Publications by authors named "Ningning Zhang"

176 Publications

The effect of prophylactic uterine artery embolization on reproductive outcomes in patients with cesarean scar pregnancy: a propensity score-matched study.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No.36 Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110004, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of prophylactic uterine artery embolization (UAE) on reproductive outcomes in patients with cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP).

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted using the hospital records of all women diagnosed with CSP during a period of 6 years, between January 2014 and December 2019, at Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University. The clinical characteristics and different treatment modalities were analyzed. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 181 patients with reproductive needs were selected and divided into a UAE group (n = 51) and a non-UAE group (n = 130) according to whether they received preventive UAE before their hysteroscopic or laparoscopic operation. The basic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of patients in each group were compared, and a propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis was used to produce 37 matched pairs.

Results: Before PSM, the UAE group had a thinner muscle layer, larger mass size, and higher serum human chorionic gonadotropin level than the non-UAE group. The pregnancy rate and live birth rate of the UAE group were 54.9% and 61.9%, respectively, which were lower than those of the non-UAE group (61.5% and 66.7%), but no statistical differences were observed. Post-PSM, no significant differences between basic characteristics of the groups were observed. The pregnancy rate of the UAE group was 51.4%, which was lower than that of the non-UAE group (73.0%); the live birth rate of the UAE group was 64.3%, which was also lower than that of the non-UAE group (72.7%); however, the differences were not statistically significant with the P value of 0.077 and 0.716.

Conclusion: Prophylactic UAE did not induce a significant difference in pregnancy rate and live birth rate between the UAE group and the non-UAE group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06347-6DOI Listing
November 2021

Better Medications Adherence Lowers Cardiovascular Events, Stroke, and All-Cause Mortality Risk: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2021 Nov 2;8(11). Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Aims: We investigated the association between vascular medication adherence, assessed by different methods, and the risk of cardio-cerebrovascular events and all-cause mortality.

Methods: A meta-analysis with a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases from inception date to 21 June 2021 was used to identify relevant studies that had evaluated the association between cardiovascular medication adherence levels and cardiovascular events (CVEs), stroke, and all-cause mortality risks. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the dose-response association.

Results: We identified 46 articles in the dose-response meta-analysis. The dose-response analysis indicated that a 20% increment in cardiovascular medication, antihypertensive medication, and lipid-lowering medication adherence level were associated with 9% (RR: 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94), 7% (RR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.03), and 10% (RR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.88-0.92) lowers risk of CVEs, respectively. The reduced risk of stroke respectively was 16% (RR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.81-0.87), 17% (RR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78-0.89), and 13% (RR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.84-0.91). The reduced risk of all-cause mortality respectively was 10% (RR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.87-0.92), 12% (RR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.82-0.94), and 9% (RR 0.91, 95% CI: 0.89-0.94).

Conclusions: A better medication adherence level was associated with a reduced risk of cardio-cerebrovascular events and all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8110146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8624664PMC
November 2021

Three new genera and new species of hystrignathid nematodes (Nematoda: Thelastomatoidea) from passalid beetles (Insecta: Passalidae) from Yunnan Province, China with phylogenetic analysis of Hystrignathidae.

Zootaxa 2021 Nov 23;5071(2):206-222. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Hebei Province, College of Life Sciences, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050024, China. .

Three new genera and three new species of hystrignathid nematodes were collected from the hindgut of passalid beetles in the Yunnan Province, China. Huntia morffei gen. n. et sp. n. from Ceracupes fronticornis (Westwood) differs from related genera in the shape of the stoma, in the cephalic structure, and in the lack of annulation in the cervical region. Parakongonema sinica gen. n. et sp. n. from Aceraius grandis (Burmeister) and C. fronticornis can be easily distinguished from related genera in having the oral opening surrounded by a cuticular ring, the ring being surrounded by a cuticular flap, in the shape of the oesophagus, and in the cephalic structure. Parahystrignathus tongbiguanensis gen. n. et sp. n. from C. fronticornis and A. grandis differs from related genera by having the cervical region armed with alternating rows of spines, with 16 spines in the first row, and by lacking the first cephalic annule. In addition, the 18S and 28S rDNA partial sequences of three new species were obtained. The phylogeny of Hystrignathidae was inferred using partial sequences of the 28S rDNA and revealed patterns that suggest that the shape of the parasite digestive tract may reflect the evolutionary relationships of hystrignathid nematodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5071.2.2DOI Listing
November 2021

Cytokines screening identifies MIG (CXCL9) for postoperative recurrence prediction in operated non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Cytokine 2022 01 12;149:155759. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing Key Laboratory of Clinical Study on Anticancer Molecular Targeted Drugs, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Exploration of reliable biomarkers most likely to identify non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients at high risk for recurrence after surgery is needed.

Methods: Quantibody® Human Cytokine Antibody 6000 was used as screening tool to measure serum levels of 280 cytokines in ten healthy individuals and nine samples from three NSCLC patients before operation, after operation and postoperative recurrence. Selected cytokines were validated in two independent sets (89 patients before surgery, 69 patients after surgery and 40 patients with postoperative recurrence for each set) using ELISA method. The association of the selected cytokine with clinicopathologic features was also evaluated.

