Publications by authors named "Ning Yin"

107 Publications

Sugar Content of Market Beverages and Children's Sugar Intake from Beverages in Beijing, China.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 28;13(12). Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing 100013, China.

(1) Background: This study aims to find the sugar content of market beverages and estimate the sugar intake from beverages among students in Beijing. (2) Methods: Using snapshotting, we collected the sugar content of beverages through their packages or nutrition labels. Combined with the statistic of student beverage consumption, we estimated students' sugar intake. (3) Results: The median sugar content of total beverages was 9.0 g/100 mL, among which the fruits/vegetable juices and beverages had the highest sugar content (10.0 g/100 mL). Sugar content in most beverages in Beijing was generally higher than the recommendations, and fruit/vegetable juices and beverages exceeded the most. The median of sugar intake from beverages among students was 5.3 g/d, and the main sources were fruit/vegetable juices and beverages, protein beverages and carbonated beverages. Sugar intake from beverages differed according to gender, age and living area. Higher sugar intake was found among boys, older students and rural students. (4) Conclusions: Sugar content in market beverages in Beijing were high. Gender, age and residence were the influencing factors of sugar intake. Targeted measures should be taken to decrease the sugar content in beverages, especially the fruit/vegetable juices and beverages and the sugar intake among students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13124297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8708007PMC
November 2021

Chiral fungicide penconazole: Absolute configuration, bioactivity, toxicity, and stereoselective degradation in apples.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Feb 30;808:152061. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Center for Modern Agricultural Development Service, 033000, China.

Traditional evaluation of chiral pesticides can lead to inaccurate results, as their enantiomers may show different properties. Penconazole, a chiral triazole fungicide with two enantiomers, is widely applied to protect against phytopathogens. In this study, its absolute configuration, bioactivity, ecotoxicity, and stereoselective degradation were investigated at the enantiomeric level in detail. The absolute configuration of the two enantiomers (R-(+)-penconazole and S-(-)-penconazole) was first confirmed by electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and their enantioseparation method was developed and optimized using UPLC-MS/MS. S-(-)-penconazole showed high bioactivity, as its fungicidal activity against four target phytopathogens (Alternaria alternate f. sp. mali, Botryosphaeria berengeriana f. sp. piricola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Fusarium oxysporum) was 1.8-4.4 times higher than that of R-(+)-penconazole. The results of an acute toxicity test showed that the LC values of S-(-)-penconazole against Daphnia magna were 32.5 times higher than those of R-(+)-penconazole at 24 h during the test period. Stereoselective degradation behaviors were found in nonbagging and bagging Fuji apples collected from three major apple-producing regions in China, with half-lives of 23.5-51.6 d (nonbagging treatment) and 23.0-57.5 d (bagging treatment) for R-(+)-penconazole and 41.1-60.9 d (nonbagging treatment) and 52.5-91.2 d (bagging treatment) for S-(+)-penconazole, respectively. This study provided new insights into the bioactivity, ecotoxicity, and stereoselective degradation of penconazole enantiomers. The above results also emphasized the importance of risk assessments of chiral pesticides at the enantiomeric level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152061DOI Listing
February 2022

Kaempferol inhibits the expression of α-hemolysin and protects mice from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced lethal pneumonia.

Microb Pathog 2022 Jan 29;162:105336. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, 130117, China. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common pathogenic bacterium that induces a variety of diseases in humans and animals. The significant pathogenicity of S. aureus is due to its expression of several virulence factors. Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) has attracted attention as a virulence factor in staphylococcal pathogenesis and has been the predominant focus of intense research. In this study, we found that kaempferol, a flavonoid compound, inhibited hemolysis at a low concentration (32 μg/mL) and exerted no effect on bacterial growth. Western blot and RT-qPCR assays further demonstrated that kaempferol downregulated the expression of Hla in S. aureus. We observed that kaempferol alleviated the damage from S. aureus Hla in A549 cells. More importantly, kaempferol showed a potent protective effect on mice pneumonia induced by MRSA, as evidenced by a significant improvement in the survival of mice, a reduction in the number of colonized colonies in lung tissue and a decrease in the pathological damage to lung tissues. In summary, the results demonstrate the protective effect of kaempferol on MRSA-induced lethal pneumonia in mice and indicate that kaempferol could be developed as a potential anti-MRSA drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105336DOI Listing
January 2022

Effects of transgenic Bacillus Thuringiensis maize (2A-7) on the growth and development in rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Dec 20;158:112694. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, 100191, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Food Safety Toxicology Research and Evaluation, 100191, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to determine the effects of genetically modified insect-resistant maize (2A-7) on the growth and development in developing rats. Rats were fed a diet formulated with 2A-7 maize and were compared with rats fed a diet formulated with non-transgenic maize (CK group) and rats fed AIN-93G diet (BC group). 2A-7 maize was formulated into diets at ratios of 82.4% (H group) and 20.6% (L group); non-transgenic maize was formulated into diets at a ratio of 82.4%. From the first day of pregnancy, adult rats were divided into four groups and fed with the above four diets, respectively. Weaning on postnatal day 21, the diets of offspring were consistent with their parents. The results showed that body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight, organ coefficients and allergenicity of offspring fed with 2A-7 maize were comparable with those in the CK and BC groups. In physiological and behavioral development experiments, there was no statistically significant difference among groups. Although mCry1Ab proteins were detected in organs and serum, no histopathological changes were observed among groups. In conclusion, A-7 maize cause no treatment-related adverse effects on offspring, indicating that 2A-7 maize is safe for developing rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112694DOI Listing
December 2021

[Research on the influence of mixed emotional factors on false memory based on brain functional network].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Oct;38(5):828-837

State Key Laboratory of Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, P.R.China.

