Publications by authors named "Nina M Dadlez"

10 Publications

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Contributing Factors for Pediatric Ambulatory Diagnostic Process Errors: Project RedDE.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2020 May-Jun;5(3):e299. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital at Montefiore and The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y.

Background: Pediatric ambulatory diagnostic errors (DEs) occur frequently. We used root cause analyses (RCAs) to identify their failure points and contributing factors.

Methods: Thirty-one practices were enrolled in a national QI collaborative to reduce 3 DEs occurring at different stages of the diagnostic process: missed adolescent depression, missed elevated blood pressure (BP), and missed actionable laboratory values. Practices were encouraged to perform monthly "mini-RCAs" to identify failure points and prioritize interventions. Information related to process steps involved, specific contributing factors, and recommended interventions were reported monthly. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pareto charts.

Results: Twenty-eight (90%) practices submitted 184 mini-RCAs. The median number of mini-RCAs submitted was 6 (interquartile range, 2-9). For missed adolescent depression, the process step most commonly identified was the failure to screen (68%). For missed elevated BP, it was the failure to recognize (36%) and act on (28%) abnormal BP. For missed actionable laboratories, failure to notify families (23%) and document actions on (19%) abnormal results were the process steps most commonly identified. Top contributing factors to missed adolescent depression included patient volume (16%) and inadequate staffing (13%). Top contributing factors to missed elevated BP included patient volume (12%), clinic milieu (9%), and electronic health records (EHRs) (8%). Top contributing factors to missed actionable laboratories included written communication (13%), EHR (9%), and provider knowledge (8%). Recommended interventions were similar across errors.

Conclusions: EHR-based interventions, standardization of processes, and cross-training may help decrease DEs in the pediatric ambulatory setting. Mini-RCAs are useful tools to identify their contributing factors and interventions.
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May 2020

Cluster Randomized Trial Reducing Missed Elevated Blood Pressure in Pediatric Primary Care: Project RedDE.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2019 Sep-Oct;4(5):e187. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, S.C.

Recognition of childhood hypertension is essential, but pediatricians routinely fail to identify elevated blood pressure (BP). This study investigated if a quality improvement collaborative (QIC) reduces missed elevated BP in primary care.

Methods: During a cluster-randomized clinical trial, a national cohort worked sequentially to reduce each of three different errors, including missed elevated BP. While working on their first error during an 8-month action period, practices collected control data for a different error. Practices worked to reduce two additional errors in subsequent action periods but continued to provide sustain and maintainenance data on BP. QIC intervention included video learning sessions, transparent data, failures analysis, coaching, and tools to reduce errors. Mixed-effects logistic regression models compared the mean percentage of patients with an elevated BP with appropriate actions taken and documented.

Results: We randomized 43 practices and included 30 in the final analysis. Control and intervention phases included 1,728 and 1,834 patients with an elevated BP, respectively. Comparing control versus intervention phases, the mean percentage of patients who received appropriate actions increased from 58% to 74% [risk difference (RD) 16%; 95% CI;12%, 20%]. Practices continued to improve during the sustain phase as compared to the intervention phase (RD 5%; 95% CI; 2%, 9%) and did not worsen during the maintenance phase (RD 0.9%; 95% CI -5%, 7%).

Conclusions: Missed pediatric elevated BP can be sustainably reduced via a QIC intervention, demonstrating a possible model for other error reduction efforts.
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September 2019

Risk of Wrong-Patient Orders Among Multiple vs Singleton Births in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units of 2 Integrated Health Care Systems.

JAMA Pediatr 2019 Aug 26. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Multiple-birth infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have nearly identical patient identifiers and may be at greater risk of wrong-patient order errors compared with singleton-birth infants.

Objectives: To assess the risk of wrong-patient orders among multiple-birth infants and singletons receiving care in the NICU and to examine the proportion of wrong-patient orders between multiple-birth infants and siblings (intrafamilial errors) and between multiple-birth infants and nonsiblings (extrafamilial errors).