Results: Thirty-six cytokines were declined after surgery and again elevated when recurrence. We selected MIG to be further assessed in 2 validation sets, the mean value of serum MIG levels in 396 NSCLC patients was 253.42 ± 274.48 pg/mL and was significantly higher than the level in 60 healthy controls (47.65 ± 33.23 pg/mL, P < 0.0001). The serum MIG levels were 366.36 ± 324.04 pg/mL pre-operation, 134.04 ± 127.52 pg/mL post-operation and 208.05 ± 239.39 pg/mL in recurrence in NSCLC patients. The serum MIG levels were significant differences among NSCLC patients of pre-operation, post-operation and recurrence and controls (P < 0.0001). Moreover, Serum MIG levels were decreased markedly after operation and notably increased when disease relapsed (P < 0.0005). Serum MIG levels trend to be higher in patients with male gender, older age, smoking habit, poor tumor differentiation, and non-adenocarcinoma histology.

Conclusions: These data indicated that MIG might be an indicator of postoperative recurrence and help to identify NSCLC patient who was easy to relapse after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155759DOI Listing
January 2022

Novel Plasma Biomarkers Predicting Biventricular Involvement in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: Novel Biomarkers in ARVC.

Am Heart J 2021 Oct 28. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

University Heart Center Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited heart muscle disease characterized by fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium and ventricular arrhythmias. Biventricular involvement in ARVC may lead to heart failure. This study aimed to investigate the role of plasma biomarkers soluble (s)ST2, Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and GDF-15 in predicting biventricular involvement and adverse outcomes in ARVC.

Methods And Results: ARVC patients from two independent cohorts, were studied. The Bejing (Chinese) cohort (n=108) was the discovery cohort, whereas the Zurich (Swiss) cohort (n=47) served as validation. All patients had a definite ARVC diagnosis at time of blood withdrawal. Biomarkers were independently correlated with NT-proBNP and left ventricular (LV)-function. ARVC patients with LV involvement had higher levels of sST2 and GDF-15 as compared to controls and patients with isolated right ventricle (RV) involvement. sST2 and GDF-15 were significantly correlated with late gadolinium enhancement in CMR and with adverse heart failure outcomes. Gal-3 was elevated in ARVC patients with and without LV involvement. The combined use of the three biomarkers (sST2, GDF-15 and NT-proBNP) showed the best performance in predicting LV involvement in both cohorts. Plasma drawn from the coronary arteries and coronary sinus indicated a transmyocardial elevation of sST2, but no transmyocardial gradient of GDF-15. After heart transplantation, both sST2 and GDF-15 returned to near-normal levels.

Conclusion: Our study showed that sST2 and GDF-15 may predict biventricular involvement in ARVC. The combined use of sST2, GDF-15 and NT-proBNP showed the excellent prediction of biventricular involvement in ARVC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.10.187DOI Listing
October 2021

Concentration, optical characteristics, and emission factors of brown carbon emitted by on-road vehicles.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 5:151307. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Key Laboratory of Middle Atmosphere and Global Environment Observation, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a light-absorbing component that affects radiative forcing; however, this effect requires further clarification, particularly with respect to BrC emission sources, chromophores, and optical properties. In the present study, the concentrations, optical properties, and emission factors of organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC), and humic-like substances (HULIS) in fine particulate matter (PM) emitted from vehicles in three road tunnels (the Wucun, Xianyue, and Wenxing tunnels in Xiamen, China) were investigated. The mass concentrations and light absorption of OC, WSOC, and HULIS were higher at the exits of each tunnel than at entrances, demonstrating that vehicle emissions were a BrC source. At each tunnel's exit, the average light absorption contributed by HULIS-BrC to water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and total BrC at 365 nm was higher than the corresponding carbon mass concentration contributed by HULIS (HULIS-C) to WSOC and OC, indicating that the chromophores of HULIS emitted from vehicles had a disproportionately high effect on the light absorption characteristics of BrC. The emission factors (EFs) of HULIS-C and WSOC mass concentrations were highest at the Xianyue tunnel; however, the EFs of HULIS-BrC and WS-BrC light absorption were highest at the Wenxing tunnel, indicating that the chromophore composition of BrC was different among the tunnels and that the mass concentration EFs did not correspond directly to the light absorption EFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151307DOI Listing
November 2021

Extensive Broadband Near-Infrared Emissions from GeSi Alloys on Micro-Hole Patterned Si(001) Substrates.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Sep 28;11(10). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

Broadband near-infrared (NIR) luminescent materials have been continuously pursued as promising candidates for optoelectronic devices crucial for wide applications in night vision, environment monitoring, biological imaging, etc. Here, graded GeSi (x = 0.1-0.3) alloys are grown on micro-hole patterned Si(001) substrates. Barn-like islands and branch-like nanostructures appear at regions in-between micro-holes and the sidewalls of micro-holes, respectively. The former is driven by the efficient strain relation. The latter is induced by the dislocations originating from defects at sidewalls after etching. An extensive broadband photoluminescence (PL) spectrum is observed in the NIR wavelength range of 1200-2200 nm. Moreover, the integrated intensity of the PL can be enhanced by over six times in comparison with that from the reference sample on a flat substrate. Such an extensively broad and strong PL spectrum is attributed to the coupling between the emissions of GeSi alloys and the guided resonant modes in ordered micro-holes and the strain-enhanced decomposition of alloys during growth on the micro-hole patterned substrate. These results demonstrate that the graded GeSi alloys on micro-hole pattered Si substrates may have great potential for the development of innovative broadband NIR optoelectronic devices, particularly to realize entire systems on a Si chip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11102545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540911PMC
September 2021

Preparation and in vivo/in vitro characterization of Ticagrelor PLGA sustained-release microspheres for injection.