Analyzing the influence of mixed emotional factors on false memory through brain function network is helpful to further explore the nature of brain memory. In this study, Deese-Roediger-Mc-Dermott (DRM) paradigm electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment was designed with mixed emotional memory materials, and different kinds of music were used to induce positive, calm and negative emotions of three groups of subjects. For the obtained false memory EEG signals, standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) was applied in the source localization, and then the functional network of cerebral cortex was built and analyzed. The results show that the positive group has the most false memories [(83.3 ± 6.8)%], the prefrontal lobe and left temporal lobe are activated, and the degree of activation and the density of brain network are significantly larger than those of the calm group and the negative group. In the calm group, the posterior prefrontal lobe and temporal lobe are activated, and the collectivization degree and the information transmission rate of brain network are larger than those of the positive and negative groups. The negative group has the least false memories [(73.3 ± 2.2)%], and the prefrontal lobe and right temporal lobe are activated. The brain network is the sparsest in the negative group, the degree of centralization is significantly larger than that of the calm group, but the collectivization degree and the information transmission rate of brain network are smaller than the positive group. The results show that the brain is stimulated by positive emotions, so more brain resources are used to memorize and associate words, which increases false memory. The activity of the brain is inhibited by negative emotions, which hinders the brain's memory and association of words and reduces false memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202008042DOI Listing
October 2021

The effects of volume-controlled ventilation versus pressure-controlled ventilation on hemodynamic and respiratory parameters in patients undergoing lumbar spine fusion surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Sep;10(9):9553-9563

Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Huai'an Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University and Huai'an Second People's Hospital, Huai'an, China.

Background: Hypotension is a common event in patients under general anesthesia during lumbar spine fusion surgery. The reduction of venous drainage followed by the postural changes is the main reason. The venous return reduced when the intrathoracic pressure is positive. Volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) are two traditional ventilation modes in operating room, with different respiratory mechanics. The two ventilation modes have different influences on intrathoracic pressure and consequently venous return. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel group controlled clinical trial was conducted to examine the hemodynamic and respiratory effects of two different ventilation modes in lumbar spine fusion surgery.

Methods: Forty-eight patients scheduled for posterior lumbar spine fusion surgery at Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either the VCV mode or PCV mode [vital volume (VT) 8 mL/kg, and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) 35-45 mmHg]. The respiratory mechanics [peak airway pressure (Ppeak) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn)] and hemodynamic changes were measured every 10 min for 120 min. All participants and relevant staff were blinded to the randomization.

Results: The data of 19 of 22 patients in the VCV group and 18 of 20 in the PCV group were analyzed. Compared to VCV group, cardiac output (CO) and central venous pressure (CVP) in the PCV group were higher; however, the difference was not significant. There's no statistically difference in systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) values of both the groups. The mean blood pressure (MBP) of the PCV group was higher than that of the VCV group from 90 min after the patients were turned to the prone position until the endpoint. The Cdyn and Ppeak of the PCV group were higher than those of the VCV group. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between Cdyn and CO (r=0.744, P=0.006).

Conclusions: With better respiratory mechanic and hemodynamic stability, PCV was a better choice for patients undergoing lumbar spine fusion surgery.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-14005086.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1932DOI Listing
September 2021

The influence of positive emotion and negative emotion on false memory based on EEG signal analysis.

Neurosci Lett 2021 11 31;764:136203. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

State Key Laboratory of Reliable and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetic Technology and Intelligent Health, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China.

Analyzing the influence of emotion on false memory through electroencephalogram is helpful to further explore the cognition function of brain. In this study, material emotion and participant emotion were introduced into Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm experiment at the same time, which made the experiment process closer to real life. Different music was used to induce the emotion of 28 participants, and they were divided into positive group and negative group. Then, we analyzed the difference between the two groups from the behavior data, source location and cortex functional network of event related potential. The results of difference analysis show that the false memory rate of positive group (85 ± 8.6%) is significantly higher than that of negative group (72 ± 9.7%), and the activation degree and voxel number of the positive group are significantly higher than those of the negative group in the brain regions related to semantic coding (BA24 and BA45), and the compactness, the speed of information transmission and the small-world property of the brain network in positive group are significantly higher than those in negative group. The above results show that in the positive group, more brain resources are used for semantic association when they judge keywords, which confuse the keywords and learning words, and result in more false memories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136203DOI Listing
November 2021

Comparison of Two Methods for Presurgical Volumetric Evaluation of Alveolar Cleft Bone Defects Using Computer-Aided Engineering.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar-Apr 01;32(2):477-481

Center for Cleft Lip and Palate Treatment, Plastic Surgery Hospital.

