Publications by authors named "Nina R Shah"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The relationship of human papillomavirus and cytology co-testing results with endometrial and ovarian cancer diagnoses.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Apr 14;161(1):297-303. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Regional Laboratory, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA.

Background: To investigate whether routine cervical screening using human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology co-testing effectively identifies women with endometrial (EC) or ovarian (OvC) cancer.

Methods: In 2003, Kaiser Permanente Northern California implemented triennial co-testing in women aged ≥30 years. Index screening results (n = 2,385,729) were linked to subsequent EC (n = 3434) and OvC (n = 1113) diagnoses from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2017. EC were categorized as type 1 or 2, and, selectively, EC and OvC diagnoses were stratified on whether symptoms were present at the time of the co-test. Fractions and absolute risks of EC or OvC of each co-testing result were calculated.

Results: Most EC (82.18%) and OvC (88.68%) were preceded by a negative HPV and negative cytology co-test. More EC were preceded by atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or more severe (ASC-US+) cytology and negative HPV test (n = 290) (8.44% of EC) compared to a negative cytology and a positive HPV test (n = 31) (0.89% of EC) (p < 0.001). The absolute risk of any EC diagnosis following ASC-US+ and negative HPV test was 0.48%. Atypical glandular cells (AGC) cytology and a negative HPV result preceded 6.92% of any EC diagnosis, with an absolute risk of 4.02%, but preceded only 1.13% of type 2 EC cases, with an absolute risk of 0.24%, in asymptomatic women. AGC cytology and a negative HPV result preceded 1.44% of OvC, with an absolute risk of 0.28%.

Conclusions: Abnormal cervical screening tests, even AGC cytology, rarely precedes and poorly predict women with EC or OvC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.01.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Metabolism and Bioactivation: It's Time to Expect the Unexpected.

J Med Chem 2020 06 21;63(12):6303-6314. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

MyoKardia, Inc., 333 Allerton Avenue, South San Francisco, California 94080, United States.

Improvements in ADME tools and pharmacokinetic prediction models have helped to shift attrition rates in early clinical trials from poor exposure to drug safety concerns, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Assessing a new chemical entity's potential for liver toxicity is an important consideration for the likely success of new drug candidates. Reactive intermediates produced during drug metabolism have been implicated as a cause of DILI, and their formation has been correlated to the addition of a black box warning on a drug label. In this work, we will present contemporary examples of the bioactivation of atypical structures usually regarded as benign and often used by medicinal chemists when attempting to avoid bioactivation. Medicinal chemistry strategies used to derisk bioactivation will be discussed, and an emphasis will be placed on the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00026DOI Listing
June 2020

Metabolite Profiling and Reaction Phenotyping for the Assessment of the Bioactivation of Bromfenac †.

Chem Res Toxicol 2020 01 23;33(1):249-257. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

MyoKardia, Inc. , 333 Allerton Avenue , South San Francisco , California 94080 , United States.

Bromfenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that was approved and subsequently withdrawn from the market because of reported cases of acute hepatotoxicity. Recently, studies have revealed that bromfenac requires UDPGA and alamethicin supplemented human liver microsomes (HLM) to form a major metabolite, bromfenac indolinone (BI). Bromfenac and BI form thioether adducts through a bioactivation pathway in HLM and hepatocytes. [J. P. Driscoll et al., , , 223-230.] Here, Cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) reaction phenotyping experiments using recombinant enzymes were performed on bromfenac and BI to identify the CYP and UGT enzymes responsible for bromfenac's metabolism and bioactivation. It was determined that UGT2B7 converts bromfenac to BI, and that while CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 catalyze the hydroxylation of bromfenac, only CYP2C9 forms thioether adducts when incubated with NAC or GSH as trapping agents. Although CYP2C9 was shown to form a reactive intermediate, no inhibition of CYP2C9 was observed when an IC shift assay was performed. Reaction phenotyping experiments with BI and recombinant CYP enzymes indicated that CYPs 1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 were responsible for the formation of an aliphatic hydroxylated metabolite. An aromatic hydroxylation on the indolinone moiety was also formed by CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. The aromatic hydroxylated BI is a precursor to the quinone methide and quinone imine intermediates in the proposed bioactivation pathway. Through time-dependent inhibition (TDI) experiments, it was revealed that BI can cause an IC shift in CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. However, BI does not inhibit the other isoforms that were also responsible for the formation of the aliphatic hydroxylation, an alternative biotransformation that does not undergo further downstream bioactivation. The results of these metabolism studies with bromfenac and BI add to our understanding of the relationship between biotransformation, reactive intermediate generation, and a potential mechanistic link to the hepatotoxicity of this compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00268DOI Listing
January 2020