Des Monomers Polym 2021 8;24(1):305-319. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Chemical Engineering Institute, Qingdao, China.

The objective of this paper was to develop a PLGA carrier Ticagrelor sustained-release microspheres preparation, which was expected to continue to release Ticagrelor for 14 days with a high encapsulation rate. Ticagrelor microspheres were prepared successfully with average diameter of 7.31 µm, drug loading of 12.49 ± 0.32% and EE up to 79.09 ± 1.69%. In the release medium of PH7.4 PBS, the microspheres showed good drug release behavior in vitro. In vivo release results also showed that the sustained-release microspheres could effectively control drug release in vivo and maintain a relatively stable blood drug concentration for about 2 weeks. The results indicate that Ticagrelor sustained-release microspheres can be used for long-term treatment of acute coronary syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15685551.2021.1984008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510617PMC
October 2021

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm after treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy: a case report.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Oct 9;21(1):689. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No.36 Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110004, P.R. China.

Background: Pseudoaneurysms are formed when a local arterial wall ruptures, leading to hemorrhage and hematoma adjacent to the artery. Continuous perfusion of the injured artery increases the pressure in the lumen of the pseudoaneurysm. It may rupture and lead to massive hemorrhage that could be life-threatening. Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is an ectopic pregnancy where the gestational sac is implanted in the cesarean scar. Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) after CSP treatment is rare.

Case Presentation: We report the case of a 36-year-old Chinese woman who presented with acute massive vaginal bleeding 53 days after transabdominal scar pregnancy excision. Doppler ultrasound confirmed UAP. Selective uterine artery embolization (UAE) failed because of the thin and curved blood vessels. The lesion decreased in size after transvaginal ultrasound-guided direct thrombin injection (UGTI); however, massive vaginal bleeding recurred and endangered the patient's life. The uterus was removed thereafter.

Conclusions: UAP is a rare complication after CSP treatment that can lead to fatal massive hemorrhage. Ultrasound should be reexamined regularly after treatment of CSP. In case of unexplained vaginal bleeding, we should be alert to the existence of UAP and the possibility of rupture and take effective diagnosis and treatment measures promptly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-04166-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8501730PMC
October 2021

Significant reduction in hemarthrosis in boys with severe hemophilia A: The China hemophilia individualized low-dose secondary prophylaxis study.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2021 Aug 18;5(6):e12552. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Pediatrics Laboratory Medicine and Pathology Division of Hematology and Oncology University of Ottawa Children Hospital of Eastern Ontario Ottawa ON Canada.

Introduction: In countries with restricted access to clotting factor concentrates, early implementation of low-dose prophylaxis is recommended over episodic treatment.

Objective: The objective of this 1-year prospective secondary prophylaxis study was to evaluate the efficacy of a dose/frequency escalating protocol in young boys with hemophilia A in China.

Methods: Boys were started on a low-dose protocol (minimum 10-15 IU/kg of factor VIII [FVIII] twice weekly). Escalation was based on index joint bleeding, swelling/persistent joint swelling, and serial ultrasound (gray scale and color Doppler) examinations of index joints.

Results: Thirty-three boys, median age 4.8 years (interquartile range, 3.8-6.1) were enrolled in a 3-month observation period that preceded a 1-year prophylaxis phase. A significant reduction in total bleeding events (43.0%, = .001), index joint bleeds (53.2%, = .002), and target index joint bleeds (70.0%, = 0.02) was observed during the prophylaxis phase. During the prophylaxis period, 40% of target joints resolved. The percentage of boys with zero index joint bleeds increased significantly (= .004) from 51.5% during the observation phase to 81.8% in last quarter of the prophylaxis phase (months 10-12). There was no progression of arthropathy based on physical examination (Hemophilia Joint Health Score), X-ray, and ultrasound obtained at entry into the prophylaxis phase and at study exit. The median FVIII consumption over the prophylaxis phase was 1786 IU/kg/y.

Conclusion: A low-dose, individualized prophylaxis protocol, guided by individual bleeding profiles and serial assessment of joint status, enables escalation of treatment intensity in boys with severe hemophilia A, leading to a significant reduction in bleeding events and reduction in target joint bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8449287PMC
August 2021

A semiquantitative color Doppler ultrasound scoring system for evaluation of synovitis in joints of patients with blood-induced arthropathy.

Insights Imaging 2021 Sep 25;12(1):132. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: Intra-articular bleeds in patients with inherited bleeding disorders lead to active synovitis which may progress to a chronic state over time. We explored the diagnostic value of color Doppler ultrasound in detecting synovitis in boys with bleeding disorders.