Abstract: Precise volumetric evaluation of the alveolar cleft facilitates accurate preparation of bone substitutes and reduces donor site morbidity. This study investigates 2 advanced presurgical volumetric assessment methods that use computer-aided engineering (CAE) software. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans from 20 unilateral alveolar cleft patients undergoing secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) were analyzed by CAE software. Cleft defect volumes were calculated using the mirror-reversed technique and the subtraction method. The mirror-reversed technique determines defect volume by reversing the noncleft side to the cleft side. The subtraction method determines defect volume by subtracting a mask of the preoperative cleft from a mask generated after simulated cleft filling. The mean defect volumes and calculation times of the mirror-reversed technique (1.27 ± 0.35 cm3; 11.80 ± 1.79 seconds) and the subtractive method (1.23 ± 0.32 cm3; 9.43 ± 1.35 seconds) did not differ significantly. In Bland-Altman analysis the 2 methods were equivalent for alveolar cleft defect assessment. Both methods exhibited acceptable interobserver reliability, high precision, clinical convenience, time efficiency, and high reproducibility, and can serve as valuable tools for the planning and execution of SABG. The subtraction method has broader potential applicability and can simulate intraoperative bone grafting more effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006930DOI Listing
June 2021

Author correction: Quiescence and attenuated DNA damage response promote survival of esophageal cancer stem cells.

J Cell Biochem 2021 Feb 28;122(2):301-302. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.29864DOI Listing
February 2021

Predictor of postoperative dyspnea for Pierre Robin Sequence infants.

Open Med (Wars) 2020 30;15(1):915-920. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 72 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210008, China.

The aim of this retrospective study is to determine the predictive factors of postoperative dyspnea in infants with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). Forty children with PRS, who underwent general anesthesia, were retrospectively analyzed. The patient's physiological status and anesthesiology data were collected accordingly, demographic characteristics including age, gender, height and weight at surgery, weight gain, preoperative airway status, tracheal intubation route, American Society of Anesthesiologists grading and airway Cormack-Lehane classification. Weight gain, dyspnea before the operation, Cormack-Lehane grade distribution showed a significant difference between patients with and without postoperative dyspnea ( = 0.0175, = 0.0026, and = 0.0038, respectively). Incompetent weight gain was identified as a predictor ( = 0.0371) of PRS postoperative dyspnea through the binary logistic regression model. In conclusion, this study established an early alerting model by monitoring the weight gain, dyspnea before the operation, Cormack-Lehane grade as potential combinations to predict the risk of postoperative dyspnea for PRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2020-0231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712453PMC
September 2020

Blepharoplasty Combined With Mini-incision and Interrupted Buried Suture Techniques.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jun;32(4):1302-1306

Center for Cleft Lip and Palate Treatment, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Blepharoplasty has become one of the most popular plastic surgery techniques for generating double-eyelid folds. The mini-incision blepharoplasty technique results in minimal trauma and the formation of supratarsal folds.

Methods: In this study, the authors combined mini-incisions with interrupted buried sutures. To perform the blepharoplasty procedure, the authors marked the supratarsal folds and divided them into 5 line segments: 3 cutting lines and 2 noncutting lines. For the cutting lines, the authors used orbicularis-tarsus fixation to form double eyelids and only removed a small strip of muscle under the incision to maintain the physiological structure of the pretarsal tissue. For the noncutting lines, the authors used the interrupted buried suture technique to add 2 fixed points.

Results: A total of 42 patients (mean age 25.25 years) underwent this minimally invasive blepharoplasty. Among these patients, 42 underwent bilateral surgery. The average follow-up period was 35.91 months (range: 13-47 months). Only one patient underwent a second operation to address a shallow, unilateral supratarsal crease. Nonetheless, all patients were satisfied with their results.

Conclusion: Our minimally invasive blepharoplasty approach resulted in minimal damage to the pretarsal tissues and robust supratarsal folds and is relatively easy to perform for the novice surgeon.

Evidence Statement: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007215DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficient occlusion of oil droplets within calcite crystals.

Chem Sci 2019 Oct 9;10(39):8964-8972. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Department of Chemistry , University of Sheffield , Brook Hill , Sheffield , South Yorkshire S3 7HF , UK . Email: ; Email:

It is well known that oil and water do not mix. Similarly, the incorporation of oil droplets within inorganic crystals is highly counter-intuitive because there is a large difference in surface energy for these two components. Nevertheless, herein we demonstrate the efficient occlusion of ∼250-500 nm oil droplets within 20-40 μm calcite crystals. These droplets are stabilized using various amphiphilic poly(methacrylic acid)-poly(-alkyl methacrylate) diblock copolymer emulsifiers. Both copolymer concentration and diblock compositions affect the extent of occlusion, with optimized conditions producing calcite crystals containing up to 11% oil by mass. Moreover, compressive forces exerted by the growing crystals cause significant deformation of the oil droplets during occlusion. In principle, this protocol enables the incorporation of water-insoluble dyes or hydrophobic nanoparticles within calcite, which is a cheap, naturally-occurring and environmentally-benign mineral. The single crystal nature of this host lattice ensures efficient retention of such guests, while lowering the solution pH leads to triggered release acid dissolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sc03372fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472555PMC
October 2019

Ptychographic X-ray tomography reveals additive zoning in nanocomposite single crystals.

