Publications by authors named "Nimrod Snir"

45 Publications

Addressing posterior tilt displacement during surgery to lower failure risk of sub-capital Garden types 1 and 2 femoral fractures.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Orthopedic Division, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weitzman St., 6423906, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Introduction: Sub-capital femoral fractures (SCFF) are impacted or non-displaced in Garden types 1 and 2, respectively. Non-surgical treatment is protected weight-bearing combined with physiotherapy and radiographic follow-up in selected patients. Traditionally, in situ pinning is the surgical treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to estimate whether the valgus deformity in Garden types 1 and 2 (AO classification 31B1.1 and 31B1.2) SCFF is a virtual perception of a posterior tilt deformity and if addressing this deformity improves patients' outcomes.

Materials And Methods: The records of 96 patients with Garden Types 1 and 2 SCFF treated in tertiary medical center between 1/2014 and 9/2017 were retrospectively reviewed. They all had preoperative hip joint anteroposterior and lateral radiographic views. 75 patients had additional computed tomography (CT) scans. Femoral head displacement was measured on an anteroposterior and axial radiograph projections and were performed before and after surgery. Preoperative 3D reconstructions were performed for a better fracture characterization, and assessment of the imaging was performed by the first author.

Results: The average age of the study cohort was 73 years (range 28-96, 68% females). There were 58 right-sided and 38 left-sided fractures. Ninety patients had Type 1 and six patients had Type 2 fractures. The average preoperative posterior tilt was 15 degrees and the average valgus displacement was 10 degrees on plain radiographs compared to 28 degrees and 11 degrees, respectively, on CT scans. Posterior tilt was found with a virtual perception as valgus-impacted fractures. The postoperative posterior tilt was corrected to an average of 3 degrees and the valgus displacement to 5 degrees.

Conclusion: CT provides an accurate modality for measuring femoral head displacement and fracture extent. The posterior tilt displacement should be addressed during surgery to lower failure risk and the need for additional procedures.

Irb Approval: TLV-0292-15.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-021-03900-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Mid-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of porous-coated metaphyseal sleeves used in revision total knee arthroplasty.

Knee Surg Relat Res 2021 May 4;33(1):16. Epub 2021 May 4.

Orthopedic Department, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Ichilov Hospital, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizman St, 6423906, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: The management of bone defects remains one of the major challenges surgeons are faced with in revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA). Large and uncontained bone defects are traditionally managed with metaphyseal sleeves that facilitate osseointegration and have reported construct stability. While many studies have presented excellent short-term outcomes using metaphyseal sleeves, less is known on their performance in the longer term. The purpose of this study was to present our mid-term results of the metaphyseal sleeves used in patients undergoing RTKA.

Materials And Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2015, 30 patients underwent RTKA with the use of a CCKMB prosthesis combined with an osteointegrative sleeve. The main indications for RTKA were instability in 40% of the cases (n = 12), aseptic loosening in 30% (n = 9), infection in 26.7% (n = 8), and "other" in 3.3% (n = 1). The minimal follow-up time was 5 years and the mean follow-up time was 82.4 months (SD = 22.6). Clinical outcomes were assessed by Knee Society scores (KSS), range of motion and rate of re-operation.

Results: The mean Knee Society score increased significantly from 72.1 preoperatively to 90.0 postoperatively (p < 0.001). The cumulative incidence of re-operation in our study was 13.3% (n = 4). Our study reported no cases of aseptic loosening or mobile-bearing spin-out. Knee flexion to 90° and more was impossible in seven cases (23.3%) preoperatively and in one case (3.3%) postoperatively.

Conclusion: Porous-coated metaphyseal sleeves demonstrated excellent rates of survivorship and radiographic ingrowth in the mid-term setting. However, further studies are required to assess their outcomes in the long-term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43019-021-00103-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097806PMC
May 2021

Good clinical and radiological outcomes of the varus-valgus constrained mobile-bearing implant in revision total knee arthroplasty.

Int Orthop 2021 05 17;45(5):1199-1204. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Orthopedic Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Ichilov Hospital, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizman St., 6423906, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Purpose: Knee instability is one of the most common indications for having to undergo revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) and can be prevented with adequate implant selection and good surgical technique. Varus-valgus constrained implants (VVC) are indicated for cases of RTKA with absent ligament function in order to provide the necessary stability. While mobile-bearing articulations are thought to decrease the risk of aseptic loosening in comparison to their fixed-bearing counterparts, there is limited data on their outcomes. The purpose of our study is to present the clinical and radiological outcomes for patients undergoing an RTKA procedure with the mobile-bearing VVC implant.

