Publications by authors named "Nina Mononen"

80 Publications

Human Prostate Tissue MicroRNAs and Their Predicted Target Pathways Linked to Prostate Cancer Risk Factors.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 15;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Fimlab Laboratories, and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center Tampere, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, 33520 Tampere, Finland.

MicroRNAs are important in prostate cancer development, progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to test microRNA expression profile in prostate tissue obtained from prostate cancer patients for associations with various prostate cancer related factors and to pinpoint the predicted target pathways for these microRNAs. Prostate tissue samples were obtained at prostatectomy from patients participating in a trial evaluating impact of pre-operative atorvastatin on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and Ki-67 expression in prostate tissue. Prostate tissue microRNA expression profiles were analyzed using OpenArray MicroRNA Panel. Pathway enrichment analyses were conducted for predicted target genes of microRNAs that correlated significantly with studied factors. Eight microRNAs correlated significantly with studied factors of patients after Bonferroni multiple testing correction. MiR-485-3p correlated with serum HDL-cholesterol levels. In atorvastatin-treated subjects, miR-34c-5p correlated with a change in serum PSA and miR-138-3p with a change in total cholesterol. In the placebo arm, both miR-576-3p and miR-550-3p correlated with HDL-cholesterol and miR-627 with PSA. In pathway analysis, these eight microRNAs related significantly to several pathways relevant to prostate cancer. This study brings new evidence from the expression of prostate tissue microRNAs and related pathways that may link risk factors to prostate cancer and pinpoint new therapeutic possibilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307951PMC
July 2021

Methylation status of nc886 epiallele reflects periconceptional conditions and is associated with glucose metabolism through nc886 RNAs.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Jul 22;13(1):143. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Pirkanmaa Hospital District and Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Non-coding RNA 886 (nc886) is coded from a maternally inherited metastable epiallele. We set out to investigate the determinants and dynamics of the methylation pattern at the nc886 epiallele and how this methylation status associates with nc886 RNA expression. Furthermore, we investigated the associations between the nc886 methylation status or the levels of nc886 RNAs and metabolic traits in the YFS and KORA cohorts. The association between nc886 epiallele methylation and RNA expression was also validated in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines.

Results: We confirm that the methylation status of the nc886 epiallele is mostly binomial, with individuals displaying either a non- or hemi-methylated status, but we also describe intermediately and close to fully methylated individuals. We show that an individual's methylation status is associated with the mother's age and socioeconomic status, but not with the individual's own genetics. Once established, the methylation status of the nc886 epiallele remains stable for at least 25 years. This methylation status is strongly associated with the levels of nc886 non-coding RNAs in serum, blood, and iPSC lines. In addition, nc886 methylation status associates with glucose and insulin levels during adolescence but not with the indicators of glucose metabolism or the incidence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. However, the nc886-3p RNA levels also associate with glucose metabolism in adulthood.

Conclusions: These results indicate that nc886 metastable epiallele methylation is tuned by the periconceptional conditions and it associates with glucose metabolism through the expression of the ncRNAs coded in the epiallele region.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01132-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296652PMC
July 2021

Uncovering the shared lipidomic markers of subclinical osteoporosis-atherosclerosis comorbidity: The Young Finns Study.

Bone 2021 10 5;151:116030. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland; Finnish Cardiovascular Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are complex multifactorial diseases sharing common risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms suggesting that these are comorbidities. Omics studies identifying joint molecular markers associated with these diseases are sparse.

Subjects And Methods: Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 437 molecular lipid species from the Young Finns Study cohort (aged 30-45 years and 57% women) and performed lipidome-wide multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with early markers for both diseases. Carotid intima-media thickness for atherosclerosis measured with ultrasound and bone mineral density from distal radius and tibia for osteoporosis measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography were used as early markers of the diseases.

Results: MANOVA adjusted with age, sex and body mass index, identified eight statistically significant (adjusted p-value (p) < 0.05) and 15 suggestively significant (p < 0.25) molecular lipid species associated with the studied markers. Similar analysis adjusted additionally for smoking habit, physical activity and alcohol consumption identified four significant and six suggestively significant molecular lipid species. These most significant lipid classes/species jointly associated with the studied markers were glycerolipid/TAG(18:0/18:0/18:1), glycerophospholipid/PC(40:3), sphingolipid/Gb3(d18:1/22:0), and sphingolipid/Gb3(d18:1/24:0).

Conclusion: Our results support the osteoporosis-atherosclerosis comorbidity hypothesis and present potential new joint lipid biomarkers for these diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116030DOI Listing
October 2021

Modular genome-wide gene expression architecture shared by early traits of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis in the Young Finns Study.

Sci Rep 2021 03 29;11(1):7111. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

We analysed whole blood genome-wide expression data to identify gene co-expression modules shared by early traits of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Gene expression was profiled for the Young Finns Study participants. Bone mineral density and content were measured as early traits of osteoporosis. Carotid and bulbus intima media thickness were measured as early traits of atherosclerosis. Joint association of the modules, identified with weighted co-expression analysis, with early traits of the diseases was tested with multivariate analysis. Among the six modules significantly correlated with early traits of both the diseases, two had significant (adjusted p-values (p.adj) < 0.05) and another two had suggestively significant (p.adj < 0.25) joint association with the two diseases after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The three most significant member genes from the significant modules were NOSIP, GXYLT2, and TRIM63 (p.adj ≤ 0.18). Genes in the modules were enriched with biological processes that have separately been found to be involved in either bone metabolism or atherosclerosis. The gene modules and their most significant member genes identified in this study support the osteoporosis-atherosclerosis comorbidity hypothesis and can provide new joint biomarkers for both diseases and their dual prevention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86536-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007808PMC
March 2021

Examining the effect of mitochondrial DNA variants on blood pressure in two Finnish cohorts.