Chem Sci 2020 Jan 15;11(2):355-363. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

School of Chemistry , University of Leeds , Leeds , LS2 9JT , UK . Email:

Single crystals containing nanoparticles represent a unique class of nanocomposites whose properties are defined by both their compositions and the structural organization of the dispersed phase in the crystalline host. Yet, there is still a poor understanding of the relationship between the synthesis conditions and the structures of these materials. Here ptychographic X-ray computed tomography is used to visualize the three-dimensional structures of two nanocomposite crystals - single crystals of calcite occluding diblock copolymer worms and vesicles. This provides unique information about the distribution of the copolymer nano-objects within entire, micron-sized crystals with nanometer spatial resolution and reveals how occlusion is governed by factors including the supersaturation and calcium concentration. Both nanocomposite crystals are seen to exhibit zoning effects that are governed by the solution composition and interactions of the additives with specific steps on the crystal surface. Additionally, the size and shape of the occluded vesicles varies according to their location within the crystal, and therefore the solution composition at the time of occlusion. This work contributes to our understanding of the factors that govern nanoparticle occlusion within crystalline materials, where this will ultimately inform the design of next generation nanocomposite materials with specific structure/property relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sc04670dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442293PMC
January 2020

[Research on the effect of background music on spatial cognitive working memory based on cortical brain network].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2020 Aug;37(4):587-595

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetic Technology and Intelligent Health, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, P.R.China;State Key Laboratory of Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, P.R.China.

Background music has been increasingly affecting people's lives. The research on the influence of background music on working memory has become a hot topic in brain science. In this paper, an improved electroencephalography (EEG) experiment based on n-back paradigm was designed. Fifteen university students without musical training were randomly selected to participate in the experiment, and their behavioral data and the EEG data were collected synchronously in order to explore the influence of different types of background music on spatial positioning cognition working memory. The exact low-resolution brain tomography algorithm (eLORETA) was applied to localize the EEG sources and the cross-correlation method was used to construct the cortical brain function networks based on the EEG source signals. Then the characteristics of the networks under different conditions were analyzed and compared to study the effects of background music on people's working memory. The results showed that the difference of peak periods after stimulated by different types of background music were mainly distributed in the signals of occipital lobe and temporal lobe ( < 0.05). The analysis results showed that the brain connectivity under the condition with background music were stronger than those under the condition without music. The connectivities in the right occipital and temporal lobes under the condition of rock music were significantly higher than those under the condition of classical music. The node degrees, the betweenness centrality and the clustering coefficients under the condition without music were lower than those under the condition with background music. The node degrees and clustering coefficients under the condition of classical music were lower than those under the condition of rock music. It indicates that music stimulation increases the brain activity and has an impact on the working memory, and the effect of rock music is more remarkable than that of classical music. The behavioral data showed that the response accuracy in the state of no music, classical music and rock music were 86.09% ± 0.090%, 80.96% ± 0.960% and 79.36% ± 0.360%, respectively. We conclude that background music has a negative impact on the working memory, for it takes up the cognitive resources and reduces the cognitive ability of spatial location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201907065DOI Listing
August 2020

Exerting Spatial Control During Nanoparticle Occlusion within Calcite Crystals.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Oct 13;59(41):17966-17973. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Brook Hill, Sheffield, South, Yorkshire, S3 7HF, UK.

In principle, nanoparticle occlusion within crystals provides a straightforward and efficient route to make new nanocomposite materials. However, developing a deeper understanding of the design rules underpinning this strategy is highly desirable. In particular, controlling the spatial distribution of the guest nanoparticles within the host crystalline matrix remains a formidable challenge. Herein, we show that the surface chemistry of the guest nanoparticles and the [Ca ] concentration play critical roles in determining the precise spatial location of the nanoparticles within calcite crystals. Moreover, in situ studies provide important mechanistic insights regarding surface-confined nanoparticle occlusion. Overall, this study not only provides useful guidelines for efficient nanoparticle occlusion, but also enables the rational design of patterned calcite crystals using model anionic block copolymer vesicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202007110DOI Listing
October 2020

[Effects of foliar selenium fertilizer on fruit yield, quality and selenium content of three varieties of Vitis vinifera].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2020 Mar;31(3):953-958

College of Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000, Gansu, China.