Role of Glucuronidation and P450 Oxidation in the Bioactivation of Bromfenac.

Chem Res Toxicol 2018 04 2;31(4):223-230. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

MyoKardia Inc , 333 Allerton Avenue , South San Francisco , California 94080 , United States.

Bromfenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that was approved in the United States in 1997. It was withdrawn from clinical use less than one year later, in 1998, due to hepatotoxicity. We investigate the potential of bromfenac to be metabolized to reactive intermediates to further the current understanding of bromfenac bioactivation. Incubations were conducted with hepatocytes and human, rat, and cynomolgus liver microsomes fortified with cofactors and N-acetylcysteine. One thioether adduct of hydroxylated bromfenac and three thioether adducts of hydroxylated bromfenac indolinone were detected in extracts following incubations in liver microsomes fortified with NADPH and UDPGA. These findings demonstrate a bioactivation pathway for bromfenac and contribute to the body of evidence that could advance the understanding of the toxicity associated with bromfenac.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.7b00293DOI Listing
April 2018

Urinary diversions: A time to enrich surgical training?

Gynecol Oncol 2016 Jan 7;140(1):120-3. Epub 2015 Nov 7.

Rebecca and John Moores UCSD Cancer Center, Department of Reproductive Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Objective: To assess the potential exposure to complex urologic procedures, specifically urinary diversion, during a gynecologic oncology fellowship.

Methods: We queried the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) database to determine the total number of urinary diversions performed from October 2008 to August 2012. This data was used to estimate the mean number of urinary diversions performed each year. Gender, primary diagnosis, type of diversion, gynecologic oncologist involvement, and medical center were explored.

Results: Of the nearly 21,000 urinary diversions performed in UHC participating hospitals during the study period, 6180 (29.5%) were performed in women. On average, 1648 urinary diversions are performed in women each year, with gynecologic malignancies accounting for 6.8% of cases. We estimate that a gynecologic oncologist was involved with 87 cases per year at nonprofit academic medical centers in the US. With approximately 112 clinically active fellows per year during the study period, this equates to less than one diversion per clinical fellow per year if cases are equally distributed among centers. However, the majority of urinary diversions with gynecologic oncologist involvement were performed at just a fraction of centers. Thus, only a small contingent of fellows may be getting the greatest exposure to urinary diversions.

Conclusions: The majority of urinary diversions in women in the US are performed for bladder carcinoma by urologists. The estimated number of cases per clinical gynecologic oncology fellow per year is less than one. Strategies to improve fellow exposure to urinary diversion and consideration of alternative surgical training modalities should be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2015.11.012DOI Listing
January 2016

FAK Inhibition disrupts a β5 integrin signaling axis controlling anchorage-independent ovarian carcinoma growth.

Mol Cancer Ther 2014 Aug 4;13(8):2050-61. Epub 2014 Jun 4.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, UCSD Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, California