Sci Rep 2021 01 12;11(1):611. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Arvo Ylpön katu 34, PO Box 100, 33014, Tampere, Finland.

High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for many noncommunicable diseases. The effect of mitochondrial DNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) on BP is less known than that of nuclear SNPs. We investigated the mitochondrial genetic determinants of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP. MtSNPs were determined from peripheral blood by sequencing or with genome-wide association study SNP arrays in two independent Finnish cohorts, the Young Finns Study and the Finnish Cardiovascular Study, respectively. In total, over 4200 individuals were included. The effects of individual common mtSNPs, with an additional focus on sex-specificity, and aggregates of rare mtSNPs grouped by mitochondrial genes were evaluated by meta-analysis of linear regression and a sequence kernel association test, respectively. We accounted for the predicted pathogenicity of the rare variants within protein-encoding and the tRNA regions. In the meta-analysis of 87 common mtSNPs, we did not observe significant associations with any of the BP traits. Sex-specific and rare-variant analyses did not pinpoint any significant associations either. Our results are in agreement with several previous studies suggesting that mtDNA variation does not have a significant role in the regulation of BP. Future studies might need to reconsider the mechanisms thought to link mtDNA with hypertension.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79931-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804469PMC
January 2021

Meta-analysis uncovers genome-wide significant variants for rapid kidney function decline.

Kidney Int 2021 04 31;99(4):926-939. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Kidney Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs. 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.09.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010357PMC
April 2021

Sex-specific associations of TCF7L2 variants with fasting glucose, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease among Turkish adults.

Anatol J Cardiol 2020 11;24(5):326-333

Department of Genetics, Aziz Sancar Institute for Experimental Medicine, İstanbul University; İstanbul-Turkey.

Objective: TCF7L2 is a repressor and transactivator of genes, and its variants are strongly associated with diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the sex-specific relationship between the most common TCF7L2 gene variants (-98368G>T, rs12255372 and -47833C>T, rs7903146) with diabetes and coronary heart disease in Turkish Adult Risk Factor (TARF) Study.

Methods: Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) have been genotyped using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assays in 2,024 (51.3% in women, age: 55±11.8) Turkish adults participating in the TARF study. Statistical analyses were used to investigate the association of genotypes with clinical and biochemical measurements.

Results: Among the TARF study participants, 11.7%, 24.3%, 14.1%, and 38.3% had diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), and obesity, respectively. The frequencies of T allele for -47833C>T and -98368G>T in Turkish adults were determined to be 0.35 and 0.33, respectively. -47833C>T was significantly associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations in all participants, especially in men. Both SNVs were significantly associated with diabetes and CHD in all participants (p<0.05). When study population was stratified according to sex, -98368G>T was associated with diabetes in women (p=0.041) and -47833C>T was associated with diabetes and CHD in men (p=0.018 and p=0.032, respectively). Also, both SNVs and the diplotypes of common haplotype (H1) remained strongly associated with type 2 diabetes after risk factors were adjusted (p<0.05).

Conclusion: T allele homozygosity of two SNVs as well as the diplotype H1-/H1- reflects risk of diabetes primarily in men. Enhanced CHD risk is determined by the presence of diplotype H1-/H1- among nondiabetic participants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2020.57736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724383PMC
November 2020

The Polygenic and Monogenic Basis of Blood Traits and Diseases.

Cell 2020 09;182(5):1214-1231.e11

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Science, National Institute on Aging/NIH, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Blood cells play essential roles in human health, underpinning physiological processes such as immunity, oxygen transport, and clotting, which when perturbed cause a significant global health burden. Here we integrate data from UK Biobank and a large-scale international collaborative effort, including data for 563,085 European ancestry participants, and discover 5,106 new genetic variants independently associated with 29 blood cell phenotypes covering a range of variation impacting hematopoiesis. We holistically characterize the genetic architecture of hematopoiesis, assess the relevance of the omnigenic model to blood cell phenotypes, delineate relevant hematopoietic cell states influenced by regulatory genetic variants and gene networks, identify novel splice-altering variants mediating the associations, and assess the polygenic prediction potential for blood traits and clinical disorders at the interface of complex and Mendelian genetics. These results show the power of large-scale blood cell trait GWAS to interrogate clinically meaningful variants across a wide allelic spectrum of human variation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482360PMC
September 2020

Trans-ethnic and Ancestry-Specific Blood-Cell Genetics in 746,667 Individuals from 5 Global Populations.

Cell 2020 09;182(5):1198-1213.e14

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA; Department of Medicine, Division on Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Most loci identified by GWASs have been found in populations of European ancestry (EUR). In trans-ethnic meta-analyses for 15 hematological traits in 746,667 participants, including 184,535 non-EUR individuals, we identified 5,552 trait-variant associations at p < 5 × 10, including 71 novel associations not found in EUR populations. We also identified 28 additional novel variants in ancestry-specific, non-EUR meta-analyses, including an IL7 missense variant in South Asians associated with lymphocyte count in vivo and IL-7 secretion levels in vitro. Fine-mapping prioritized variants annotated as functional and generated 95% credible sets that were 30% smaller when using the trans-ethnic as opposed to the EUR-only results. We explored the clinical significance and predictive value of trans-ethnic variants in multiple populations and compared genetic architecture and the effect of natural selection on these blood phenotypes between populations. Altogether, our results for hematological traits highlight the value of a more global representation of populations in genetic studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480402PMC
September 2020

Epigenome-450K-wide methylation signatures of active cigarette smoking: The Young Finns Study.