Results: Sixty boys with hemophilia and 3 boys with type 3 von Willebrand disease aged 5 to 18 years (median 12.3 years) were imaged by gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasound (US) in three centers (Beijing, China [n = 22], Guangzhou, China [n = 12] and Toronto, Canada [n = 29])) in this observational study. Images were independently reviewed by two radiologists blinded to clinical data using a subjective semi-quantitative scoring system and objective measurements of synovial thickness and vascularity. Inter-reader reliability for using subjective versus objective color Doppler US methods for assessing synovial vascularity was excellent for the subjective method and moderate/lower range of substantial for the objective method. Agreement between degree of vascularity on color Doppler and extent of synovial hypertrophy on gray-scale US was overall poor for Canada data and moderate for China data. Correlations between degree of vascularity on color Doppler and synovial hypertrophy on gray-scale US, and clinical constructs (total and itemized HJHS scores and total Pettersson X-ray scores) for assessment of blood-induced arthropathy were all poor.

Conclusion: Color Doppler US is a valuable scoring method for evaluating reactive synovitis in joints of subjects with inherited bleeding disorders and holds potential for assessing post-bleed reactive synovitis once further information on its association with timing of the joint bleed becomes available in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-021-01043-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464640PMC
September 2021

Analysis of the efficacy and safety of aerosol inhalation in the treatment of respiratory tract infection in children.

Minerva Med 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Zaozhuang Hospital of traditional Chinese Medicine, Zaozhuang, China -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07719-3DOI Listing
September 2021

High light and temperature reduce photosynthetic efficiency through different mechanisms in the C model Setaria viridis.

Commun Biol 2021 09 16;4(1):1092. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO, USA.

C plants frequently experience high light and high temperature conditions in the field, which reduce growth and yield. However, the mechanisms underlying these stress responses in C plants have been under-explored, especially the coordination between mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells. We investigated how the C model plant Setaria viridis responded to a four-hour high light or high temperature treatment at photosynthetic, transcriptomic, and ultrastructural levels. Although we observed a comparable reduction of photosynthetic efficiency in high light or high temperature treated leaves, detailed analysis of multi-level responses revealed important differences in key pathways and M/BS specificity responding to high light and high temperature. We provide a systematic analysis of high light and high temperature responses in S. viridis, reveal different acclimation strategies to these two stresses in C plants, discover unique light/temperature responses in C plants in comparison to C plants, and identify potential targets to improve abiotic stress tolerance in C crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02576-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446033PMC
September 2021

Association of triglyceride-glucose index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein with asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis: A cross-sectional study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 10 29;31(11):3103-3110. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) have been shown to play important roles in the pathophysiological mechanisms of atherogenesis. However, the cumulative value of TyG and hsCRP in identifying asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (aICAS), as well as its severity and numerical burden, is uncertain. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap.

Methods And Results: This study included 1938 participants aged ≥40 years who were free of stroke or transient ischemic attack. All participants were classified into four groups based on the participants' TyG and hsCRP levels, including low-TyG and low-hsCRP, low-TyG and high-hsCRP, high-TyG and low-hsCRP, and high-TyG and high-hsCRP groups. The presence of aICAS was screened via transcranial Doppler ultrasound and confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography. The TyG was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]. We used multinomial logistic regression analysis to investigate the cumulative value of TyG and hsCRP on identifying the severity of aICAS or its numerical burden. After adjustment for conventional confounders, isolated high-hsCRP, isolated high-TyG, and high-TyG combined with high-hsCRP were independently associated with moderate-to-severe aICAS. Compared with the low-TyG and low-hsCRP group, participants with high-TyG and high-hsCRP had a 2.6 times higher odds ratio (OR) of having a single moderate-to-severe aICAS and a 3.3 times higher OR of having multiple moderate-to-severe aICASs.

Conclusion: The cumulative value of TyG and hsCRP may better identify moderate-to-severe aICAS as well as its numerical burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.07.009DOI Listing
October 2021

Oscillating dietary crude protein concentrations increase N retention of calves by affecting urea-N recycling and nitrogen metabolism of rumen bacteria and epithelium.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0257417. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oscillating crude protein (CP) concentration diet on the nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) of calves and determine its mechanism. Twelve Holstein calves were assigned randomly into static protein diet (SP, 149 g/kg CP) and oscillating protein diet (OP, 125 and 173 g/kg CP diets oscillated at 2-d intervals) groups. After 60 days of feeding, the weights of total stomach, rumen and omasum tended to increase in calves fed OP. The apparent crude fat digestibility, NUE and energy metabolism also increased. In terms of urea-N kinetics evaluated by urea-15N15N isotope labeling method, the urea-N production and that entry to gastrointestinal tended to increase, and urea-N reused for anabolism increased significantly in calves fed OP during the low protein phase. These data indicate that urea-N recycling contributed to improving NUE when dietary protein concentration was low. In addition, the differentially expressed genes in rumen epithelium and the rumen bacteria involved in protein and energy metabolism promoted the utilization of dietary protein in calves fed OP.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257417PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432763PMC
September 2021

Identification of reference genes for gene expression studies among different developmental stages of murine hearts.