Methods: Between January 2008 to January 2018, 93 patients underwent RTKA with the use of varus-valgus mobile-bearing (VVCMB) prosthesis. The main indications for RTKA were instability 38.7% (n = 36), aseptic loosening 31.2% (n = 29), infection in 26.9% (n = 25), and other 3.3%. The mean follow-up time was 56 months. Clinical outcomes were assessed by knee society scores, range of motion, and rate of re-operation.

Results: The mean knee society score increased significantly from 65.52 pre-operatively to 89.65 post-operatively (p < 0.001). The five year cumulative incidence of re-operation in our study was 7.53% (n = 7). Our study reported no cases of aseptic loosening or mobile-bearing spin-out. The number of flexion contractures decreased from n = 23 (24.7%) pre-operatively to n = 11 (11.8%) post-operatively (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The VVC mobile-bearing prosthesis demonstrated good clinical outcomes and mid-term survivorship in patients undergoing RTKA. Additional follow-up is required in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-021-05003-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Dynamic locking plate vs. cannulated cancellous screw for displaced intracapsular hip fracture: A comparative study.

J Orthop 2021 Mar-Apr;24:15-18. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Orthopedic Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Ichilov Hospital, Affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Introduction: There is no consensus regarding the optimal device for displaced intracapsular hip fractures. This retrospective study compared two techniques (1) cannulated cancellous screw (CCS), and (2) Targon Femoral Neck (TFN) plate.

Materials And Methods: Data regarding gender, operational data, complications, pain, Quality of life and function scores were retrieved.

Results: 103 patients were included, 42 were treated using CCS, compared to 61 treated using TFN. Operative time shorter for CCS (p = 0.019). Complication rates were not different (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: As CCS method take shorter operating time and reduced costs, CCS should be used for the treatment of displaced ICHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jor.2021.02.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902286PMC
February 2021

Tranexamic acid in non-elective primary total hip arthroplasty.

Injury 2021 Jun 14;52(6):1544-1548. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Division of Orthopedics, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizman Street, Tel-Aviv, 6423906 Israel.

Purpose: Blood loss during and following elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be substantial and may require allogeneic blood transfusions which carries significant risks and morbidity for patients. Intraoperative use of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been proven to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in elective THA patients. Data regarding TXA efficacy in reducing blood loss in trauma patients undergoing non-elective primary THA is sparse, and its routine use is not well established.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a consecutive cohort of patients who underwent non-elective primary THA in a tertiary medical center between January 1st 2011- December 31st 2019. The cohort was divided into two groups; one received perioperative TXA treatment while the other did not. Blood loss, blood product administration, peri and postoperative complications, readmissions and 1-year mortality were compared between groups.

Results: A total of 419 patients (146 males, 273 females) who underwent THA were included in this study. The "TXA" group consisted 315 patients compared to 104 patients in the "no TXA" group. TXA use reduced postoperative bleeding, as indicated by changes in hemoglobin levels before and after surgery (ΔHb= -2.75 gr/dL vs. ΔHb= -3.34 gr/dL, p<0.001) and by administration of allogeneic blood transfusions (7.0% vs. 16.3%, p = 0.004).

Conclusion: Similar to the known effect of TXA in elective THA patients, the use of TXA treatment in patients undergoing non-elective THA led to a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss and in the proportion of patients requiring allogeneic blood transfusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.10.056DOI Listing
June 2021

Is continuation of anti-platelet treatment safe for elective total hip arthroplasty patients?

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2020 Dec 11;140(12):2101-2107. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Adult Reconstruction Unit, Division of Orthopedics, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Introduction: Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is a commonly prescribed medication, especially in the age group of individuals who undergo elective total hip arthroplasty (THA). Preoperative discontinuation of aspirin is believed to reduce intraoperative bleeding and other complications, but it may increase the risk of perioperative cardiovascular events. In this study we have sought to evaluate the safety of continuous aspirin treatment in patients undergoing elective THA.

Materials And Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a consecutive cohort who underwent elective THA in a tertiary medical center between 2011 and 2018. The cohort was divided into two groups-one that received continuous preoperative aspirin treatment and one that did not. Blood loss, peri- and postoperative complications, readmissions, and short- and long-term mortality were compared between groups.