With three grape varieties, Red Barbara, Summer Black and Hutai No. 8 as test mate-rials, we investigated the effects of foliar spraying of organic selenium fertilizer on greenhouse grape quality and selenium content. The results showed that spraying 12 mg·L amino acid chelated selenium-enriched foliar fertilizer on grape leaves significantly increased selenium content and the quantity and quality of grape yield, including the contents of soluble sugar, organic acid, soluble protein, soluble solids, vitamin C and proanthocyanidins. However, there was no increase in resveratrol. Among the three varieties, selenium content of Summer Black in 2017 and 2018 was increased by 36.7% and 37.1%, respectively, being higher than that of Red Barbara and Hutai No. 8. Red Barbara sprayed with selenium fertilizer had better quality due to high sugar and low acid contents, as well as high health-care components. Moreover, the selenium content of Hutai No. 8 in 2018 was 53.26 μg·kg, higher than the others, indicating a stronger ability of selenium enrichment. We concluded that the increase range of Se content was larger in Summer Black, Red Barbara showed the better nutrition value and quality, and Hutai No. 8 was a suitable variety for selenium-rich grape production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202003.007DOI Listing
March 2020

Efficient Occlusion of Nanoparticles within Inorganic Single Crystals.

Acc Chem Res 2020 06 18;53(6):1176-1186. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Brook Hill, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S3 7HF, U.K.

In principle, the incorporation of guest nanoparticles within host crystals should provide a straightforward and versatile route to a wide range of nanocomposite materials. However, crystallization normally involves expelling impurities, so nanoparticle occlusion is both counter-intuitive and technically challenging. Clearly, the nanoparticles should have a strong interaction with the growing crystalline lattice, but quantifying such an affinity has been challenging; the basic principles that govern efficient nanoparticle occlusion within inorganic single crystals are rather poorly understood. In the past few years, we have focused on the elucidation of robust design rules for such systems; our progress is summarized in this article.Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is widely recognized as a powerful platform technology for the preparation of a broad range of model organic nanoparticles. Herein, PISA was exploited to prepare sterically stabilized diblock copolymer nano-objects (e.g., spheres, worms, or vesicles) of varying size using steric stabilizers of well-defined chain length, variable anionic charge density, tunable surface density, and adjustable chemical functionality (e.g., carboxylic acid, phosphate, sulfate or sulfonate groups). Thus, we were able to systematically investigate how such structural parameters influence nanoparticle occlusion. Given its commercial importance for many industrial sectors, calcium carbonate was selected as the model host crystal for nanoparticle occlusion studies. Perhaps surprisingly, the extent of nanoparticle occlusion is not particularly sensitive to nanoparticle size or morphology. However, the steric stabilizer chain length can play a key role: relatively short chains lead to surface-confined occlusion, while sufficiently long chains enable uniform nanoparticle occlusion to be achieved throughout the crystal lattice (albeit sometimes inducing a significant change in crystal morphology). Optimizing the anionic charge density and surface density of the stabilizer chains is required to maximize the extent of nanoparticle occlusion, while steric stabilizer chains comprising anionic carboxylate groups led to greater occlusion compared to those composed of phosphate, sulfate, or sulfonate groups when examining a model vesicle system.Subsequently, our occlusion studies were extended to include functional hybrid nanocomposite crystals. For example, the spatially controlled occlusion of poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-stabilized gold nanoparticles was achieved within semiconductive ZnO crystals by either controlling the nanoparticle concentration or by delaying their addition to the reaction mixture. Moreover, oil droplets of up to 500 nm have been incorporated into calcite crystals at up to 11% by mass, despite the large mismatch in surface energy between the hydrophobic oil droplets and the ionic crystal lattice. We have also explored a "Trojan horse" strategy, whereby cargos comprising nanoparticles or soluble dye molecules are first encapsulated within anionic block copolymer vesicles prior to their incorporation within calcite crystals. This approach offers a generic and efficient strategy for the occlusion of many types of guest species into single crystals. In summary, we have established important guidelines for efficient nanoparticle occlusion within crystals, which opens up new avenues for the synthesis of next-generation hybrid materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.0c00103DOI Listing
June 2020

Exploring the Upper Size Limit for Sterically Stabilized Diblock Copolymer Nanoparticles Prepared by Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly in Non-Polar Media.

Langmuir 2020 Apr 2;36(14):3730-3736. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Dainton Building, Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Brook Hill, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S3 7HF, United Kingdom.

Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion polymerization of benzyl methacrylate is used to prepare a series of well-defined poly(stearyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PSMA-PBzMA) diblock copolymer nanoparticles in mineral oil at 90 °C. A relatively long PSMA precursor acts as a steric stabilizer block and also ensures that only kinetically trapped spheres are obtained, regardless of the target degree of polymerization (DP) for the core-forming PBzMA block. This polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) formulation provides good control over the particle size distribution over a wide size range (24-459 nm diameter). H NMR spectroscopy studies confirm that high monomer conversions (≥96%) are obtained for all PISA syntheses while transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analyses show well-defined spheres with a power-law relationship between the target PBzMA DP and the mean particle diameter. Gel permeation chromatography studies indicate a gradual loss of control over the molecular weight distribution as higher DPs are targeted, but well-defined morphologies and narrow particle size distributions can be obtained for PBzMA DPs up to 3500, which corresponds to an upper particle size limit of 459 nm. Thus, these are among the largest well-defined spheres with reasonably narrow size distributions (standard deviation ≤20%) produced by any PISA formulation. Such large spheres serve as model sterically stabilized particles for analytical centrifugation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161081PMC
April 2020