Ovarian cancer ascites fluid contains matrix proteins that can impact tumor growth via integrin receptor binding. In human ovarian tumor tissue arrays, we find that activation of the cytoplasmic focal adhesion (FAK) tyrosine kinase parallels increased tumor stage, β5 integrin, and osteopontin matrix staining. Elevated osteopontin, β5 integrin, and FAK mRNA levels are associated with decreased serous ovarian cancer patient survival. FAK remains active within ovarian cancer cells grown as spheroids, and anchorage-independent growth analyses of seven ovarian carcinoma cell lines identified sensitive (HEY, OVCAR8) and resistant (SKOV3-IP, OVCAR10) cells to 0.1 μmol/L FAK inhibitor (VS-4718, formerly PND-1186) treatment. VS-4718 promoted HEY and OVCAR8 G0-G1 cell-cycle arrest followed by cell death, whereas growth of SKOV3-IP and OVCAR10 cells was resistant to 1.0 μmol/L VS-4718. In HEY cells, genetic or pharmacological FAK inhibition prevented tumor growth in mice with corresponding reductions in β5 integrin and osteopontin expression. β5 knockdown reduced HEY cell growth in soft agar, tumor growth in mice, and both FAK Y397 phosphorylation and osteopontin expression in spheroids. FAK inhibitor-resistant (SKOV3-IP, OVCAR10) cells exhibited anchorage-independent Akt S473 phosphorylation, and expression of membrane-targeted and active Akt in sensitive cells (HEY, OVCAR8) increased growth but did not create a FAK inhibitor-resistant phenotype. These results link osteopontin, β5 integrin, and FAK in promoting ovarian tumor progression. β5 integrin expression may serve as a biomarker for serous ovarian carcinoma cells that possess active FAK signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-13-1063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4126870PMC
August 2014

Analyses of merlin/NF2 connection to FAK inhibitor responsiveness in serous ovarian cancer.

Gynecol Oncol 2014 Jul 27;134(1):104-11. Epub 2014 Apr 27.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, UCSD Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA 92093, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in serous ovarian cancer. Loss of merlin, a product of the neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor gene, is being evaluated as a biomarker for FAK inhibitor sensitivity in mesothelioma. Connections between merlin and FAK in ovarian cancer remain undefined.

Methods: Nine human and two murine ovarian cancer cell lines were analyzed for growth in the presence of a small molecule FAK inhibitor (PF-271, also termed VS-6062) from 0.1 to 1 μM for 72 h. Merlin was evaluated by immunoblotting and immunostaining of a human ovarian tumor tissue array. Growth of cells was analyzed in an orthotopic tumor model and evaluated in vitro after stable shRNA-mediated merlin knockdown.

Results: Greater than 50% inhibition of OVCAR8, HEY, and ID8-IP ovarian carcinoma cell growth occurred with 0.1 μM PF-271 in anchorage-independent (p<0.001) but not in adherent culture conditions. PF-271-mediated reduction in FAK Y397 phosphorylation occurred independently of growth inhibition. Suspended growth of OVCAR3, OVCAR10, IGROV1, IGROV1-IP, SKOV3, SKOV3-IP, A2780, and 5009-MOVCAR was not affected by 0.1 μM PF-271. Merlin expression did not correlate with serous ovarian tumor grade or stage. PF-271 (30 mg/kg, BID) did not inhibit 5009-MOVCAR tumor growth and merlin knockdown in SKOV3-IP and OVCAR10 cells did not alter suspended cell growth upon PF-271 addition.

Conclusions: Differential responsiveness to FAK inhibitor treatment was observed. Intrinsic low merlin protein level correlated with PF-271-mediated anchorage-independent growth inhibition, but reduction in merlin expression did not induce sensitivity to FAK inhibition. Merlin levels may be useful for patient stratification in FAK inhibitor trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.04.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4065804PMC
July 2014

Bariatric surgery decreases the risk of uterine malignancy.

Gynecol Oncol 2014 Apr;133(1):63-6

Rebecca and John Moores UCSD Cancer Center, Department of Reproductive Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Objective: To describe the risk of uterine malignancy among women who have had weight loss surgery.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study among inpatient admissions of women 18years, or older, registered in the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) dataset. The rate of uterine malignancy per hospital admission was calculated. Rates were compared according to whether diagnoses at the time of discharge included history of bariatric surgery, and further, according to whether there was a diagnosis of obesity.

Results: In admissions of patients who did not have a history of prior bariatric surgery, the rate of uterine malignancy was 599/100,000 (95% CI 590 to 610). Among obese women who had not previously undergone bariatric operations, the rate was 1409/100,000 (95% CI 1380 to 1440). Of women admitted who had a history of bariatric surgery, the rate of uterine malignancy was 408/100,000 (95% CI 370 to 450). The relative risk of uterine malignancy in all admissions for women who had prior bariatric surgery, compared to obese women who had not had bariatric surgery, was 0.29 (95% CI 0.26-0.32). Among women who had bariatric surgery and were not currently obese, the relative risk of uterine malignancy was 0.19 (95% CI 0.17-0.22) compared to obese women who had not undergone bariatric surgery.

