs and U937 cells were that the mAbs against TLR-2 and TLR-4 did not block the Sophy beta-glucan-induced production of IL-8 in the U937 cells. Furthermore, a mAb to the beta-glucan receptor, Dectin-1, significantly (P<0.05) blocked the Sophy beta-glucan induced DNA synthesis in the PBMCs, and Sophy beta-glucan-induced production of IL-8 in the U937 cells. The Sophy beta-glucan-induced production of IL-8 in the U937 cells was significantly (P<0.01) blocked by the conventional protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Go6976, the novel PKC inhibitor Rottlerin, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89, and the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor herbimycin A. Among these, the blocking effect of the novel PKC (PKC delta isoenzyme) inhibitor Rottlerin was the most pronounced. Studies employing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that Sophy beta-glucan stimulated the expression of IL-8 mRNA in the U937 cells, and that this induction was inhibited by Rottlerin. Sophy beta-glucan also blocked the stimulator cell induction of DNA synthesis and IFN-gamma production in the responder cells in a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) using allogenic PBMCs. Interestingly, immunoglobulin G (IgG), but not IgM to Sophy beta-glucan was detected in the sera derived from normal adult donors and from the umbilical cord blood of neonates. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that the Sophy beta-glucan may have unique immune regulatory or enhancing properties that could be exploited by the health food, medical and pharmaceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2007.tb03982.xDOI Listing
February 2008

Regulation of CD93 cell surface expression by protein kinase C isoenzymes.

Microbiol Immunol 2006 ;50(2):93-103

Institute of Immunology, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Nobeoka, Miyazaki, Japan.

Human CD93, also known as complement protein 1, q subcomponent, receptor (C1qRp), is selectively expressed by cells with a myeloid lineage, endothelial cells, platelets, and microglia and was originally reported to be involved in the complement protein 1, q subcomponent (C1q)-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis. The intracellular molecular events responsible for the regulation of its expression on the cell surface, however, have not been determined. In this study, the effect of protein kinases in the regulation of CD93 expression on the cell surface of a human monocyte-like cell line (U937), a human NK-like cell line (KHYG-1), and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUV-EC-C) was investigated using four types of protein kinase inhibitors, the classical protein kinase C (cPKC) inhibitor Go6976, the novel PKC (nPKC) inhibitor Rottlerin, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 and the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor herbimycin A at their optimum concentrations for 24 hr. CD93 expression was analyzed using flow cytometry and glutaraldehyde-fixed cellular enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) techniques utilizing a CD93 monoclonal antibody (mAb), mNI-11, that was originally established in our laboratory as a CD93 detection probe. The nPKC inhibitor Rottlerin strongly down-regulated CD93 expression on the U937 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the other inhibitors had little or no effect. CD93 expression was down-regulated by Go6976, but not by Rottlerin, in the KHYG-1 cells and by both Rottlerin and Go6976 in the HUV-EC-C cells. The PKC stimulator, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), strongly up-regulated CD93 expression on the cell surface of all three cell-lines and induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production by the U937 cells and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by the KHYG-1 cells. In addition, both Go6976 and Rottlerin inhibited the up-regulation of CD93 expression induced by PMA and IL-8 or IFN-gamma production in the respective cell-lines. Whereas recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-alpha) slightly up-regulated CD93 expression on the U937 cells, recombinant interleukin-1beta (rIL-1beta), recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) had no effect. Taken together, these findings indicate that the regulation of CD93 expression on these cells involves the PKC isoenzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2006.tb03774.xDOI Listing
May 2006

Evidence of GATA-3-dependent Th2 commitment during the in vivo immune response.

Int Immunol 2004 Jan;16(1):179-87

Department of Microbiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, 228-8555 Kanagawa, Japan.

The transcription factor GATA-3 has been shown to play an important role for the in vitro induction of T(h)2 cells. To clarify how the in vivo immune response is governed under GATA-3 function, we generated double-transgenic mice by crossing GATA-3 transgenic mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific TCR transgenic mice. After immunization with OVA, the double-transgenic mice showed increased expression of GATA-3 in antigen-reactive fresh CD4(+) T cells, and higher production of IL-5 and IL-13 in cultured spleen cells in the presence of cognate antigen without any polarizing conditions for T(h)2 cells. Moreover, the immunized double-transgenic mice showed a higher increase of in vivo secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after OVA aerosol challenging. The serum levels of OVA-specific IgG1, IgE and IgA antibodies were much higher in the immunized double-transgenic mice than TCR transgenic mice. These findings provide direct evidence that antigen-stimulated CD4(+) T cells in the immunized mice have already been committed into T(h)2 cells producing IL-5 and IL-13 selectively through enhanced GATA-3 expression in vivo, thereby inducing higher production of antigen-specific antibody for three isotypes other than IgM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxh026DOI Listing
January 2004

Depolymerization of actin filament by cytochalasin E induces interleukin-8 production and up-regulates CD54 in the HeLa epithelial cell line.

Microbiol Immunol 2003 ;47(10):775-83

Division of Immunology, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Faculty of Health and Science, Nobeoka, Miyazaki 882-8508, Japan.