BMC Dev Biol 2021 09 8;21(1):13. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 167A Beilishi Road, Xi Cheng District, Beijing, 100037, People's Republic of China.

Background: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a widely-used standard assay for assessing gene expression. RT-qPCR data requires reference genes for normalization to make the results comparable. Therefore, the selected reference gene should be highly stable in its expression throughout the experimental datasets. So far, reports about the optimal set of reference genes in murine left ventricle (LV) across embryonic and postnatal stages are few. The objective of our research was to identify the appropriate reference genes in murine LV among different developmental stages.

Methods: We investigated the gene expression profiles of 21 widely used housekeeping genes in murine LV from 7 different developmental stages (almost throughout the whole period of the mouse lifespan). The stabilities of the potential reference genes were evaluated by five methods: GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta-Ct and RefFinder.

Results: We proposed a set of reliable reference genes for normalization of RT-qPCR experimental data in different conditions. Furthermore, our results showed that 6 genes (18S, Hmbs, Ubc, Psmb4, Tfrc and Actb) are not recommended to be used as reference genes in murine LV development studies. The data also suggested that the Rplp0 gene might serve as an optimal reference gene in gene expression analysis.

Conclusions: Our study investigated the expression stability of the commonly used reference genes in process of LV development and maturation. We proposed a set of optimal reference genes that are suitable for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in specific conditions. Our findings may be helpful in future studies for investigating the gene expression patterns and mechanism of mammalian heart development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12861-021-00244-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425138PMC
September 2021

Mechanism of Nitrogen-Doped TiC Quantum Dots for Free-Radical Scavenging and the Ultrasensitive HO Detection Performance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 2;13(36):42442-42450. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education of China, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China.

MXene quantum dots feature favorable biological compatibility and superior optical properties, offering great potential for biomedical applications such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and fluorescence sensing. However, the ROS scavenging mechanism is still unclear and the MXene-based materials for ROS sensing are still scarce. Here, we report a nitrogen-doped titanium carbide quantum dot (N-TiC QD) antioxidant with effective ROS scavenging ability. The doped nitrogen atoms promote the electrochemical interaction between N-TiC QDs and free radicals and thus enhance their antioxidant performance. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations reveal the hydroxyl radical quenching process and confirm that the doped N element promotes the free-radical absorption ability, especially for -F and -O functional groups in N-TiC QDs. Furthermore, N-TiC QDs show rapid, accurate, and remarkable sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide in the range of 5 nM-5.5 μM with a limit of detection of 1.2 nM within 15 s, which is the lowest detection limit of the existing fluorescent probes up to now. Our results provide a new category of antioxidant materials, a real-time hydrogen peroxide sensing probe, promoting the research and development of MXene in bioscience and biotechnology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c11242DOI Listing
September 2021

3D-printed smartphone-based device for fluorimetric diagnosis of ketosis by acetone-responsive dye marker and red emissive carbon dots.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Aug 27;188(9):306. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, Anhui, China.

A portable smartphone device is reported that uses 3D printing technology for the primary diagnosis of diseases by detecting acetone. The key part of the device consists of red carbon dots (RCDs), which are used as internal standards, and a sensing reagent (3-N,N-(diacethydrazide)-9-ethylcarbazole (2-HCA)) for acetone. With an excitation wavelength of 360 nm, the emission wavelengths of 2-HCA and RCDs are 443 nm and 619 nm, respectively. 2-HCA effectively captures acetone to form a nonfluorescent acylhydrazone via a condensation reaction occurring in aqueous solution, resulting in obvious color changes from blue-violet to dark red. The detection limit for acetone is 2.62 μM (~ 0.24 ppm). This is far lower than the ketone content in normal human blood (≤ 0.50 mM) and the acetone content in human respiratory gas (≤ 1.80 ppm). The device has good recovery rates for acetone detection in blood and exhaled breath, which are 90.56-109.98% (RSD ≤ 5.48) and 92.80-108.00% (RSD ≤ 5.07), respectively. The method designed here provides a reliable way to provide health warnings by visually detecting markers of ketosis/diabetes in blood or exhaled breath. The portable smart phone device visually detects ketosis/diabetes markers in the blood or exhaled breath through the nucleophilic addition reaction, which effectively captures acetone to form nonfluorescent acyl groups. This will be a reliable tool to warn human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04965-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Prognostic significance of programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression on circulating tumor cells in various cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Cancer Med 2021 Oct 23;10(20):7021-7039. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Oncology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The prognostic significance of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been explored but is still in controversy. We performed, for the first time, a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate its prognostic value in human cancers.

Methods: Literature databases were searched for eligible studies prior to June 30, 2021. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for the associations of pre-treatment and post-treatment PD-L1 CTCs with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Subgroup analyses with regards to cancer type, treatment, CTC enrichment method, PD-L1 detection method, cut-off, and specifically the comparison model were performed.