Results: Out of 757 consecutive patients (293 males, 464 females) who underwent elective primary THA, 552 were in the "non-aspirin" group and 205 were in the "aspirin" group and were not treated preoperative with other medication affecting hemostasis. Perioperative continuation of aspirin treatment did not significantly increase perioperative bleeding, as indicated by changes in hemoglobin levels (P = 0.72). There were no significant differences in short- and long-term mortality (P = 0.47 and P = 0.4, respectively) or other perioperative complications, such as readmission (P = 0.78), deep or superficial infection (P = 1 and P = 0.47, respectively), and cardiovascular events (none in both groups).

Conclusion: Peri-operative continuation of aspirin treatment in patients undergoing elective primary THA did not increase perioperative complications or mortality compared to the non-aspirin-treated patients. The protective effects of aspirin from postoperative thrombotic and cardiovascular events are well documented. The current findings dispute the need to preoperatively withhold aspirin treatment in patients undergoing elective primary THA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-020-03629-7DOI Listing
December 2020

The Effect of Obesity on Fluoroscopy-Assisted Direct Anterior Approach Total Hip Arthroplasty.

Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013) 2020 Sep;78(3):187-194

Background: Obesity has been considered a relative contraindication to performing a direct anterior approach total hip arthroplasty (DAA-THA) since it is hypothesized to lead to component malpositioning and poor outcomes. Fluoroscopy-assisted DAA-THA has been reported to diminish variability in acetabular component positioning. However, fluoroscopy-assisted DAA-THA in the obese patients has not been well described. We report on a single surgeon consecutive series of fluoroscopy-assisted primary DAA-THA's examining the radiographic and perioperative outcomes in obese patients.

Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of 509 consecutive unilateral fluoroscopy-assisted DAA-THAs on a specialized orthopaedic table performed by a single surgeon. All patients were divided into three cohorts according to their body mass index (BMI): Group I (< 30 kg/ m2 ), Group II (≥ 30 to < 35 kg/m2 ), and Group III (≥ 35 kg/ m2 ). Perioperative parameters, outcome scores (EuroQol 5 Dimension and hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome scores), and radiographs were comparatively assessed. Cup position was determined using Widmer's method.

Results: A total of 492 DAA-THAs (minimum follow-up: 2.1 years) with appropriate radiographs were analyzed. Of which 356 (72.2%) were in Group I (average: 25.1 kg/m2 ), 105 (21.3%) in Group II (average: 32 kg/m2 ), and 31 (6.5%) in Group III (average: 38.6 kg/m2 ). There were no differences in any parameters between Group II and III. Group I differed in average age and included more female patients than Groups II and III. There was a statistically significant difference in cup anteversion between all groups with average measurements of 20.8°, 19.5°, and 17.6°, respectively. No other differences were identified in radiographic parameters or postoperative outcomes.

Conclusions: There were no clinically relevant differences in component positioning or perioperative parameters between obese and non-obese patients. We do not consider a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 to be a contraindication for fluoroscopyassisted DAA-THA when performed by a surgeon experienced in the technique.
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September 2020

Tranexamic acid in hip hemiarthroplasty.

Injury 2020 Nov 1;51(11):2658-2662. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Division of Orthopedics, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Background: Intraoperative use of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been proven to reduce the administration of allogenic blood transfusion in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients. Data on TXA efficacy in reducing blood loss in trauma patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty are sparse, and its use is not yet well-established. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of intraoperative TXA use in patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty as treatment for intracapsular femoral neck fracture.

Methods: This is a historical cohort of patients who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty in a tertiary medical center between 2011 and 2019, with minimum follow-up of one year. The cohort was divided into one group of patients who received intraoperative TXA treatment and another group that did not. Blood loss, peri‑ and postoperative complications, readmissions, and short- and long-term mortality were compared between groups.

Results: Of the 1722 consecutive patients (601 males and 1121 females) who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty who were included in this study, 504 were in the "TXA" group and 1218 were in the "non-TXA" group. TXA use significantly reduced 30-day mortality (4.6% vs 7.3%, respectively, p < 0.046) and perioperative blood loss, as indicated by changes in hemoglobin levels before and after surgery (Δ-1.38 gr/dL vs Δ-1.76 gr/dL, p < 0.001), and by administration of allogenic blood transfusions (17.5% vs 44.4%, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Similar to the known effect of TXA in TJA patients, the use of TXA treatment in patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty led to a significant reduction in 30-day mortality, in postoperative blood loss and in the proportion of patients requiring allogenic blood transfusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.07.061DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of surgeon experience and patient characteristics on accuracy of digital pre-operative planning in total hip arthroplasty.