Chromosome 3q26 Gain Is an Early Event Driving Coordinated Overexpression of the PRKCI, SOX2, and ECT2 Oncogenes in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cell Rep 2020 01;30(3):771-782.e6

Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA. Electronic address:

Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a prevalent form of lung cancer exhibiting distinctive histological and genetic characteristics. Chromosome 3q26 copy number gain (CNG) is a genetic hallmark of LSCC present in >90% of tumors. We report that 3q26 CNGs occur early in LSCC tumorigenesis, persist during tumor progression, and drive coordinate overexpression of PRKCI, SOX2, and ECT2. Overexpression of PRKCI, SOX2, and ECT2 in the context of Trp53 loss is sufficient to transform mouse lung basal stem cells into tumors with histological and genomic features of LSCC. Functionally, PRKCI and SOX2 collaborate to activate an extensive transcriptional program that enforces a lineage-restricted LSCC phenotype, whereas PRKCI and ECT2 collaborate to promote oncogenic growth. Gene signatures indicative of PKCι-SOX2 and PKCι-ECT2 signaling activity are enriched in the classical subtype of human LSCC and predict distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities. Thus, the PRKCI, SOX2, and ECT2 oncogenes represent a multigenic driver of LSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.12.071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238436PMC
January 2020

Somatostatin receptor 5-mediated modulation of outward K+ currents in rat retinal ganglion cells.

Neuroreport 2020 01;31(2):131-138

Department of Neurology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Institutes of Brain Science, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Somatostatin participants in multiple physiological functions by activating the five distinct G-protein-coupled receptors (sst1-sst5). In this study, we investigated the effect of sst5 activation on outward K currents in acutely isolated rat retinal ganglion cells using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Extracellular application of L-817,818, a specific sst5 agonist, significantly reduced outward K currents which was mainly the 4-aminopyridine and glybenclamide sensitive current components, but not the tetraethylammonium-sensitive one. The L-817,818 effect was mediated by sst5 since the suppression was eliminated when intracellular dialysis of the G-protein inhibitor GDP-β-S or extracellular application of the sst5 antagonist BIM-23056. Intracellular phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling pathway was involved in the L-817,818 effect because the L-817,818 effect on K currents was inhibited when rat retinal ganglion cells were pretreated with U73122 or chelerythrine chloride. However, L-817,818 persisted to reduce the K currents when cAMP/protein kinase A, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways were blocked respectively. These results suggest that sst5 activation suppresses 4-aminopyridine and glybenclamide-sensitive K currents in rat retinal ganglion cells by stimulating intracellular phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling pathway, thereby regulating the rat retinal ganglion cell excitability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001402DOI Listing
January 2020

Downregulation of circRNA DMNT3B contributes to diabetic retinal vascular dysfunction through targeting miR-20b-5p and BAMBI.

EBioMedicine 2019 Nov 19;49:341-353. Epub 2019 Oct 19.

Department of Neurology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Institutes of Brain Science, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetic retinopathy, a vascular complication of diabetes mellitus, is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. circRNAs act as competing endogenous RNA, sponging target miRNA and thus influencing mRNA expression in vascular diseases. We investigated whether and how circDNMT3B is involved in retinal vascular dysfunction under diabetic conditions.

Methods: qRT-PCR was performed to detect expression of circDNMT3B, miR-20b-5p, and BAMBI in retinal microvascular endothelial cells under diabetic conditions. Western blot, Cell Counting Kit-8, Transwell, Matrigel tube formation, and retinal trypsin digestion assays were conducted to explore the roles of circDNMT3B/miR-20b-5p/BAMBI in retinal vascular dysfunction. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter, siRNA, and overexpression assays were used to reveal the mechanisms of the circDNMT3B/miR-20b-5p/BAMBI interaction. Electroretinograms were used to evaluate visual function.

Findings: Upregulation of miR-20b-5p under diabetic conditions promoted proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs), which was mediated by downregulated BAMBI. Under diabetic conditions, circDNMT3B, which acts as a sponge of miR-20b-5p, is downregulated. circDNMT3B overexpression reduced retinal acellular capillary number and alleviated visual damage in diabetic rats. Changes in expression of circDNMT3B and miR-20b-5p were confirmed in the proliferative fibrovascular membranes of patients with diabetic retinopathy.

Interpretation: Downregulation of circDNMT3B contributes to vascular dysfunction in diabetic retinas through regulating miR-20b-5p and BAMBI, providing a potential treatment strategy for diabetic retinopathy.

Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Key Basic Research Program of China, Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project, and ZJLab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945224PMC
November 2019

Oncogenic protein kinase Cι signaling mechanisms in lung cancer: Implications for improved therapeutic strategies.