Results: We included 30 eligible studies (32 cohorts, 1419 cancer patients) in our analysis. Pre-treatment PD-L1 CTCs detected by immunofluorescence (IF) tended to predict better PFS (HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.28-1.08, p = 0.084) and OS (HR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.36-1.04, p = 0.067) for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment, but were significantly associated with unfavorable survival for non-ICI therapies (PFS: HR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.21-2.85, p = 0.005; OS: HR = 2.44, 95% CI 1.69-3.51, p < 0.001). Post-treatment PD-L1 CTCs predicted markedly worse PFS and OS. The prognostic value was obviously modulated by comparison models. Among patients with detectable CTCs, PD-L1 individuals had comparable survival to PD-L1 individuals, except ICI treatment for which PD-L1 may predict better PFS (HR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.17-1.06, p = 0.067). Patients with PD-L1 CTCs had worse survival prognosis compared to those without PD-L1 CTCs in overall analysis (PFS: HR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.59-2.77, p < 0.001; OS: HR = 2.55, 95% CI 1.70-3.81, p < 0.001) and in most subgroups.

Conclusions: Our analysis demonstrated that PD-L1 positive expression on CTCs predicted better survival prognosis for ICI treatment but worse survival for other therapies, which thus can be potentially used as a prognostic marker of malignant tumor treatment. However, the prognostic value of PD-L1 CTCs for ICI treatment needs validation by more large-scale studies in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8525108PMC
October 2021

Electric nerve stimulation for overactive bladder: an umbrella review.

Int J Rehabil Res 2021 12;44(4):298-306

School of Nursing, Jilin University.

Numerous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported the effect of electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) on overactive bladder (OAB). However, these results are contradictory. We conducted an umbrella review to summarize the evidence and evaluate the effectiveness of ENS for OAB by using an umbrella review methodology from multiple perspectives with sufficient methodological quality. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases and two Chinese databases (CNKI and CBM) to identify articles written in English or Chinese that were published up to 15 February 2021. Two authors of this review independently selected the studies, assessed their quality, and extracted the data from all the included studies. We performed a quality assessment of eligible reviews using the AMSTAR 2.0 tool and estimated the summary effect size, 95% confidence intervals, 95% prediction intervals and heterogeneity. Ten systematic reviews and meta-analyses covering 89 randomized controlled trials and 16 prospective cohort studies with a total population of 5004 participants that investigated the effect of ENS for OAB in terms of 17 different outcomes were identified. ENS seems effective and safety for OAB, with our results showing weak evidence of clinical efficacy and no evidence of side effects. To recommend ENS as a practical treatment option for OAB, however, more high-quality research is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MRR.0000000000000492DOI Listing
December 2021

Corrigendum to "Ginsenoside Rd contributes the attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro" [Biomed. Pharmacother. 109 (2019) 1016-1023].

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Oct 12;130:110720. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110720DOI Listing
October 2020

Artificial Graphene on Si Substrates: Fabrication and Transport Characteristics.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, People's Republic of China.

Artificial graphene (AG) based on a honeycomb lattice of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has been of great interest for exploration and applications of massless Dirac Fermions in semiconductors thanks to the tunable interplay between the carrier interactions and the honeycomb topology. Here, an innovative strategy to realize AG on Si substrates is developed by fabricating a honeycomb lattice of Au nanodisks on a Si/GeSi quantum well. The lateral potential modulation induced by the nanoscale Au/Si Schottky junction results in the formation of quantum dots arranged in a honeycomb lattice to form AG. Nonlinear current-voltage curves of the AG reveal conductance phase transitions with switch on/off voltages, a large electric hysteresis loop, and a strong sharp current peak accompanied by a group of differential-conductance peaks and negative differential conductance around the switch-on voltage, which can be modulated by temperature and light. These features are interpreted by a model based on the Coulomb blockade effect, the collective resonant tunneling, and the coupling of holes in the AG. Our results not only demonstrate an approach to the formation but also will greatly stimulate the characterizations and the applications of innovative semiconductor-based AG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c04995DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison and Validation of Force Fields for Deep Eutectic Solvents in Combination with Water and Alcohol Dehydrogenase.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Aug 7;17(8):5322-5341. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Institute of Thermal Separation Processes, Hamburg University of Technology, Eißendorfer Straße 38, 21073 Hamburg, Germany.

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have become popular as environmental-friendly solvents for biocatalysis. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer an in-depth analysis of enzymes in DESs, but their performance depends on the force field chosen. Here, we present a comprehensive validation of three biomolecular force fields (CHARMM, Amber, and OPLS) for simulations of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in DESs composed of choline chloride and glycerol/ethylene glycol with varying water contents. Different properties (e.g., protein structure and flexibility, solvation layer, and H-bonds) were used for validation. For two properties (viscosity and water activity) also experiments were performed. The viscosity was calculated with the periodic perturbation method, whereby its parameter dependency is disclosed. A modification of Amber was identified as the best-performing model for low water contents, whereas CHARMM outperforms the other models at larger water concentrations. An analysis of ADH's structure and interactions with the DESs revealed similar predictions for Amber and CHARMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jctc.1c00274DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparative Proteomic Characterization of Ventral Hippocampus in Susceptible and Resilient Rats Subjected to Chronic Unpredictable Stress.

