Publications by authors named "Nivo Ramanandraibe"

9 Publications

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Secondhand smoke exposure and susceptibility to initiating cigarette smoking among never-smoking students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

Prev Med 2016 10 30;91S:S2-S8. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and illness in non-smokers. We examined SHS exposure at home and in public places, as well as susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking among never cigarette smokers. We used 2006-2011 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 29 African countries (56,967 students).

Methods: GYTS is a nationally representative, self-administered school-based survey, conducted among students aged 13-15years. Prevalence ratio, estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed for SHS exposure in the homes and public places separately. The two-sample t-test was used to assess the difference in susceptibility to smoking by SHS exposure among never-smoking students (α=0.05).

Results: Among never-smoking students, exposure to SHS at home ranged from 12.7% (Cape Verde) to 44.0% (Senegal). The prevalence ratio (PR) comparing susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS at home to those who were not exposed at home ranged from 1.2 to 2.6. Exposure to SHS in public places ranged from 23.9% (Cape Verde) to 80.4% (Mali). Of the countries being studied, 8 countries showed a significant difference in susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS in public places compared to those not exposed in public places. (PR ranged from 0.5-3.5).

Conclusion: In many African countries in the study, a substantial proportion of students who never smoked are exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Majority of never smokers who were exposed to SHS at home and in public places had a higher prevalence of susceptibility to initiate smoking than those that were not exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Adoption and enforcement of smoke-free policies in public places and smoke-free rules at home could substantially contribute to reducing SHS exposure in many of these countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.04.017DOI Listing
October 2016

Preventing tobacco epidemic in LMICs with low tobacco use - Using Nigeria GATS to review WHO MPOWER tobacco indicators and prevention strategies.

Prev Med 2016 10 14;91S:S9-S15. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Global Tobacco Control Branch, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Introduction: Tobacco is a major preventable cause of disease and death globally and increasingly shifting its burden to low and middle-income countries (LMICs) including African countries. We use Nigeria Global Adult Tobacco Survey data to examine indications of a potential tobacco epidemic in a LMIC setting and provide potential interventions to prevent the epidemic.

Methodology: Global Adult Tobacco Survey data from Nigeria (2012; sample=9765) were analyzed to examine key tobacco indicators. Estimates and confidence intervals for each indicator were computed using SPSS software version 21 for complex samples.

Results: 5.5% of adult Nigerians use any tobacco and exposure to secondhand smoke was mainly high in bars (80.0%) and restaurants (29.3%). Two-thirds of smokers (66.3%) are interested in quitting. Among those who attempted to quit, 15.0% used counseling/advice and 5.2% pharmacotherapy. Awareness was high that tobacco use causes serious illnesses (82.4%), heart attack (76.8%) and lung cancer (73.0%) but only 51.4% for stroke. Awareness that secondhand smoke can cause serious illness was also high (74.5%). Overall 88.5% support tobacco products tax increase.

Conclusion: Although tobacco use is relatively low in Nigeria as in other African countries, high smoking rate among men compared to women might indicate potential increase in prevalence. Challenges to preventing increasing smoking rate include limited use of evidence-based cessation methods among quit attempters, social acceptability of smoking particularly in bars and restaurants, and gap in knowledge on tobacco-related diseases. However, ratification of WHO FCTC and signing into law of the Tobacco Control law provide the impetus to implement evidence-based interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.04.005DOI Listing
October 2016

An overview of tobacco control and prevention policy status in Africa.

Prev Med 2016 10 12;91S:S16-S22. Epub 2016 Feb 12.

Regional Office for Africa, World Health Organization, Brazzaville, Congo.

Tobacco smoking prevalence remains low in many African countries. However, growing economies and the increased presence of multinational tobacco companies in the African Region have the potential to contribute to increasing tobacco use rates in the future. This paper used data from the 2014 Global Progress Report on implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), as well as the 2015 WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, to describe the status of tobacco control and prevention efforts in countries in the WHO African Region relative to the provisions of the WHO FCTC and MPOWER package. Among the 23 countries in the African Region analyzed, there are large variations in the overall WHO FCTC implementation rates, ranging from 9% in Sierra Leone to 78% in Kenya. The analysis of MPOWER implementation status indicates that opportunities exist for the African countries to enhance compliance with WHO recommended best practices for monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from tobacco smoke, offering help to quit tobacco use, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing bans on tobacco advertising and promotion, and raising taxes on tobacco products. If tobacco control interventions are successfully implemented, African nations could avert a tobacco-related epidemic, including premature death, disability, and the associated economic, development, and societal costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556684PMC
October 2016

Youth access to cigarettes in six sub-Saharan African countries.