Biosci Rep 2020 07;40(7)

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Smoking as a major risk factor for morbidity affects numerous regulatory systems of the human body including DNA methylation. Most of the previous studies with genome-wide methylation data are based on conventional association analysis and earliest threshold-based gene set analysis that lacks sensitivity to be able to reveal all the relevant effects of smoking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of active smoking on DNA methylation at three biological levels: 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' (CpG) sites, genes and functionally related genes (gene sets). Gene set analysis was done with mGSZ, a modern threshold-free method previously developed by us that utilizes all the genes in the experiment and their differential methylation scores. Application of such method in DNA methylation study is novel. Epigenome-wide methylation levels were profiled from Young Finns Study (YFS) participants' whole blood from 2011 follow-up using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We identified three novel smoking related CpG sites and replicated 57 of the previously identified ones. We found that smoking is associated with hypomethylation in shore (genomic regions 0-2 kilobases from CpG island). We identified smoking related methylation changes in 13 gene sets with false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05, among which is olfactory receptor activity, the flagship novel finding of the present study. Overall, we extended the current knowledge by identifying: (i) three novel smoking related CpG sites, (ii) similar effects as aging on average methylation in shore, and (iii) a novel finding that olfactory receptor activity pathway responds to tobacco smoke and toxin exposure through epigenetic mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20200596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340865PMC
July 2020

Identification, Heritability, and Relation With Gene Expression of Novel DNA Methylation Loci for Blood Pressure.

Hypertension 2020 07 10;76(1):195-205. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Endocrinology (B.H.R.W., J.V.v.V.-O.), University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

We conducted an epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis on blood pressure (BP) in 4820 individuals of European and African ancestry aged 14 to 69. Genome-wide DNA methylation data from peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. The epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis identified 39 BP-related CpG sites with <1×10. In silico replication in the CHARGE consortium of 17 010 individuals validated 16 of these CpG sites. Out of the 16 CpG sites, 13 showed novel association with BP. Conversely, out of the 126 CpG sites identified as being associated (<1×10) with BP in the CHARGE consortium, 21 were replicated in the current study. Methylation levels of all the 34 CpG sites that were cross-validated by the current study and the CHARGE consortium were heritable and 6 showed association with gene expression. Furthermore, 9 CpG sites also showed association with BP with <0.05 and consistent direction of the effect in the meta-analysis of the Finnish Twin Cohort (199 twin pairs and 4 singletons; 61% monozygous) and the Netherlands Twin Register (266 twin pairs and 62 singletons; 84% monozygous). Bivariate quantitative genetic modeling of the twin data showed that a majority of the phenotypic correlations between methylation levels of these CpG sites and BP could be explained by shared unique environmental rather than genetic factors, with 100% of the correlations of systolic BP with cg19693031 () and cg00716257 () determined by environmental effects acting on both systolic BP and methylation levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.14973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295009PMC
July 2020

Multi-ancestry GWAS of the electrocardiographic PR interval identifies 202 loci underlying cardiac conduction.

Nat Commun 2020 05 21;11(1):2542. Epub 2020 May 21.

Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The electrocardiographic PR interval reflects atrioventricular conduction, and is associated with conduction abnormalities, pacemaker implantation, atrial fibrillation (AF), and cardiovascular mortality. Here we report a multi-ancestry (N = 293,051) genome-wide association meta-analysis for the PR interval, discovering 202 loci of which 141 have not previously been reported. Variants at identified loci increase the percentage of heritability explained, from 33.5% to 62.6%. We observe enrichment for cardiac muscle developmental/contractile and cytoskeletal genes, highlighting key regulation processes for atrioventricular conduction. Additionally, 8 loci not previously reported harbor genes underlying inherited arrhythmic syndromes and/or cardiomyopathies suggesting a role for these genes in cardiovascular pathology in the general population. We show that polygenic predisposition to PR interval duration is an endophenotype for cardiovascular disease, including distal conduction disease, AF, and atrioventricular pre-excitation. These findings advance our understanding of the polygenic basis of cardiac conduction, and the genetic relationship between PR interval duration and cardiovascular disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15706-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242331PMC
May 2020

Lipidomic architecture shared by subclinical markers of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

Bone 2020 02 21;131:115160. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland; Finnish Cardiovascular Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Studies have shown that osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are comorbid conditions sharing common risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms. Understanding these is crucial in order to develop shared methods for risk stratification, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to apply a system-level bioinformatics approach to lipidome-wide data in order to pinpoint the lipidomic architecture jointly associated with surrogate markers of these complex comorbid diseases.

