Publications by authors named "Nirupam R Choudhury"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The host factor RAD51 is involved in mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) DNA replication.

Arch Virol 2013 Sep 11;158(9):1931-41. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology ICGEB, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Geminiviruses replicate their single-stranded genomes with the help of only a few viral factors and various host cellular proteins primarily by rolling-circle replication (RCR) and/or recombination-dependent replication. AtRAD51 has been identified, using the phage display technique, as a host factor that potentially interacts with the Rep protein of mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), a member of the genus Begomovirus. In this study, we demonstrate the interaction between MYMIV Rep and a host factor, AtRAD51, using yeast two-hybrid and β-galactosidase assays, and this interaction was confirmed using a co-immunoprecipitation assay. The AtRAD51 protein complemented the rad51∆ mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an ex vivo yeast-based geminivirus DNA replication restoration assay. The semiquantitative RT-PCR and northern hybridization data revealed a higher level of expression of the Rad51 transcript in MYMIV-infected mungbean than in uninfected, healthy plants. Our findings provide evidence for a possible cross-talk between RAD51 and MYMIV Rep, which essentially controls viral DNA replication in plants, presumably in conjunction with other host factors. The present study demonstrates for the first time the involvement of a eukaryotic RAD51 protein in MYMIV replication, and this is expected to shed light on the machinery involved in begomovirus DNA replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-013-1675-xDOI Listing
September 2013

Arabidopsis thaliana MCM2 plays role(s) in mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) DNA replication.

Arch Virol 2013 May 15;158(5):981-92. Epub 2012 Dec 15.

Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology ICGEB, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India.

Geminiviruses are plant pathogens with single-stranded (ss) DNA genomes of about 2.7 kb in size. They replicate primarily via rolling-circle replication (RCR) with the help of a few virally encoded factors and various host-cell machineries. The virally encoded replication initiator protein (Rep) is essential for geminivirus replication. In this study, by interaction screening of an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library, we have identified a host factor, MCM2, that interacts with the Rep protein of the geminivirus mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV). Using yeast two-hybrid, β-galactosidase and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated an interaction between MYMIV-Rep and the host factor AtMCM2. We investigated the possible role of AtMCM2 in geminiviral replication using a yeast-based geminivirus DNA replication restoration assay and observed that the AtMCM2 protein complemented the mcm2∆ mutation of S. cerevisiae. Our data suggest the involvement of AtMCM2 in the replication of MYMIV ex vivo. The role of MCM2 in replication was confirmed in planta by a transient replication assay in both wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis plants through agroinoculation. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of AtMCM2 in geminiviral DNA replication, presumably in conjunction with other host factors, and suggest its importance in MYMIV DNA replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-012-1563-9DOI Listing
May 2013

DNA binding activity of Helicobacter pylori DnaB helicase: the role of the N-terminal domain in modulating DNA binding activities.

FEBS J 2012 Jan 9;279(2):234-50. Epub 2011 Dec 9.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Replicative helicases are major motor proteins essential for chromosomal DNA replication in prokaryotes. Usually hexameric in solution, their DNA binding property must have different roles at stages ranging from the loading onto a branched structure at initiation from the origin to the highly processive translocation during elongation. Here, we have analysed the DNA binding activity of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) replicative helicase, DnaB. The results indicate that while the C-terminal region is important for its DNA binding activity, the N-terminus appears to dampen the protein's affinity for DNA. The masking activity of the N-terminus does not require ATP or hexamerization of HpDnaB and can be overcome by deleting the N-terminus. It can also be neutralized by engaging the N-terminus in an interaction with a partner like the C-terminus of DnaG primase. The inhibitory effect of the N-terminus on DNA binding activity is consistent with the 3D homology model of HpDnaB. Electron microscopy of the HpDnaB-ssDNA complex showed that HpDnaB preferentially bound at the ends of linear ssDNA and translocated along the DNA in the presence of ATP. These results provide an insight into the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of different regions of HpDnaB on DNA binding activities that may be central to the loading and translocation functions of DnaB helicases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08418.xDOI Listing
January 2012

The presence of tomato leaf curl Kerala virus AC3 protein enhances viral DNA replication and modulates virus induced gene-silencing mechanism in tomato plants.

Virol J 2011 Apr 18;8:178. Epub 2011 Apr 18.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067, India.

Background: Geminiviruses encode few viral proteins. Most of the geminiviral proteins are multifunctional and influence various host cellular processes for the successful viral infection. Though few viral proteins like AC1 and AC2 are well characterized for their multiple functions, role of AC3 in the successful viral infection has not been investigated in detail.

Results: We performed phage display analysis with the purified recombinant AC3 protein with Maltose Binding Protein as fusion tag (MBP-AC3). Putative AC3 interacting peptides identified through phage display were observed to be homologous to peptides of proteins from various metabolisms. We grouped these putative AC3 interacting peptides according to the known metabolic function of the homologous peptide containing proteins. In order to check if AC3 influences any of these particular metabolic pathways, we designed vectors for assaying DNA replication and virus induced gene-silencing of host gene PCNA. Investigation with these vectors indicated that AC3 enhances viral replication in the host plant tomato. In the PCNA gene-silencing experiment, we observed that the presence of functional AC3 ORF strongly manifested the stunted phenotype associated with the virus induced gene-silencing of PCNA in tomato plants.

Conclusions: Through the phage display analysis proteins from various metabolic pathways were identified as putative AC3 interacting proteins. By utilizing the vectors developed, we could analyze the role of AC3 in viral DNA replication and host gene-silencing. Our studies indicate that AC3 is also a multifunctional protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-8-178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102638PMC
April 2011

Molecular characterization of two distinct monopartite begomoviruses infecting tomato in India.