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 6 NICUs of 2 large, integrated health care systems in New York City that used distinct temporary names for newborns per the requirements of The Joint Commission. Data were collected from 4 NICUs at New York-Presbyterian Hospital from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015, and 2 NICUs at Montefiore Health System from July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2015. Data were analyzed from May 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017. All infants in the 6 NICUs for whom electronic orders were placed during the study periods were included.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Wrong-patient electronic orders were identified using the Wrong-Patient Retract-and-Reorder (RAR) Measure. This measure was used to detect RAR events, which are defined as 1 or more orders placed for a patient that are retracted (ie, canceled) by the same clinician within 10 minutes, then reordered by the same clinician for a different patient within the next 10 minutes.

Results: A total of 10 819 infants were included: 85.5% were singleton-birth infants and 14.5% were multiple-birth infants (male, 55.8%; female, 44.2%). The overall wrong-patient order rate was significantly higher among multiple-birth infants than among singleton-birth infants (66.0 vs 41.7 RAR events per 100 000 orders, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.39-2.20; P < .001). The rate of extrafamilial RAR events among multiple-birth infants (36.1 per 100 000 orders) was similar to that of singleton-birth infants (41.7 per 100 000 orders). The excess risk among multiple-birth infants (29.9 per 100 000 orders) appears to be owing to intrafamilial RAR events. The risk increased as the number of siblings receiving care in the NICU increased; a wrong-patient order error occurred in 1 in 7 sets of twin births and in 1 in 3 sets of higher-order multiple births.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study suggests that multiple-birth status in the NICU is associated with significantly increased risk of wrong-patient orders compared with singleton-birth status. This excess risk appears to be owing to misidentification between siblings. These results suggest that a distinct naming convention as required by The Joint Commission may provide insufficient protection against identification errors among multiple-birth infants. Strategies to reduce this risk include using given names at birth, changing from temporary to given names when available, and encouraging parents to select names for multiple births before they are born when acceptable to families.
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August 2019

Alternative approach to pediatric cardiac quality assessment for low-volume centers.

Congenit Heart Dis 2019 Jul 10;14(4):665-670. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Department of Pediatrics, The Floating Hospital for Children, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: In pediatric cardiac care, many centers participate in multiple, national, domain-specific registries, as a major component of their quality assessment and improvement efforts. Small cardiac programs, whose clinical activities and scale may not be well-suited to this approach, need alternative methods to assess and track quality.

Methods: We conceived of and piloted a rapid-approach cardiac quality assessment, intended to encompass multiple aspects of the service line, in a low-volume program. The assessment incorporated previously identified measures, drawn from multiple sources, and ultimately relied on retrospective chart review.

Results: A collaborative, multidisciplinary team formed and came to consensus on quality metrics pertaining to 3 chosen areas of clinical activity in the program. Despite the use of multiple different data sources and the need for manual chart review in data collection, a rich assessment of these program components was completed for presentation in 6 weeks.

Conclusions: While small programs may not participate in the spectrum of cardiac care registries available, these same centers can benefit from them by adapting some of their validated metrics for use in internal, self-maintained quality reports. Our pilot of this alternative approach revealed opportunities for improved quality assessment practices; the product can serve as a baseline for future prospective assessment and reporting, as well as longitudinal internal benchmarking.
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July 2019

Safety of High-Flow Nasal Cannula Outside the ICU for Previously Healthy Children With Bronchiolitis.

Respir Care 2019 Nov 26;64(11):1410-1415. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, New York.

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), a form of noninvasive respiratory support, is effective for the treatment of respiratory distress in ICUs. Although HFNC has been used outside of the ICU, there is little research that examines its safety in this less-monitored setting.

Methods: Children ≤ 24 months old admitted with bronchiolitis to a pediatric floor at a tertiary care center from April 1 2013, to March 31 2015, were identified by using standard diagnostic codes. Exclusion criteria were concomitant pneumonia or complex comorbidities. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted. Outcomes included transfer to the ICU, higher levels of respiratory support, intubation, pneumothorax, or aspiration events.

Results: Eighty children admitted with bronchiolitis who were treated with HFNC while on the pediatric floor were examined. The median age was 4.6 months, 45% were girls, and the majority were either Hispanic (41%) or black (36%). Flow ranged from 3 to 10 L/min. Thirty-three subjects (41% of the sample) required subsequent transfer to the ICU. No children were intubated or developed a pneumothorax. Eighty-three percent were fed while on HFNC. No children had an aspiration event.

Conclusions: HFNC may be a safe modality of respiratory support outside of the ICU for children ages ≤ 24 months with bronchiolitis and without comorbidities up to a maximum flow of 10 L/min. There were no adverse events among the subjects who were fed while on HFNC.
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November 2019

Understanding Parental Preferences for Participants in Medical Decision-making for Their Hospitalized Children.