Subjects And Methods: The study was based on the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort from the 2007 follow-up (n = 1494, aged 30-45 years, women: 57%). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to analyse the serum lipidome, involving 437 molecular lipid species. The subclinical osteoporotic markers included indices of bone mineral density and content, measured using peripheral quantitative computer tomography from the distal and shaft sites of both the tibia and the radius. The subclinical atherosclerotic markers included carotid and bulbus intima media thickness measured with high-resolution ultrasound. Weighted co-expression network analysis was performed to identify networks of densely interconnected lipid species (i.e. lipid modules) associated with subclinical markers of both osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. The levels of lipid species (lipid profiles) of each of the lipid modules were summarized by the first principal component termed as module eigenlipid. Then, Pearson's correlation (r) was calculated between the module eigenlipids and the markers. Lipid modules that were significantly and jointly correlated with subclinical markers of both osteoporosis and atherosclerosis were considered to be related to the comorbidities. The hypothesis that the eigenlipids and profiles of the constituent lipid species in the modules have joint effects on the markers was tested with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA).

Results: Among twelve studied molecular lipid modules, we identified one module with 105 lipid species significantly and jointly associated with both subclinical markers of both osteoporosis (r = 0.24, p-value = 2 × 10) and atherosclerosis (r = 0.16, p-value = 2 × 10). The majority of the lipid species in this module belonged to the glycerolipid (n = 60), glycerophospholipid (n = 13) and sphingolipid (n = 29) classes. The module was also enriched with ceramides (n = 20), confirming their significance in cardiovascular outcomes and suggesting their joint role in the comorbidities. The top three of the 37 statistically significant (adjusted p-value < 0.05) lipid species jointly associated with subclinical markers of both osteoporosis and atherosclerosis within the module were all triacylglycerols (TAGs) - TAG(18:0/18:0/18:1) with an adjusted p-value of 8.6 × 10, TAG(18:0/18:1/18:1) with an adjusted p-value of 3.7 × 10, and TAG(16:0/18:0/18:1) with an adjusted p-value of 8.5 × 10.

Conclusion: This study identified a novel lipid module associated with both surrogate markers of both subclinical osteoporosis and subclinical atherosclerosis. Alterations in the metabolism of the identified lipid module and, more specifically, the TAG related molecular lipids within the module may provide potential new biomarkers for testing the comorbidities, opening avenues for the emergence of dual-purpose prevention measures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.115160DOI Listing
February 2020

Target genes, variants, tissues and transcriptional pathways influencing human serum urate levels.

Nat Genet 2019 10 2;51(10):1459-1474. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0504-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858555PMC
October 2019

New evidence from plasma ceramides links apoE polymorphism to greater risk of coronary artery disease in Finnish adults.

J Lipid Res 2019 09 3;60(9):1622-1629. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

apoE, a key regulator of plasma lipids, mediates altered functionalities in lipoprotein metabolism and thus affects the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The significance of different apoE polymorphisms remains unclear; although the ε4 allele is clearly associated with increased cholesterol levels (which inform CAD risk), direct studies about apoE polymorphisms on CAD risk and development have yielded controversial results. Furthermore, certain species of ceramides-complex lipids abundant in plasma LDL-are markers of increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. Using a high-throughput MS approach, we quantified 30 molecular plasma ceramide species from a cohort of 2,160 apoE-genotyped (rs7412, rs429358) young adults enrolled in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. We then searched this lipidome data set to identify new indications of pathways influenced by apoE polymorphisms and possibly related to CAD risk. This approach revealed a previously unreported association between apoE polymorphism and a consistently documented high-risk CAD marker, Cer(d18:1/16:0). Compared with the apoE ε3/3 reference group, plasma levels of apoE ε4 were elevated and those of apoE ε2 were lowered in all subjects without evidence of apoE-by-sex interactions. apoE associated with seven ceramides that are connected to atherogenically potent macrophages and/or lipoprotein particles; these associations could indicate a plausible linkage between apoE polymorphism and ceramide metabolism, leading to adverse plasma LDL metabolism and atherogenesis. In conclusion, new evidence from plasma ceramides links apoE polymorphism with an increased risk of CAD and extends our understanding of the role of apoE in health and disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M092809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6718445PMC
September 2019

Whole blood microRNA levels associate with glycemic status and correlate with target mRNAs in pathways important to type 2 diabetes.

Sci Rep 2019 06 20;9(1):8887. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Fimlab Laboratories, and the Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center, Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

We analyzed the associations between whole blood microRNA profiles and the indices of glucose metabolism and impaired fasting glucose and examined whether the discovered microRNAs correlate with the expression of their mRNA targets. MicroRNA and gene expression profiling were performed for the Young Finns Study participants (n = 871). Glucose, insulin, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured, the insulin resistance index (HOMA2-IR) was calculated, and the glycemic status (normoglycemic [n = 534]/impaired fasting glucose [IFG] [n = 252]/type 2 diabetes [T2D] [n = 24]) determined. Levels of hsa-miR-144-5p, -122-5p, -148a-3p, -589-5p, and hsa-let-7a-5p associated with glycemic status. hsa-miR-144-5p and -148a-3p associated with glucose levels, while hsa-miR-144-5p, -122-5p, -184, and -339-3p associated with insulin levels and HOMA2-IR, and hsa-miR-148a-3p, -15b-3p, -93-3p, -146b-5p, -221-3p, -18a-3p, -642a-5p, and -181-2-3p associated with HbA1c levels. The targets of hsa-miR-146b-5p that correlated with its levels were enriched in inflammatory pathways, and the targets of hsa-miR-221-3p were enriched in insulin signaling and T2D pathways. These pathways showed indications of co-regulation by HbA1c-associated miRNAs. There were significant differences in the microRNA profiles associated with glucose, insulin, or HOMA-IR compared to those associated with HbA1c. The HbA1c-associated miRNAs also correlated with the expression of target mRNAs in pathways important to the development of T2D.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43793-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586838PMC
June 2019

A catalog of genetic loci associated with kidney function from analyses of a million individuals.