Adv Biol Regul 2020 01 25;75:100656. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

From the Department of Cancer Cell Biology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA. Electronic address:

Protein Kinase Cι (PKCι) is a major oncogene involved in the initiation, maintenance and progression of numerous forms of human cancer. In the lung, PKCι is necessary for the maintenance of the transformed phenotype of the two major forms of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). In addition, PKCι is necessary for both LADC and LSCC tumorigenesis by establishing and maintaining a highly aggressive stem-like, tumor-initiating cell phenotype. Interestingly however, while PKCι signaling in these two major lung cancer subtypes shares some common elements, it also drives distinct, sub-type specific pathways. Furthermore, recent analysis has revealed both PKCι-dependent and PKCι-independent pathways to LADC development. Herein, we discussion our current knowledge of oncogenic PKCι signaling in LADC and LSCC, and discuss these findings in the context of how they may inform strategies for improved therapeutic intervention in these deadly diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbior.2019.100656DOI Listing
January 2020

An Accurate Volumetric Analysis Method for Evaluating Outcomes of Alveolar Cleft Reconstruction.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jan/Feb;31(1):e38-e41

Center for Cleft Lip and Palate Treatment, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Ba-da-chu, Beijing, China.

An accurate volumetric analysis method for evaluating the outcomes of different types of alveolar cleft reconstruction is essential because it can help determine which graft material is more effective, confirm favorable times for alveolar bone grafting, and improve surgical techniques. This study aimed to introduce a novel method of precisely calculating the bone formation ratio using computer-aided engineering after surgery. A patient with a unilateral alveolar cleft who was treated with anterior iliac crest bone grafting was enrolled in this study. Helical computed tomography scans were performed preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively. The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data were reconstructed as three-dimensional images and saved in the STL format by using Mimics software. STL data were processed by Geomagic Wrap 2017, using the Boolean operation, the newly formed bone of the alveolar was segmented by identifying the differences between the preoperative and the postoperative three-dimensional images. For this patient, the mean volume of the newly formed bone was 0.387 cm, the morphology was clear, the bone formation ratio was 41.4%, the mean time required for calculating the newly formed bone volume was 23 minutes, and the bone survival ratio was 38.7%. This method is a clinically practical, accurately measurement and time-saving method to evaluate the outcome of alveolar cleft reconstruction. Both the volumetric assessment and morphological analysis of the newly formed bone could be determined in a precise manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000005864DOI Listing
April 2020

Dopamine D2 Receptor-Mediated Modulation of Rat Retinal Ganglion Cell Excitability.

Neurosci Bull 2020 Mar 12;36(3):230-242. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Department of Neurology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Institutes of Brain Science, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Ganglion cells (RGCs) are the sole output neurons of the retinal circuity. Here, we investigated whether and how dopamine D2 receptors modulate the excitability of dissociated rat RGCs. Application of the selective D2 receptor agonist quinpirole inhibited outward K currents, which were mainly mediated by glybenclamide- and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive channels, but not the tetraethylammonium-sensitive channel. In addition, quinpirole selectively enhanced Nav1.6 voltage-gated Na currents. The intracellular cAMP/protein kinase A, Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways were responsible for the effects of quinpirole on K and Na currents, while phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling was not involved. Under current-clamp conditions, the number of action potentials evoked by positive current injection was increased by quinpirole. Our results suggest that D2 receptor activation increases RGC excitability by suppressing outward K currents and enhancing Nav1.6 currents, which may affect retinal visual information processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-019-00431-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056773PMC
March 2020

Treatment of cyanide wastewater dynamic cycle test by three-dimensional electrode system and the reaction process analysis.

Environ Technol 2021 Apr 30;42(11):1693-1702. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Hydrocarbon High-efficiency Utilization Technology Research Center, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Dynamic three-dimensional electrode system treatment of cyanide wastewater used coal-based electrodes as cathode and anode, activated carbon as particle electrodes, the effects of applied voltage, reaction time and flow rate on ion removal rate were studied. SEM-EDS and XPS were used to study the morphology of coal-based electrode and the composition and existing state of the load substances, and the reaction mechanism were analysed and discussed. The results show that the removal rates of CN, Cu, Zn, CN, SCN in cyanide wastewater were 97.03%, 95.79%, 99.82%, 99.42% and 94.19%, respectively, when the applied voltage of 4 V, the electrode distance of 10 mm, the flow rate of 30 ml/min, the reaction time of 2.5 h and the dosage of activated carbon particles of 2 g. The applied voltage is the key factor affecting ion removal. When the voltage was 2 V, the ion removal is mainly due to the synergistic effect of chemisorption and electrosorption. The CN, SCN, and metal cyanide complex anions in wastewater migrate to the anode of coal-based anode and particle electrode rapidly under the combined action of electric field and magnetic stirring. On the surface of porous coal-based electrode, the removal of CN, SCN was mainly attributed to the oxidation of oxygen evolution from the anode reaction, while the removal of Cu, Zn and other metal ions was mainly by the electrodeposition process on the cathode surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2019.1677783DOI Listing
April 2021

New Insights into the Three-Dimensional Anatomy of the Facial Mimetic Muscles Related to the Nasolabial Fold: An Iodine Staining Technique Based on Nano-computed Tomography.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2020 02 18;44(1):80-86. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Cleft Lip and Palate Center, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Ba-da-chu, Beijing, 100144, China.