Hosp Pediatr 2018 04 7;8(4):200-206. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York.

Objectives: Family-centered care promotes parental engagement in medical decision-making for hospitalized children. Little is understood about parental preferences and factors influencing the desire to involve extended family in decision-making. We explored parent and family member interest in participation in medical decision-making.

Methods: Parents of hospitalized children ≤7 years old admitted to the inpatient service were interviewed regarding preferences for self-, other parent, and extended family involvement in decision-making. Scores were calculated for each potential participant on a scale of 1 to 5 (5 indicating that parents strongly agreed with participation). Associations of decision-making preferences with parental age, education, language, and health; the involvement of a child with chronic illness; and the level of clinical acuity were assessed with χ tests, Wilcoxon rank tests, and the Spearman correlation.

Results: There were 116 participants. Parents' median level of interest in participation in decision-making was as follows: self (4.3; interquartile range [IQR]: 4-4.6); other parent (3.6; IQR: 2.7-4), and family (2.0; IQR: 1.7-2.7). Parents with better physical health ( < .001) and those in a relationship with the other parent ( < .001) were more likely to desire involvement of the other parent in medical decision-making. This was also true for those who faced higher acuity scenarios. Parents <35 years old ( < .01) and those who were interviewed in Spanish ( = .03) were more likely to desire participation of extended family members.

Conclusions: Parents of hospitalized children want to participate in medical decision-making. Desire for the involvement of other family members is complex; therefore, discussions regarding parental preferences are necessary.
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April 2018

Risk Factors for Respiratory Decompensation Among Healthy Infants With Bronchiolitis.

Hosp Pediatr 2017 09;7(9):530-535

Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Medicine and

Background: Although most children with bronchiolitis only require supportive care, some decompensate and require ventilatory support. We examined predictors of respiratory decompensation among hospitalized children to identify which patients may benefit from expectant monitoring.

Methods: We examined children ≤24 months old with bronchiolitis admitted to the general infant and toddler floor. Children with pneumonia or comorbidities were excluded. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted from a clinical database and medical records. Respiratory decompensation was defined as the need for initiating high-flow nasal cannula oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure, nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation, bilevel positive airway pressure, or intubation. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to identify independent predictors of respiratory decompensation.

Results: A total of 1217 children were included. The median age was 6.9 months, 41% were girls, 49% were Hispanic, 21% were black, and 18% were premature. Significant independent predictors of respiratory decompensation were age ≤3 months (odds ratio [OR]: 3.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.09-5.07), age 3 to 6 months (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.04-3.0), black race (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.27-2.95), emergency department hypoxemia (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.30-4.21), and retractions or accessory muscle use (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.48-3.46). Children with 0 of 4 predictors were found to have a low risk of decompensation (3%).

Conclusions: Young age, black race, emergency department hypoxemia, and retractions or accessory muscle use were associated with respiratory decompensation in children with bronchiolitis. These factors should be considered at presentation, as they identify children who require a higher level of respiratory monitoring and support and others who may not benefit.
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September 2017

Evaluating Serial Strategies for Preventing Wrong-Patient Orders in the NICU.

Pediatrics 2017 May;139(5)

Division of Hospital Medicine.

Background: NICU patients have characteristics believed to increase their risk for wrong-patient errors; however, little is known about the frequency of wrong-patient errors in the NICU or about effective interventions for preventing these errors. We conducted a quality improvement study to evaluate the frequency of wrong-patient orders in the NICU and to assess the effectiveness of an ID reentry intervention and a distinct naming convention (eg, "Wendysgirl") for reducing these errors, using non-NICU pediatric units as a comparator.

Methods: Using a validated measure, we examined the rate of wrong-patient orders in NICU and non-NICU pediatric units during 3 periods: baseline (before implementing interventions), ID reentry intervention (reentry of patient identifiers before placing orders), and combined intervention (addition of a distinct naming convention for newborns).