Nat Genet 2019 06 31;51(6):957-972. Epub 2019 May 31.

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease-Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Clincial Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0407-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698888PMC
June 2019

The SGLT2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin Reduces Liver Fat but Does Not Affect Tissue Insulin Sensitivity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study With 8-Week Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

Diabetes Care 2019 05 18;42(5):931-937. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate tissue-specific effects of dapagliflozin on insulin sensitivity and liver and body fat in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: This randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study recruited 32 patients with type 2 diabetes. Enrolled patients were to have HbA 6.5-10.5% (48-91 mmol/mol) and ≥3 months of stable treatment with metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, or their combination. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive 10 mg dapagliflozin or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Before and after the intervention, tissue insulin sensitivity was measured using [F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Liver proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and adipose tissue volumes were assessed using MRI, and blood biomarkers were analyzed.

Results: After 8 weeks, glycemic control was improved by dapagliflozin (placebo-corrected change in HbA -0.39%, < 0.01), but whole-body glucose uptake was not increased ( = 0.90). Tissue-specific insulin-stimulated glucose uptake did not change in skeletal muscle, liver, myocardium, or white and brown adipose tissue, and endogenous glucose production remained unaffected. However, there were significant placebo-corrected decreases in liver PDFF (-3.74%, < 0.01), liver volume (-0.10 L, < 0.05), visceral adipose tissue volume (-0.35 L, < 0.01), interleukin-6 (-1.87 pg/mL, < 0.05), and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (-96 ng/L, = 0.03).

Conclusions: In this study, 8 weeks of treatment with dapagliflozin reduced liver PDFF and the volume of visceral adipose tissue in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Although glycemic control was improved, no effect on tissue-level insulin sensitivity was observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc18-1569DOI Listing
May 2019

Genetic and environmental perturbations lead to regulatory decoherence.

Elife 2019 03 5;8. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, Princeton University, Princeton, United States.

Correlation among traits is a fundamental feature of biological systems that remains difficult to study. To address this problem, we developed a flexible approach that allows us to identify factors associated with inter-individual variation in correlation. We use data from three human cohorts to study the effects of genetic and environmental variation on correlations among mRNA transcripts and among NMR metabolites. We first show that environmental exposures (infection and disease) lead to a systematic loss of correlation, which we define as 'decoherence'. Using longitudinal data, we show that decoherent metabolites are better predictors of whether someone will develop metabolic syndrome than metabolites commonly used as biomarkers of this disease. Finally, we demonstrate that correlation itself is under genetic control by mapping hundreds of 'correlation quantitative trait loci (QTLs)'. Together, this work furthers our understanding of how and why coordinated biological processes break down, and points to a potential role for decoherence in disease.

Editorial Note: This article has been through an editorial process in which the authors decide how to respond to the issues raised during peer review. The Reviewing Editor's assessment is that all the issues have been addressed (see decision letter).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.40538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6400502PMC
March 2019

The effect of apolipoprotein E polymorphism on serum metabolome - a population-based 10-year follow-up study.

Sci Rep 2019 01 24;9(1):458. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center-Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the key regulator of plasma lipids, mediating altered functionalities in lipoprotein metabolism - affecting the risk of coronary artery (CAD) and Alzheimer's diseases, as well as longevity. Searching pathways influenced by apoE prior to adverse manifestations, we utilized a metabolome dataset of 228 nuclear-magnetic-resonance-measured serum parameters with a 10-year follow-up from the population-based Young Finns Study cohort of 2,234 apoE-genotyped (rs7412, rs429358) adults, aged 24-39 at baseline. At the end of our follow-up, by limiting FDR-corrected p < 0.05, regression analyses revealed 180/228 apoE-polymorphism-related associations with the studied metabolites, in all subjects - without indications of apoE x sex interactions. Across all measured apoE- and apoB-containing lipoproteins, ε4 allele had consistently atherogenic and ε2 protective effect on particle concentrations of free/esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and total lipids. As novel findings, ε4 associated with glycoprotein acetyls, LDL-diameter and isoleucine - all reported biomarkers of CAD-risk, inflammation, diabetes and total mortality. ApoE-subgroup differences persisted through our 10-year follow-up, although some variation of individual metabolite levels was noticed. In conclusion, apoE polymorphism associate with a complex metabolic change, including aberrations in multiple novel biomarkers related to elevated cardiometabolic and all-cause mortality risk, extending our understanding about the role of apoE in health and disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36450-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346097PMC
January 2019

Discovery of mitochondrial DNA variants associated with genome-wide blood cell gene expression: a population-based mtDNA sequencing study.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 04;28(8):1381-1391