Conclusion: A history of bariatric surgery is associated with a 71% reduced risk for uterine malignancy overall, and an 81% reduced risk if normal weight is maintained after surgery. This finding suggests that obesity may be a modifiable risk factor related to development of endometrial cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.11.012DOI Listing
April 2014

The risk of uterine malignancy is linearly associated with body mass index in a cohort of US women.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013 Dec 11;209(6):579.e1-5. Epub 2013 Aug 11.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Reproductive Medicine, Rebecca and John Moores University of California San Diego Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA. Electronic address:

Objective: We sought to quantify the relationship of uterine malignancy with body mass index (BMI).

Study Design: The University HealthSystem Consortium database was queried to identify all women undergoing total hysterectomy with a recorded BMI in the overweight and obese categories. Least squares regression was applied to evaluate the association between increasing BMI and the proportion of women with a diagnosis of uterine malignancy. Multivariate binary logistic regression was performed to adjust for other known risk factors including age, race, and other comorbidities.

Results: There were 6905 women who met inclusion criteria; 1891 (27.4%) of these had uterine malignancy. There is a linear relationship (y = 0.015x - 0.23, R(2) = 0.92) of the probability of uterine malignancy vs BMI. After adjusting for other risk factors, we found that each 1-U increase in BMI was significantly, independently associated with an 11% increase in the proportion of patients diagnosed with uterine malignancy (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.13; P < .001).

Conclusion: In a population of women undergoing hysterectomy, we observed a linear increase in the frequency of uterine cancer associated with increasing BMI. This finding suggests that even relatively modest weight gain may significantly raise cancer risk. In the United States, the mean BMI for women is 26.5 kg/m(2) and it is estimated that more than half of US women have a BMI within the study's range. Our results could, therefore, be relevant to a majority of the population. The findings could increase popular acceptance of weight management as a key component of general health maintenance and, possibly, as an additional approach to cancer risk reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2013.08.007DOI Listing
December 2013

Use of psychosocial services increases after a social worker-mediated intervention in gynecology oncology patients.

Health Soc Work 2013 May;38(2):113-21

Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the introduction of psychosocial services to gynecologic oncology outpatients by a social worker increases service use. During the initial six weeks (phase I), patients were referred for psychosocial services by clinic staff. During the second six weeks (phase II), a nurse introduced available services to each patient with a brochure. During the final 12 weeks (phase III), a social worker introduced services to each patient. The authors then compared psychosocial service referral rates. The sample included 196 patients. During phase III, the probability of a patient-initiated referral increased 3.4-fold (95 percent confidence interval [CI] [1.1, 10.4], p = .04) compared with baseline; the probability of any referral rose 2.7-fold (95 percent CI [1.1, 6.3], p = .03). The mean time to referral decreased from 79.4 days at baseline to 3.9 days during phase III (p < .001). The phase III intervention was accomplished only in 34 patients (39 percent) because of scheduling conflicts. Of these, eight requested referral, resulting in a 24 percent patient-initiated referral rate after meeting with a social worker. The introduction of psychosocial services by a social worker to gynecologic oncology outpatients increases referral rates and expedites evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/hlt006DOI Listing
May 2013

Excess risk of Clostridium difficile infection in ovarian cancer is related to exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Support Care Cancer 2013 Nov 10;21(11):3103-7. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Rebecca and John Moores UCSD Cancer Center, 3855 Health Sciences Dr., #0987, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0987, USA,

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine if a diagnosis of ovarian cancer is independently associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).

Methods: The University HealthSystem Consortium database was queried to perform a retrospective cohort study of women with and without ovarian cancer who were diagnosed with CDI. Inpatients undergoing total hysterectomy from 2008 to 2012 were studied. Ovarian cancer patients were compared to non-ovarian cancer patients to evaluate relative risk (RR) of CDI. Adjustment was made for known or suspected CDI risk factors to determine RR of CDI independent of these variables.