Results: We reviewed >850 000 NICU orders and >3.5 million non-NICU pediatric orders during the 7-year study period. At baseline, wrong-patient orders were more frequent in NICU than in non-NICU pediatric units (117.2 vs 74.9 per 100 000 orders, respectively; odds ratio 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.82). The ID reentry intervention reduced the frequency of errors in the NICU to 60.2 per 100 000 (48.7% reduction; < .001). The combined ID reentry and distinct naming interventions yielded an additional decrease to 45.6 per 100 000 (61.1% reduction from baseline; < .001).

Conclusions: The risk of wrong-patient orders in the NICU was significantly higher than in non-NICU pediatric units. Implementation of a combined ID reentry intervention and distinct naming convention greatly reduced this risk.
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May 2017

Ordering Interruptions in a Tertiary Care Center: A Prospective Observational Study.

Hosp Pediatr 2017 03 1;7(3):134-139. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

The Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York.

Objectives: By self-report, interruptions may contribute to up to 80% of ordering errors. A greater understanding of the frequency and context of interruptions during ordering is needed to identify targets for intervention. We sought to characterize the epidemiology of interruptions during order placement in the pediatric inpatient setting.

Methods: This prospective observational study conducted 1-hour-long structured observations on morning rounds and afternoons and evenings in the resident workroom. The primary outcome was the number of interruptions per 100 orders placed by residents and physician assistants. We assessed the role of ordering provider, number, type and urgency of interruptions and person initiating interruption. Descriptive statistics, χ, and run charts were used.

Results: Sixty-nine structured observations were conducted with a total of 414 orders included. The interruption rate was 65 interruptions per 100 orders during rounds, 55 per 100 orders in the afternoons and 56 per 100 orders in the evenings. The majority of interruptions were in-person ( = 144, 61%). Interruptions from overhead announcements occurred most often in the mornings, and phone interruptions occurred most often in the evenings ( = .002). Nurses initiated interruptions most frequently. Attending physicians and fellows were more likely to interrupt during rounds, and coresidents were more likely to interrupt in the evenings ( = .002).

Conclusions: Residents and physician assistants are interrupted at a rate of 57 interruptions per 100 orders placed. This may contribute to ordering errors and worsen patient safety. Efforts should be made to decrease interruptions during the ordering process and track their effects on medication errors.
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March 2017

Impact of change in delivery practice on neonatal and maternal outcomes in cases of significant congenital heart disease.

Congenit Heart Dis 2014 Sep-Oct;9(5):368-72

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, Columbia University Medical Center.

Objective: Because of data published in 2009 demonstrating improved outcomes among early- vs. late-term infants,practice shifted toward delivering infants at later gestational ages. We examined the effects of this change on neonates with congenital heart disease.

Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Neonates with congenital heart disease born between 2004 and 2008 were compared with those born in 2010. Patients born in 2009, considered to be a transitional year, were excluded.

Setting: Our study was conducted at a tertiary care level 4 neonatal intensive care unit with comprehensive cardiac service.

Patients: Study subjects consisted of neonates with significant congenital heart disease admitted between 2004 and 2010.

Outcome Measures: Outcomes measures consisted of mode of delivery, length of stay, neonatal morbidity, and mortality.

Results: There were 878 infants with congenital heart disease born in 2004-2008 and 124 in 2010. The mean gestational age was higher in 2010 than in 2004-2008 (38.4 ± 1.9 vs. 37.8 ± 2.3 weeks, P = .001), and there were fewer preterm births in 2010 compared with 2004-2008 (P = .003, odds ratio [OR] = 0.4). Mean birth weight was also higher in 2010 (3134 ± 675 vs. 2975 ± 599 g, P = .008). In 2010, less than half as many infants were born via scheduled induction (P < .001, OR = 0.2) or scheduled cesarean delivery (P = .002, OR = 0.4) as in 2004-2008. However, in 2010, there were more urgent inductions (P = .002, OR = 3.1), cesarean deliveries after labor (P = .01, OR = 2.2),and unplanned cesarean deliveries in general (P = .02, OR = 1.7) compared with 2004-2008. In 2010, neonates were less likely to require preoperative vasopressors (P = .002), but there were no differences in 5 minutes APGAR,antibiotic administration, preoperative intubation, median length of stay, or mortality compared with 2004-2008.Conclusions. Despite increased gestational age and birth weight following the shift in delivery practice, there was no difference in length of stay, neonatal morbidity, or mortality in infants with congenital heart disease. The resultant increase in urgent cesarean delivery and urgent inductions may confer additional maternal morbidity.
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June 2015