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

The effect of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation on peripheral blood transcriptomics in health and disease is not fully known. Sex-specific mitochondrially controlled gene expression patterns have been shown in Drosophila melanogaster but in humans, evidence is lacking. Functional variation in mtDNA may also have a role in the development of type 2 diabetes and its precursor state, i.e. prediabetes. We examined the associations between mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) and peripheral blood transcriptomics with a focus on sex- and prediabetes-specific effects. The genome-wide blood cell expression data of 19 637 probes, 199 deep-sequenced mtSNPs and nine haplogroups of 955 individuals from a population-based Young Finns Study cohort were used. Significant associations were identified with linear regression and analysis of covariance. The effects of sex and prediabetes on the associations between gene expression and mtSNPs were studied using random-effect meta-analysis. Our analysis identified 53 significant expression probe-mtSNP associations after Bonferroni correction, involving 7 genes and 31 mtSNPs. Eight probe-mtSNP signals remained independent after conditional analysis. In addition, five genes showed differential expression between haplogroups. The meta-analysis did not show any significant differences in linear model effect sizes between males and females but identified the association between the OASL gene and mtSNP C16294T to show prediabetes-specific effects. This study pinpoints new independent mtSNPs associated with peripheral blood transcriptomics and replicates six previously reported associations, providing further evidence of the mitochondrial genetic control of blood cell gene expression. In addition, we present evidence that prediabetes might lead to perturbations in mitochondrial control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz011DOI Listing
April 2019

No Association Between Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture and Selected Candidate Collagen Gene Variants in Female Elite Athletes From High-Risk Team Sports.

Am J Sports Med 2019 01 28;47(1):52-58. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Several single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in collagen genes have been reported as predisposing factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. However, the evidence is conflicting and does not support a clear association between genetic variants and risk of ACL ruptures.

Purpose: To assess the association of previously identified candidate SNVs in genes encoding for collagen and the risk of ACL injury in a population of elite female athletes from high-risk team sports.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: A total of 851 female Norwegian and Finnish elite athletes from team sports were included from 2007 to 2011. ACL injuries acquired before inclusion in the cohort were registered by interview. The participants were followed prospectively through 2015 to record new complete ACL injuries. Six selected SNVs were genotyped ( COL1A1: rs1800012, rs1107946; COL3A1: rs1800255; COL5A1: rs12722, rs13946; COL12A1: rs970547).

Results: No associations were found between ACL rupture and the SNVs tested.

Conclusion: The study does not support a role of the 6 selected SNVs in genes encoding for collagen proteins as risk factors for ACL injury.

Clinical Relevance: Genetic profiling to identify athletes at high risk for ACL rupture is not yet feasible.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546518808467DOI Listing
January 2019

Fatty liver is associated with blood pathways of inflammatory response, immune system activation and prothrombotic state in Young Finns Study.

Sci Rep 2018 07 9;8(1):10358. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center - Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Fatty liver (FL) disease is the most common type of chronic liver disease. We hypothesized that liver's response to the process where large droplets of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells is reflected also in gene pathway expression in blood. Peripheral blood genome wide gene expression analysis and ultrasonic imaging of liver were performed for 1,650 participants (316 individuals with FL and 1,334 controls) of the Young Finns Study. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed for the expression data. Fourteen gene sets were upregulated (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.05) in subjects with FL. These pathways related to extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, immune response regulation, prothrombotic state and neural tissues. After adjustment for known risk factors and biomarkers of FL, we found i) integrin A4B1 signaling, ii) leukocyte transendothelial migration, iii) CD40/CD40L and iv) netrin-1 signaling pathways to be upregulated in individuals with FL (nominal p < 0.05). From these all but not ii) remained significantly upregulated when analyzing only subjects without history of heavy alcohol use. In conclusion, FL was associated with blood gene sets of ECM turnover, inflammatory response, immune system activation and prothrombotic state. These may form a systemic link between FL and the development of cardiovascular diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28563-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037671PMC
July 2018

ExomeChip-Wide Analysis of 95 626 Individuals Identifies 10 Novel Loci Associated With QT and JT Intervals.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2018 01;11(1):e001758