Purpose: This study aimed to introduce a novel approach to study the facial mimetic muscles (FMMs) in relation to the nasolabial fold (NLF) and realize the visualization of complex three-dimensional (3D) structures and spatial relationships of the FMMs.

Materials And Methods: Nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) and iodine staining techniques were used to obtain the two-dimensional (2D) radiographs of the FMMs. Materialise Mimics software was then used to reconstruct the 3D model of the FMMs.

Results: The zygomaticus major muscle (ZMM) was divided into trunk fibers and branch fibers. The trunk fibers of the ZMM were subdivided into branch fibers layer-by-layer. Adipose tissue in the cheek was not a mass of unorganized fat. It was separated and fixed by branch fibers. Moreover, the trunk fibers of the ZMM were directly connected to the levator anguli oris (LAO), not the skin. On the contrary, the ZMM was connected to the skin by its subdivided branch fibers indirectly. The muscle fibers in the modiolus were organized, rather than disorganized. In other words, the terminal of the trunk fibers of the ZMM was located in the LAO. Moreover, the terminal of the trunk fibers of the LAO was located at the terminal of the trunk fibers of the musculus depressor anguli oris at the corner of the mouth. Furthermore, the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi was not directly connected to the orbicularis oris muscle. It was connected to the combination of the LLS and the rhinaeus.

Conclusions: Although nano-CT has many disadvantages, it enabled the 3D anatomical study of the FMMs in relation to the NLF when combined with iodine staining. We imported the 2D images obtained by nano-CT scanning into the Mimics software, successfully reconstructed the FMMs, and finally obtained images of complex 3D structures of the FMMs. The shapes, positions, and 3D spatial relationships of the FMMs were clearly visualized. The novel insights into the 3D anatomy of the FMMs may help understand the formation of the NLF. Finally, the results of this study may help improve the rejuvenation surgery of the NLF soon.

Level Of Evidence Iv: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-019-01495-2DOI Listing
February 2020

TRAIL Mediated Signaling in Breast Cancer: Awakening Guardian Angel to Induce Apoptosis and Overcome Drug Resistance.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1152:243-252

Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Sequencing technologies have allowed us to characterize highly heterogeneous molecular landscape of breast cancer with unprecedented details. Tremendous breakthroughs have been made in unraveling contributory role of signaling pathways in breast cancer development and progression. It is becoming progressively more understandable that deregulation of spatio-temporally controlled pathways underlie development of resistance against different drugs. TRAIL mediated signaling has attracted considerable appreciation because of its characteristically unique ability to target cancer cells while leaving normal cells intact. Discovery of TRAIL was considered as a paradigm shift in molecular oncology because of its conspicuous ability to selectively target cancer cells. There was an exponential growth in the number of high-quality reports which highlighted cancer targeting ability of TRAIL and scientists worked on the development of TRAIL-based therapeutics and death receptor targeting agonistic antibodies to treat cancer. However, later studies challenged simplistic view related to tumor targeting ability of TRAIL. Detailed mechanistic insights revealed that overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins, inactivation of pro-apoptotic proteins and downregulation of death receptors were instrumental in impairing apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore researchers started to give attention to identification of methodologies and strategies to overcome the stumbling blocks associated with TRAIL-based therapeutics. Subsequent studies gave us a clear picture of signaling cascade of TRAIL and how deregulation of different proteins abrogated apoptosis. In this chapter we have attempted to provide an overview of the TRAIL induced signaling, list of proteins frequently deregulated and modern approaches to strategically restore apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant breast cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20301-6_12DOI Listing
September 2019

Protein Kinase Cι and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling: Alternative Pathways to Kras/Trp53-Driven Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Cell 2019 08 1;36(2):156-167.e7. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic Florida, 4500 San Pablo Road, Griffin Cancer Research Building, Room 212, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA. Electronic address:

We report that mouse LSL-Kras;Trp53 (KP)-mediated lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) tumorigenesis can proceed through both PKCι-dependent and PKCι-independent pathways. The predominant pathway involves PKCι-dependent transformation of bronchoalveolar stem cells (BASCs). However, KP mice harboring conditional knock out Prkci alleles (KPI mice) develop LADC tumors through PKCι-independent transformation of Axin2 alveolar type 2 (AT2) stem cells. Transformed growth of KPI, but not KP, tumors is blocked by Wnt pathway inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a KPI-derived genomic signature predicts sensitivity of human LADC cells to Wnt inhibition, and identifies a distinct subset of primary LADC tumors exhibiting a KPI-like genotype. Thus, LADC can develop through both PKCι-dependent and PKCι-independent pathways, resulting in tumors exhibiting distinct oncogenic signaling and pharmacologic vulnerabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2019.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693680PMC
August 2019

Reply: Anatomical Characterization and Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Muscles at the Corner of the Mouth: An Iodine Staining Technique Based on Micro-Computed Tomography.

Authors:
Min Sun Ning B Yin

Plast Reconstr Surg 2019 08;144(2):332e-333e

Department of Cleft Lip and Palate, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000005828DOI Listing
August 2019
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