Front Neurosci 2021 17;15:675430. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica and Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Chronic stress is an essential factor leading to depression. However, there exist individual differences in people exposed to the same stressful stimuli. Some people display negative psychology and behavior, while others are normal. Given the importance of individual difference, finding differentially expressed proteins in stress-resistant and stress-susceptible groups has great significance for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of depression. In this study, stress-susceptible rats and stress-resilient rats were first distinguished by sucrose preference test. These stress-susceptible rats also displayed depression-like behaviors in forced swimming test and open field test. Then, we employed label-free quantitative proteomics to analyze proteins in the ventral hippocampus. There were 4,848 proteins totally identified. Based on statistical analysis, we found 276 differentially expressed proteins. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the biological processes of these differential proteins were related to mitochondrion organization, protein localization, coenzyme metabolic process, cerebral cortex tangential migration, vesicle-mediated transport, and so on. The KEGG pathways were mainly involved in metabolic pathways, axon guidance, autophagy, and tight junction. Furthermore, we ultimately found 20 stress-susceptible proteins and two stress-resilient proteins. These stress-related proteins could not only be potential biomarkers for depression diagnosis but also contribute to finding new therapeutic targets and providing personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.675430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249003PMC
June 2021

Theoretical Predictions of the Structural and Mechanical Properties of Tungsten-Rare Earth Element Alloys.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 3;14(11). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Institute of Nuclear Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), Beijing 100083, China.

Tungsten (W) is considered as the potential plasma facing material of the divertor and the first wall material in fusion. To further improve the ductility of W, the structural and mechanical properties of W-M (M = rare earth element Y, La, Ce and Lu) alloys are systematically investigated by first-principles calculations. Our results reveal that all the WM ( = 0.0625, 0.125, 0.1875, 0.25) alloys can form binary solid solution at the atomic level, and the alloys keep bcc lattice structures until the concentration of M increases to a certain value. Although the moduli of the alloys are reduced compared to that of pure W metal, the characteristic ratio and Poisson's ratio significantly increase, implying all the four rare earth elements can efficiently improve the ductility of W metal. Considering both factors of mechanical strength and ductility, La and Ce are better alloying elements than Y and Lu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14113046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199903PMC
June 2021

Effects of immediate versus delayed frozen embryo transfer in high responder patients undergoing freeze-all cycles.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jun 28;21(1):455. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Center of Reproductive Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004, China.

Background: Frozen embryo transfer (FET) can greatly improve the pregnancy outcomes for high responder patients. However, it is not known whether the timing of FET is a risk factor on pregnancy outcomes in high responder patients undergoing freeze-all cycles.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study to compare the pregnancy outcomes of the immediate and delayed FET groups in high responder patients undergoing freeze-all cycles. The two groups were defined as that FET took place either within the first menstrual cycle following oocyte retrieval or afterwards. Propensity score matching was used to make the potential risk factors of the two groups comparable. Multivariable regression analysis was used to study the effect of the timing of FET on pregnancy outcomes in the entire cohort and propensity score-matched cohort, even in different controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocol cohorts as subgroup analysis.

Results: We obtained 1130 patients in immediate FET group and 998 patients in delayed FET group, and the average age of the two groups were 30.30 and 30.63. We showed that the immediate FET group were equivalent to delayed FET group in the entire cohort [clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), 61.0% versus 63.4%, adjusted odd ratio (OR), 0.939, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.781-1.129; spontaneous abortion rate (SAR), 10.1% versus 12.6%, adjusted OR, 0.831, 95% Cl (0.628-1.098); live birth rate (LBR), 49.9% versus 49.2%, adjusted OR, 1.056, 95% Cl (0.883-1.263)]. The same results were obtained by χ test in the propensity score-matched cohort (CPR, 60.5% versus 63.5%; SAR, 11.6% versus 12.3%; LBR, 48% versus 49.3%) (P > 0.05). Subgroup analysis indicated that pregnancy outcomes of immediate FET were no difference to delayed FET in gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) protocol (P > 0.05). The SAR of the immediate FET group were lower than that of the delayed FET group in GnRH antagonist protocol (adjusted OR, 0.645, 95% CI, 0.430-0.966) (P < 0.05), no differences were observed in CPR and LBR (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: The pregnancy outcomes of immediate FET were no difference to delayed FET in high responder population undergoing freeze-all cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03919-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240376PMC
June 2021

Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Is an Important Factor in Maintaining Arterial Oxygen Saturation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 31;12:677110. Epub 2021 May 31.