From the Predoctoral Training Program in Human Genetics (N.A.B.) and McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine (N.A.B., D.E.A.), Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine (J.A.B., J.C.B., T.A., N.S.), Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Services (B.M.P.), and Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Epidemiology (S.R.H.), University of Washington, Seattle; Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur (A.V.S., V.G.); Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykavik (A.V.S., V.G.); Clinical Pharmacology Department, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and London School of Medicine and Dentistry (H.R.W., P.B.M.) and NIHR Barts Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit (H.R.W., P.B.M.), Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom; Section of Computational Biomedicine, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, MA (H.L., Z.X.); School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht Center for Systems Biology and Department of Biochemistry, Maastricht University, The Netherlands (A.I.); Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology (A.I., C.M.v.D.) and Department of Medical Informatics (J.A.K.), Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Biostatistics Department, Boston University School of Public Health, MA (C.-T.L.); Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine (J.M., C.H.), Medical Genetics Section, Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine (A.C.), and Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics (I.R.), University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA (F.R., P.T.E., S.A.L., J.R.); Center for Human Genetic Research (F.R., J.R.), Cardiovascular Research Center (P.L.H., P.T.E., S.A.L.), and Center for Human Genetic Research and Cardiovascular Research Center (C.H.N.-C.), Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences (L.M.H., C.P.N., N.J.S.) and Genetic Epidemiology Group, Department of Health Sciences (M.D.T.), University of Leicester, United Kingdom; NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit (L.M.H., C.P.N.) and NIHR Leicester Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit (M.D.T.), Glenfield Hospital, United Kingdom; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences (N.G., J.B.-J., T.H., O.P.), Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences (A.L.), and Laboratory of Experimental Cardiology (J.K.K.), University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Data Science, School of Population Health (H.M.) and Physiology and Biophysics (J.G.W.), University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson; Institute of Genetic Epidemiology (M.M.-N.), Institute of Epidemiology II (A.P., M.W., S.P.), Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology (M.W.), and Institute of Human Genetics (T.M.), Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg; Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Germany (M.M.-N., M.F.S., S.K.); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Munich Heart Alliance (M.M.-N., M.F.S., A.P., T.M., S.K.); MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC IGMM, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (J.E.H.); Department of Cardiology (N.V., R.A.d.B., P.v.d.M., P.v.d.H.) and Department of Internal Medicine (M.E.), University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands; Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences and Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance (X.G., J.Y., Y.-D.I.C.); Department of Clinical Epidemiology (R.L.-G., R.d.M.) and University of Split School of Medicine (I.K., O.P.), University of Split, Croatia; Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J., A.C.M.), Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), and Public Health and Primary Care (D.O.M.-K.), Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands; Departments of Medical Informatics (M.v.d.B.), Epidemiology (B.H.C.S.), and Epidemiology (M.E.), Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine and Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Greifswald, Germany (S.W., U.V., G.H.); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald (S.W., U.V., H.V., S.B.F., M.D.); Cardiogenetics Lab, Genetics and Molecular Cell Sciences Research Centre, Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Institute, St George's, University of London, United Kingdom (B.P.P., Y.J.); Division Heart and Lungs, Department of Cardiology, (J.v.S., F.W.A.) and Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care (M.L.B.), University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands; Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (J.H., C.K.); Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere, Finland (L.-P.L., N.M., T.L.); Department of Clinical Physiology, Tampere University Hospital, University of Tampere School of Medicine, Finland (M.K.); Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (M.L.); Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD (T.B.H., L.J.L.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (S.P., A.D.); Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom (A.D.M.); Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen (A.L.); Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark (A.L.); German Center for Diabetes Research, Neuherberg (A.P.); Institute of Human Genetics, Technische Universität München, Germany (T.M.); Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (J.W.J.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Inspectorate of Health Care, Utrecht, The Netherlands (B.H.C.S.); Human Genomics Facility (F.R.) and Human Genotyping Facility (A.U.), Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Institute for Community Medicine (H.V.) and Department of Internal Medicine B (S.B.F., M.D.), University Medicine Greifswald, Germany; Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, United Kingdom (M.M., T.D.S.); Stanford School of Medicine, CA (M.P.); Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital and Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Finland (O.T.R.); Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge (C.H.N.-C.); NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Unit in Cardiovascular Disease, United Kingdom (N.J.S.); Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute, Utrecht (F.W.A.); and Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Faculty of Population Health Sciences, University College London, United Kingdom (F.W.A.).

Background: QT interval, measured through a standard ECG, captures the time it takes for the cardiac ventricles to depolarize and repolarize. JT interval is the component of the QT interval that reflects ventricular repolarization alone. Prolonged QT interval has been linked to higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest.

Methods And Results: We performed an ExomeChip-wide analysis for both QT and JT intervals, including 209 449 variants, both common and rare, in 17 341 genes from the Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip. We identified 10 loci that modulate QT and JT interval duration that have not been previously reported in the literature using single-variant statistical models in a meta-analysis of 95 626 individuals from 23 cohorts (comprised 83 884 European ancestry individuals, 9610 blacks, 1382 Hispanics, and 750 Asians). This brings the total number of ventricular repolarization associated loci to 45. In addition, our approach of using coding variants has highlighted the role of 17 specific genes for involvement in ventricular repolarization, 7 of which are in novel loci.

Conclusions: Our analyses show a role for myocyte internal structure and interconnections in modulating QT interval duration, adding to previous known roles of potassium, sodium, and calcium ion regulation, as well as autonomic control. We anticipate that these discoveries will open new paths to the goal of making novel remedies for the prevention of lethal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.117.001758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992491PMC
January 2018

Genetic Polymorphisms Associated With Constipation and Anticholinergic Symptoms in Patients Receiving Clozapine.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Jun;38(3):193-199

Background: Clozapine impairs gastrointestinal motility owing to its anticholinergic and antiserotonergic properties. This commonly leads to constipation and potentially to more severe complications such as bowel obstruction and ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic variations in the genes encoding muscarinic and serotonergic receptors (CHRM2, CHRM3, HTR2, HTR3, HTR4, and HTR7) explain the variations in incidence of constipation and anticholinergic symptoms during clozapine treatment. Genes associated with opiate-induced constipation were also included in this analysis (TPH1, OPRM1, ABCB1, and COMT).

Procedures: Blood samples from 176 clozapine-treated, Finnish, white patients with schizophrenia were genotyped. Constipation and anticholinergic symptoms were rated using the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale self-report questionnaire. In total, 192 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and grouped to formulate a weighted genetic-risk score (GRS).

Results: No significant associations between individual SNPs or GRSs and constipation or laxative use were observed. A GRS of 19 SNPs in CHRM2, CHRM3, HTR3C, HTR7, ABCB1, OPRM1, and TPH1 was associated with anticholinergic symptoms in a generalized linear univariate model, with body mass index, clozapine monotherapy, and GRS as explaining variables (permuted P = 0.014). Generalized linear univariate model analysis performed on the opiate-induced constipation-associated SNPs and a single CHRM3 SNP revealed an association between anticholinergic symptoms and a score of 8 SNPs (adjusted P = 0.038, permuted P = 0.002).