We previously reported that the depolymerization of actin filament by cytochalasin E enhances low affinity Fcepsilon receptor II (CD23) expression on the human monocyte-like cell line, U937 (J. Clin. Immunol. 20: 235, 2000). In this study, we found that cytochalasin E strongly induces interleukin-8 through an epithelial cell line, HeLa, in dose- and time-dependent manners as assessed by enzyme-linked immunoassay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction techniques. In addition, interleukin-8 production in the HeLa cells cultured with cytochalasin E was blocked in the presence of protein kinase C inhibitors, Go6976 and H-7. On the other hand, it was found that CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1; ICAM-1) expression on the HeLa cells and the secretion of soluble CD54 were significantly up-regulated after culturing with cytochalasin E, and that these up-regulations of CD54 were also suppressed by Go6976. Taken together, these findings indicate that cytochalasin E activates protein kinase C under the depolymerization of actin filament, leading to the induction of interleukin-8 production and the up-regulation of CD54 in HeLa cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2003.tb03435.xDOI Listing
February 2004

A very late activating antigen-alpha4 (CD49d) monoclonal antibody, BU49 induces phosphorylation of a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), resulting in induction of homotypic cell aggregation and enhancement of interleukin-8 (IL-8) production.

Microbiol Immunol 2002 ;46(10):685-95

Division of Immunology, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Faculty of Health and Science, Nobeoka, Miyazaki 882-8508, Japan.

A very late activating antigen-alpha4 (CD49d) monoclonal antibody (mAb), BU49 was found to induce phosphorylation of a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the human monocyte-like cell line, U937. This phosphorylation of CREB was completely inhibited by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 with the optimum concentration (completely inhibits PKA). Furthermore, BU49 strongly and rapidly (within 5 hr) induced homotypic cell aggregation in the U937 cells accompanied by CREB phosphorylation. This cell aggregation was also completely inhibited by the addition of H-89. Interestingly, both of two mAbs (mAb13 and 4B4) recognizing different epitopes on the CD29 (beta1 integrin) completely inhibited this aggregation at the late phase (18 to 24 hr) but not at the early phase (5 hr) after cultured with BU49. On the other hand, BU49 significantly enhanced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production from the U937 cells into the culture supernatant. In addition, this IL-8 production was significantly blocked in the presence of H-89 with the optimum concentration. However, a CD29 mAb which inhibits homotypic cell aggregation could not block this IL-8 production. Taken together, these findings indicate that BU49 induces CREB phosphorylation mainly mediated by PKA, which finally results in the induction of homotypic cell aggregation and the enhancement of IL-8 production. Furthermore, these findings also indicate that the enhancement of IL-8 production from the U937 cells induced by BU49 partially depends on CREB phosphorylation mainly mediated by PKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2002.tb02752.xDOI Listing
January 2003

Human C1qRp is identical with CD93 and the mNI-11 antigen but does not bind C1q.

J Immunol 2002 May;168(10):5222-32

Brain Inflammation and Immunity Group, Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, Wales, UK.

It has been suggested that the human C1qRp is a receptor for the complement component C1q; however, there is no direct evidence for an interaction between C1q and C1qRp. In this study, we demonstrate that C1q does not show enhanced binding to C1qRp-transfected cells compared with control cells. Furthermore, a soluble recombinant C1qRp-Fc chimera failed to interact with immobilized C1q. The proposed role of C1qRp in the phagocytic response in vivo is also unsupported in that we demonstrate that this molecule is not expressed by macrophages in a variety of human tissues and the predominant site of expression is on endothelial cells. Studies on the rodent homolog of C1qRp, known as AA4, have suggested that this molecule may function as an intercellular adhesion molecule. Here we show that C1qRp is the Ag recognized by several previously described mAbs, mNI-11 and two anti-CD93 Abs (clones X2 and VIMD2b). Interestingly, mNI-11 (Fab') has been shown to promote monocyte-monocyte and monocyte-endothelial cell adhesive interactions. We produced a recombinant C1qRp-Fc chimera containing the C-type lectin-like domain of C1qRp and found specific binding to vascular endothelial cells in sections of inflamed human tonsil, indicating the presence of a C1qRp ligand at this site. This interaction was Ca(2+) independent and was not blocked by our anti-C1qRp mAb BIIG-4, but was blocked by the proadhesive mAb mNI-11. Collectively, these data indicate that C1qRp is not a receptor for C1q, and they support the emerging role of C1qRp (here renamed CD93) in functions relevant to intercellular adhesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.168.10.5222DOI Listing
May 2002

High serum glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase levels in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Hepatol Res 2002 Mar;22(3):174-179

Department of Internal Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1, Kitasato, Kanagawa 228-8555, Sagamihara, Japan

We have developed a mouse monoclonal antibody against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and established a form of semi-quantitative latex particle aggregation as a first-screening technique for determining serum levels of GAPDH. Focusing on chronic liver diseases, we measured serum GAPDH in 213 patients to clarify its clinical significance. Serum GAPDH levels were similar in healthy control subjects, patients who were hepatitis B or C virus carriers, or with chronic hepatitis. However, the levels were significantly increased in patients with cirrhosis (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma and a high gamma-globulin level were closely associated with high GAPDH levels (P=0.006 and 0.011, respectively). Elevated serum GAPDH was also confirmed in a patient with cirrhosis associated with hepatocellular carcinoma using Western blotting analysis. The mechanism(s) of serum GAPDH elevation remains unclear, but one possible source is increased leakage of the GAPDH molecule into the serum from damaged cirrhotic hepatocytes underlying hepatocarcinogenesis or chronic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1386-6346(01)00134-6DOI Listing
March 2002