National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders and Research Center for Molecular Metabolomics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The gasotransmitter HS is involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological functions of HS in the lungs. In the model of mouse with genetic deficiency in a HS natural synthesis enzyme cystathionine--lyase (CSE), we found that arterial oxygen saturation (SaO) was decreased compared with wild type mice. Hypoxyprobe test showed that mild hypoxia occurred in the tissues of heart, lungs and kidneys in mice. HS donor GYY4137 treatment increased SaO and ameliorated hypoxia state in cardiac and renal tissues. Further, we revealed that lung blood perfusion and airway responsiveness were not linked to reduced SaO level. Lung injury was found in mice as evidenced by alveolar wall thickening, diffuse interstitial edema and leukocyte infiltration in pulmonary tissues. IL-8, IL-1, and TNF- levels were markedly increased and oxidative stress levels were also significantly higher with increased levels of the pro-oxidative biomarker, MDA, decreased levels of the anti-oxidative biomarkers, T-AOC and GSH/GSSG, and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in lung tissues of mice compared with those of wild type mice. GYY4137 treatment ameliorated lung injury and suppressed inflammatory state and oxidative stress in lung tissues of mice. A decrease in SaO was found in normal mice under hypoxia. These mice displayed lung injury as evidenced by alveolar wall thickening, interstitial edema and leukocyte infiltration. Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress were also found in lung tissues of the mice with hypoxia insult. GYY4137 treatment increased SaO and ameliorated lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress. Our data indicate that endogenous HS is an important factor in maintaining normal SaO by preventing oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.677110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200772PMC
May 2021

High expression of USP18 is associated with the growth of colorectal carcinoma.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Jun 27;36(6):697-704. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Pathology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University/The First Hospital of Jiaxing, Zhejiang, China.

Aim: To investigate whether USP18 can be used as a predictive marker for the diagnosis and development of colorectal cancer.

Methods: The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Dataset and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were used to select differential proteins for the ubiquitin-specific peptidases (USPs). The extensive target prediction and network analysis methods were used to assess the association with the USP18 interacting proteins, as well as the statistical correlation between USP18 and the clinical pathology parameters. The effects of USP18 on the proliferation of colorectal cancer were examined using CCK8. The effects of USP18 on the migration of colorectal cancer were examined using wound healing assays. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on the tissue microarray.

Results: The results showed that the expression of USP18 was related to age (P=0.014). The positive rates of the USP18 protein in T1, T2, T3, and T4 were 0.00%, 22.92%, 78.38%, and 95.35%, respectively (P<0.00). The positive rates of the USP18 protein in I, II, III, and IV were 47.43%, 83.12%, 66.67%, and 100.00%, respectively (P<0.00). The Western blot assay showed that the expression of USP18 in colorectal cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in matched paracancerous tissues (P<0.05). The CCK8 experiments suggested that USP18 promoted the migration of CRC cells. Wound healing assays suggested that USP18 promoted the proliferation of CRC cells.

Conclusion: This study showed that USP18 can promote the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and might be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-18-346DOI Listing
June 2021

How can artificial intelligence models assist PD-L1 expression scoring in breast cancer: results of multi-institutional ring studies.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 May 26;7(1):61. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pathology, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression is a key biomarker to screen patients for PD-1/PD-L1-targeted immunotherapy. However, a subjective assessment guide on PD-L1 expression of tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC) scoring is currently adopted in clinical practice with low concordance. Therefore, a repeatable and quantifiable PD-L1 IC scoring method of breast cancer is desirable. In this study, we propose a deep learning-based artificial intelligence-assisted (AI-assisted) model for PD-L1 IC scoring. Three rounds of ring studies (RSs) involving 31 pathologists from 10 hospitals were carried out, using the current guideline in the first two rounds (RS1, RS2) and our AI scoring model in the last round (RS3). A total of 109 PD-L1 (Ventana SP142) immunohistochemistry (IHC) stained images were assessed and the role of the AI-assisted model was evaluated. With the assistance of AI, the scoring concordance across pathologists was boosted to excellent in RS3 (0.950, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.936-0.962) from moderate in RS1 (0.674, 95% CI: 0.614-0.735) and RS2 (0.736, 95% CI: 0.683-0.789). The 2- and 4-category scoring accuracy were improved by 4.2% (0.959, 95% CI: 0.953-0.964) and 13% (0.815, 95% CI: 0.803-0.827) (p < 0.001). The AI results were generally accepted by pathologists with 61% "fully accepted" and 91% "almost accepted". The proposed AI-assisted method can help pathologists at all levels to improve the PD-L1 assay (SP-142) IC assessment in breast cancer in terms of both accuracy and concordance. The AI tool provides a scheme to standardize the PD-L1 IC scoring in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00268-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155065PMC
May 2021

Infrared broadband enhancement of responsivity in Ge photodetectors decorated with Au nanoparticles.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(9):12941-12949

A broadband, high-performance infrared Ge photodetector decorated with Au nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed. Photoelectronic characterization demonstrated that the responsivity of devices decorated with Au NPs is as high as 3.95 A/W at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Compared with a Ge photodetector without Au NPs, the responsivity of a device decorated with Au NPs is significantly increased, i.e., by more than 10 times in the entire range of infrared communication wavelengths, including the O, E, S, C, L, and U bands. The increase is ascribed to type-II energy-band alignment between Ge covered with Au NPs and bare Ge, instead of the localized surface-plasmon-resonance effect. The type-II energy-band alignment enhances the spatial electron-hole separation and restrains the electron-hole recombination, thus a larger photocurrent is observed. These results reflect the potential of this approach for achieving broadband, high-performance Ge photodetectors operating in the near-infrared communication band.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.423899DOI Listing
April 2021
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