Results: In this study, 115,203 patients were included. CDI was reported in 0.80 % of ovarian cancer patients and in 0.31 % of non-ovarian cancer patients (RR = 2.50; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.02 to 3.35). Stratification by age, presence of other comorbidities, or administration of antineoplastic drugs did not significantly modify the elevated risk associated with ovarian cancer. Significantly increased risk in ovarian cancer patients was no longer observed after controlling for broad-spectrum antibiotic administration (RR = 1.28, 95 % CI = 0.39 to 4.13). Compared to non-ovarian cancer patients, ovarian cancer patients were more frequently treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, had a 39 % longer mean duration of therapy, and had 2.5-fold greater mean total exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Conclusions: After adjustment for antibiotic use, ovarian cancer patients are not at excess risk of CDI. Additional studies are needed to understand the patterns of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription for ovarian cancer patients leading to increased exposure. If feasible, reduction of this exposure may decrease morbidity in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-013-1888-2DOI Listing
November 2013

Changing demographics of cervical cancer in the United States (1973-2008).

Gynecol Oncol 2012 Sep 2;126(3):330-3. Epub 2012 Jun 2.

Rebecca and John Moores UCSD Cancer Center, Department of Reproductive Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Objective: To describe changes in the cervical cancer population.

Methods: The SEER database 9 registries from 1973 to 2008 were queried to perform a retrospective cohort study of women with invasive cervical cancer. Estimated annual percent change (EAPC) in incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) over the entire study period were compared according to age, stage, race, and cell type (squamous [SCC] and adenocarcinoma [ACA]). Proportions and odds ratios (OR) were calculated for patients diagnosed during the second half (1990-2008) compared to first half (1973-89) of the study period.

Results: 40,363 women with cervical cancer were entered into SEER. The EAPC are falling fastest among those with localized disease (-2.5%; 95% CI -2.8 to -2.1), age≥50 (-3.0%; 95% CI=-3.2 to -2.8), and black women (-3.8%; 95% CI=-4.1 to -3.6). The odds of a newly diagnosed cervical cancer patient having advanced disease are 10% higher, being less than age 50 are 37% higher, and being Asian or Pacific Islander are 68% higher in the second time period as compared to the first.

Conclusions: In the US, the population with cervical cancer is changing. Patients are presently significantly more likely to be pre-menopausal, Asian or Pacific Islander, and more frequently have non-squamous histology than previously. These progressive and cumulative changes could be due to the disparate impact of current population based screening and prevention strategies. Understanding the implications of these evolving population characteristics may facilitate planning targeted studies and interventions for cervical cancer prevention, screening and treatment in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.05.035DOI Listing
September 2012

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among endometrial cancer patients.

Gynecol Oncol 2012 Aug 13;126(2):176-9. Epub 2012 Apr 13.

Rebecca and John Moores UCSD Cancer Center, Department of Reproductive Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, La Jolla, CA 92093-0987, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the causes of death among women with endometrial cancer.

Methods: SEER registries from 1973-1988 were queried to perform a retrospective cohort study of women with invasive epithelial endometrial cancer. Causes of death were compared according to grade and stage.

Results: 33,232 women with incident cases of endometrial cancer had died at the time of last follow up. Overall, women were most likely to die from cardiovascular disease (35.9%, 95% CI 35.3-36.3%), followed by other causes, other malignancies, and endometrial cancer. Women with low grade localized cancer were most likely to die of cardiovascular disease, while women with high grade advanced cancer were least likely to die of cardiovascular disease and most likely to die of endometrial cancer. For the entire population, risk of death from cardiovascular causes surpasses the risk of death from endometrial cancer 5 years after diagnosis.

Conclusions: Higher risk of cardiac death among endometrial cancer patients likely reflects the high probability of curative cancer treatment and the prevalence of cardiac disease and risk factors. As the probability of dying of endometrial cancer decreases with time, the probability of dying of cardiovascular disease increases. Interventions and investigations aimed at addressing risk factors for cardiovascular disease may have the greatest potential to improve survival for women diagnosed with endometrial cancer and should feature prominently in treatment and survivorship plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.04.013DOI Listing
August 2012
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