Virol J 2010 Nov 23;7:337. Epub 2010 Nov 23.

Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067, India.

Background: Tomato leaf curl viruses, which are the members of the genus Begomovirus, have emerged as devastating pathogens worldwide causing huge economic losses and threatening production of crops like cassava, cotton, grain legumes and vegetables. Even though the ToLCV isolates from Northern India have been shown to possess bipartite genome (designated as DNA A and DNA B), those from Australia, Taiwan and Southern India have a single genomic component (DNA A). We describe here the genetic diversity of two isolates of monopartite Tomato leaf curl virus infecting tomato in two extreme regions (North and South) of Indian subcontinent.

Results: The rolling circle amplification (RCA) products obtained from symptomatic samples were digested, cloned and sequenced. The complete DNA sequence of two Tomato leaf curl virus isolates identified as ToLCV-CTM (India, New Delhi, 2005) and ToLCVK3/K5 (India, Kerala, 2008) are reported here. These isolates had the characteristic features of Begomovirus genome organization with six conserved open reading frames (ORFs). The ToLCV-K3 and ToLCV-K5 isolates may be the strains of the same virus since they show sequence homology of 97% over their entire genome. This, according to the guidelines established by the ICTV Geminiviridae Study-Group is higher than threshold (92%) for delineation of different viral variants and hence single, average value has been assigned for all their analyses presented here. The ToLCV-CTM and ToLCV-K3/K5 viruses were found to be monopartite, as neither DNA-B component nor betasatellite associated with begomovirus species, were detected. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A genome of CTM exhibited highest sequence homology (88%) to Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (AJ507777), and of isolates K3/K5 (88.5%) to Tomato leaf curl Pakistan virus (DQ116884). This is less than the threshold value for demarcation of species in the genus Begomovirus.

Conclusion: K3/K5 and CTM are considered to be novel isolates of Tomato leaf curl virus. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic study indicate that these two ToLCV isolates might have evolved by recombination between viruses related to two or more viral ancestors. The existence of different ToLCV isolates having high genome diversity in India poses a threat to the tomato production in the Asian continent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-7-337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3002923PMC
November 2010

Tomato leaf curl Kerala virus (ToLCKeV) AC3 protein forms a higher order oligomer and enhances ATPase activity of replication initiator protein (Rep/AC1).

Virol J 2010 Jun 14;7:128. Epub 2010 Jun 14.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi -110067, India.

Background: Geminiviruses are emerging plant viruses that infect a wide variety of vegetable crops, ornamental plants and cereal crops. They undergo recombination during co-infections by different species of geminiviruses and give rise to more virulent species. Antiviral strategies targeting a broad range of viruses necessitate a detailed understanding of the basic biology of the viruses. ToLCKeV, a virus prevalent in the tomato crop of Kerala state of India and a member of genus Begomovirus has been used as a model system in this study.

Results: AC3 is a geminiviral protein conserved across all the begomoviral species and is postulated to enhance viral DNA replication. In this work we have successfully expressed and purified the AC3 fusion proteins from E. coli. We demonstrated the higher order oligomerization of AC3 using sucrose gradient ultra-centrifugation and gel-filtration experiments. In addition we also established that ToLCKeV AC3 protein interacted with cognate AC1 protein and enhanced the AC1-mediated ATPase activity in vitro.

Conclusions: Highly hydrophobic viral protein AC3 can be purified as a fusion protein with either MBP or GST. The purification method of AC3 protein improves scope for the biochemical characterization of the viral protein. The enhancement of AC1-mediated ATPase activity might lead to increased viral DNA replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-7-128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2901266PMC
June 2010

A geminiviral amplicon (VA) derived from Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) can replicate in a wide variety of plant species and also acts as a VIGS vector.

Virol J 2009 Sep 29;6:152. Epub 2009 Sep 29.

Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067, India.

Background: The Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) belongs to the genus begomoviridae of the family Geminiviridae. The 2.7 kb DNA genome of the virus encodes all the information required for viral DNA replication, transcription and transmission across the plant cells. However, all of the genome sequences are not required for viral DNA replication. We attempted to reveal the minimal essential region required for DNA replication and stable maintenance. The phenomenon of Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) has recently been observed with several geminiviruses. We investigated whether the minimal replicating region was also capable of producing siRNAs in planta and a VIGS vector could be constructed using the same minimal sequences.

Results: We have constructed vectors containing various truncated portions of the Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) genome and established that a segment spanning from common region (CR) to AC3 (ORF coding for a replication enhancer) was the minimal portion which could efficiently replicate in a variety of both monocot and dicot plants. A viral amplicon (VA) vector was constructed using this region that produced siRNAs from various sites of the vector, in a temporal manner in plants, and hence can be used as a VIGS vector. The tomato endogene PCNA was silenced using this vector. Introduction of a mutation in the ORF AC2 (a silencing suppressor) increased the silencing efficiency of the newly constructed vector several folds.

Conclusion: Our study reveals that the vector is capable of replicating in diverse plant species and is highly efficient in silencing endogenes like PCNA of the host plant, thus acting as a VIGS vector. We observed that the geminiviral ORF AC2 functioned as a silencing suppressor and a null mutation in this ORF increased the efficiency of silencing several fold. This is the first report of construction of improved VIGS vector by mutation of the resident silencing suppressor gene. The present study opens up the possibility of using such VIGS vectors in silencing the host genes in a broad range of plant hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-6-152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761890PMC
September 2009
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