Conclusions: Two GRSs are able to predict the risk of anticholinergic symptoms in patients receiving clozapine and possibly an increased risk of gastrointestinal hypomotility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000000885DOI Listing
June 2018

BDNF and NRG1 polymorphisms and temperament in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-treated patients with major depression.

Acta Neuropsychiatr 2018 Jun 9;30(3):168-174. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

1Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences,University of Tampere,Tampere,Finland.

Objective: We investigated the separate effects of and possible interactions between the functional polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs11030101, BDNF rs61888800, and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) rs3924999 and NRG1 rs6994992 on change of temperament scores in a clinical sample of subjects with major depression (MDD), who received selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment for a period of 6 weeks.

Methods: The study population consisted of 98 Finnish individuals with MDD. They were assessed by the 107-item Temperament and Character Inventory temperament questionnaire (version IX) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). In general linear univariate models (GLM) for novelty seeking (NS) or reward dependence (RD) change age, gender, MADRS score change and BDNF and NRG1 genotypes were used as explaining explanatory variables.

Results: Mean comparisons between corresponding temperament dimensions and genotypes showed significant differences between NS change and BDNF rs61888800 T-carrying status (mean difference: GG 0.30, GT/TT 2.47, p=0.022, t-test) and between RD change and NRG1 rs3924999 A-carrying status (mean difference: GG 1.21, GA/AA -0.33, p=0.003). In GLM models for NS change the significant predictors comprised BDNF rs61888800 T-carrying status, age and MADRS score change (model 1), and additionally NRG1 rs6994992 T-carrying status (model 2). For RD change the predictors included NRG1 rs3924999 A-carrying status, age and MADRS score change (model 1) and additionally gender (model 2).

Conclusion: According to the current results both BDNF and NRG1 are associated with temperament traits during depression. These results warrant further studies regarding the impact of this association on depression recovery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/neu.2017.37DOI Listing
June 2018

Differentially expressed genes and canonical pathways in the ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm - The Tampere Vascular Study.

Sci Rep 2017 09 21;7(1):12127. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong inflammatory component. Surgery is often required to prevent aortic rupture and dissection. We performed gene expression analysis (Illumina HumanHT-12 version 3 Expression BeadChip) for 32 samples from ATAA (26 without/6 with dissection), and 28 left internal thoracic arteries (controls) collected in Tampere Vascular study. We compared expression profiles and conducted pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to reveal differences between ATAA and a healthy artery wall. Almost 5000 genes were differentially expressed in ATAA samples compared to controls. The most downregulated gene was homeobox (HOX) A5 (fold change, FC = -25.3) and upregulated cadherin-2 (FC = 12.6). Several other HOX genes were also found downregulated (FCs between -25.3 and -1.5, FDR < 0.05). 43, mostly inflammatory, canonical pathways in ATAA were found to be significantly (p < 0.05, FDR < 0.05) differentially expressed. The results remained essentially the same when the 6 dissected ATAA samples were excluded from the analysis. We show for the first time on genome level that ATAA is an inflammatory process, revealing a more detailed molecular pathway level pathogenesis. We propose HOX genes as potentially important players in maintaining aortic integrity, altered expression of which might be important in the pathobiology of ATAA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12421-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608723PMC
September 2017

Genetic loci associated with heart rate variability and their effects on cardiac disease risk.

Nat Commun 2017 06 14;8:15805. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

Reduced cardiac vagal control reflected in low heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with greater risks for cardiac morbidity and mortality. In two-stage meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for three HRV traits in up to 53,174 individuals of European ancestry, we detect 17 genome-wide significant SNPs in eight loci. HRV SNPs tag non-synonymous SNPs (in NDUFA11 and KIAA1755), expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) (influencing GNG11, RGS6 and NEO1), or are located in genes preferentially expressed in the sinoatrial node (GNG11, RGS6 and HCN4). Genetic risk scores account for 0.9 to 2.6% of the HRV variance. Significant genetic correlation is found for HRV with heart rate (-0.74
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5474732PMC
June 2017

Blood pathway analyses reveal differences between prediabetic subjects with or without dyslipidaemia. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2017 10 2;33(7). Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center - Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Prediabetes often occurs together with dyslipidaemia, which is paradoxically treated with statins predisposing to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined peripheral blood pathway profiles in prediabetic subjects with (PR ) and without dyslipidaemia (PR ) and compared these to nonprediabetic controls without dyslipidaemia (C ).

Methods: The participants were from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, including 1240 subjects aged 34 to 49 years. Genome-wide expression data of peripheral blood and gene set enrichment analysis were used to investigate the differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways between different subtypes of prediabetes.

Results: Pathways for cholesterol synthesis, interleukin-12-mediated signalling events, and downstream signalling in naïve CD8+ T-cells were upregulated in the PR group in comparison with controls (C ). The upregulation of these pathways was independent of waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, and insulin. Adjustment for CRP left the CD8+ T-cell signalling and interleukin-12-mediated signalling event pathway upregulated. The cholesterol synthesis pathway was also upregulated when all prediabetic subjects (PR and PR ) were compared with the nonprediabetic control group. No pathways were upregulated or downregulated when the PR group was compared with the C group. Five genes in the PR group and 1 in the PR group were significantly differentially expressed in comparison with the C group.

Conclusions: Blood cell gene expression profiles differ significantly between prediabetic subjects with and without dyslipidaemia. Whether this classification may be used in detection of prediabetic individuals at a high risk of cardiovascular complications remains to be examined.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.2914DOI Listing
October 2017
-->