Prev Med 2016 10 2;91S:S23-S27. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Division of Global Health Protection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objective: Tobacco smoking is initiated and established mostly during adolescence. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 16 outlines the obligation of parties to prohibit the sale of tobacco products to minors. This study examined where and how student smokers obtain cigarettes.

Methods: We examined Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 2009 to 2011 on cigarette access among students aged 13-15 in six sub-Saharan African countries.

Results: In all countries analyzed, over 20% of student smokers obtained their cigarettes in a store or shop (52.6% in South Africa, 37.7% in Republic of Congo, 28.2% in Swaziland, 27.4% in Cote d'Ivoire, 26.9% in Ghana, and 22.6% in Uganda). In Cote d'Ivoire and South Africa, 68.9% and 68.7% of student cigarette smokers, respectively, were not refused the sale of cigarettes because of age. The percentage of students who were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative ranged from 4.7% in Cote d'Ivoire to 12.1% in South Africa.

Conclusions: The method of obtaining cigarettes and access to cigarettes among students varies among sub-Saharan African countries. Adopting and enforcing interventions that prevent youth from accessing tobacco products could be an effective strategy for reducing smoking initiation among youth in sub-Saharan African countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.01.018DOI Listing
October 2016

Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

Prev Med 2016 10 30;91S:S35-S39. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Office of Smoking and Health, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries.

Methods: We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available.

Results: Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys.

Conclusion: Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.12.015DOI Listing
October 2016

Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

Tob Control 2016 12 11;25(e2):e95-e100. Epub 2016 Feb 11.

Tobacco Free Initiative, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objective: Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 countries (19 low-income and middle-income countries and 2 high-income countries).

Methods: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data, a household survey of people 15 years of age or older. Data collected during 2009-2013 were analysed to estimate the proportion of children exposed to SHS in the home. GATS estimates and 2012 United Nations population projections for 2015 were also used to estimate the number of children exposed to SHS in the home.

Results: The proportion of children younger than 15 years of age exposed to SHS in the home ranged from 4.5% (Panama) to 79.0% (Indonesia). Of the approximately one billion children younger than 15 years of age living in the 21 countries under study, an estimated 507.74 million were exposed to SHS in the home. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines accounted for almost 84.6% of the children exposed to SHS. The prevalence of SHS exposure was higher in countries with higher adult smoking rates and was also higher in rural areas than in urban areas, in most countries.

Conclusions: A large number of children were exposed to SHS in the home. Encouraging of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and cessation in adults has the potential to reduce SHS exposure among children and prevent SHS-related diseases and deaths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5488799PMC
December 2016

Methodology of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey - 2008-2010.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):3-23. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913499800DOI Listing
June 2016

Tracking MPOWER in 14 countries: results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2008-2010.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):24-37. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

Headquarters, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER is a technical package of six tobacco control measures that assist countries in meeting their obligations of the WHO Framework Convention Tobacco Control and are proven to reduce tobacco use. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) systematically monitors adult tobacco use and tracks key tobacco control indicators.

Methods: GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults aged 15 and older, using a standard and consistent protocol across countries; it includes information on the six WHO MPOWER measures. GATS Phase I was conducted from 2008-2010 in 14 high-burden low- and middle-income countries. We selected one key indicator from each of the six MPOWER measures and compared results across 14 countries.

Results: Current tobacco use prevalence rates ranged from 16.1% in Mexico to 43.3% in Bangladesh. We found that the highest rate of exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace was in China (63.3%). We found the highest 'smoking quit attempt' rates in the past 12 months among cigarette smokers in Viet Nam (55.3%) and the lowest rate was in the Russian Federation (32.1%). In five of the 14 countries, more than one-half of current smokers in those 5 countries said they thought of quitting because of health warning labels on cigarette packages. The Philippines (74.3%) and the Russian Federation (68.0%) had the highest percentages of respondents noticing any cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Manufactured cigarette affordability ranged from 0.6% in Russia to 8.0% in India.

Conclusions: Monitoring tobacco use and tobacco control policy achievements is crucial to managing and implementing measures to reverse the epidemic. GATS provides internationally-comparable data that systematically monitors and tracks the progress of the other five MPOWER measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913501911DOI Listing
June 2016