Int Orthop 2020 10 22;44(10):1951-1956. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Adult Reconstruction Unit, Division of Orthopedics, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center,, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizman Street, 6423906, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: The effect of surgeon experience on accuracy of digital pre-operative planning for total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains unclear. The aims of our study were to compare pre-operative planning accuracy between fellow-trained orthopaedic surgeons and residents and to explore whether surgery indication effects the prediction accuracy.

Methods: We prospectively reviewed 101 patients who underwent pre-operative digital templating for THA in our center from January 2019 to January 2020 with King Mark device. Extracted data included baseline characteristics and indication for primary arthroplasty. Pre-operative digital templating was performed separately by both a fellow-trained surgeon and a resident. Accuracy of each group was compared with the implanted components.

Results: The overall adequate pre-operative planning of the acetabular cup (exact or +/-1 size match) by the fellow-trained group was higher compared with the resident's group (77.2 and 64.3% respectively, p = 0.037), whereas the overall adequate pre-operative planning of the femoral stem (exact or +/-1 size match) was higher in the resident's group compared with the fellow-trained group (83.2 and 61.4% respectively, p < =0.001). The fellow-trained group showed better pre-operative planning of complex cases (developmental dysplasia of the hip and avascular necrosis of femoral head) than the resident's group.

Conclusions: The experience of the planner does not significantly affect the accuracy of correctly predicting component sizes. However, in complex cases, fellow-trained surgeons should assist residents in digital pre-operative templating for THA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-020-04733-4DOI Listing
October 2020

Strain shielding for cemented hip implants.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2020 07 15;77:105027. Epub 2020 May 15.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Long-term survival of hip implants is of increasing relevance due to the rising life expectancy. The biomechanical effect of strain shielding as a result of implant insertion may lead to bone resorption, thus increasing risk for implant loosening and periprosthetic fractures. Patient-specific quantification of strain shielding could assist orthopedic surgeons in choosing the biomechanically most appropriate prosthesis.

Methods: Validated quantitative CT-based finite element models of five femurs in intact and implanted states were considered to propose a systematic algorithm for strain shielding quantification. Three different strain measures were investigated and the most appropriate measure for strain shielding quantification is recommended. It is used to demonstrate a practical femur-specific implant selection among three common designs.

Findings: Strain shielding measures demonstrated similar trends in all Gruen zones except zone 1, where the volumetric strain measure differed from von-Mises and maximum principal strains. The volumetric strain measure is in better agreement with clinical bone resorption records. It is also consistent with the biological mechanism of bone remodeling so it is recommended for strain shielding quantification. Applying the strain shielding algorithm on three different implants for a specific femur suggests that the collared design is preferable. Such quantitative biomechanical input is valuable for practical patient specific implant selection.

Interpretation: Volumetric strain should be considered for strain shielding examination. The presented methodology may potentially enable patient-specific pre-operative strain shielding evaluation so to minimize strain shielding. It should be further used in a longitudinal study so to correlate between strain shielding predictions and clinical bone resorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2020.105027DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical Outcomes after Mini-Open Excision of Popliteal Cysts.

Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013) 2019 Sep;77(3):159-163

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate clinical outcomes following a mini-open posterior technique.

Methods: Patients who received mini-open popliteal cyst excisions between April 1999 and April 2010 were identified. Charts were retrospectively reviewed for postoperative complications, cyst recurrence, previous aspiration, re-operation, intraoperative findings, cyst size, comorbidities, and co-surgeries. Visual Analogue Pain Scale and Rauschning's symptomatic knee criteria were collected prospectively to assess functional outcomes.

Results: Twenty-two legs in 21 patients were included in the study [males: 12 (57%); females: 9 (43%); age: 48.23 ± 11.74 years; BMI: 26.7 ± 4.54 kg/m2; follow-up: 4.55 ± 3.01 years]. Average cyst size was 4.16 ± 1.64 cm and were all located in the posteromedial aspect of the leg. All 22 cases had associated intra-articular pathology based on MRI, physical examination, and arthroscopy. Complications after cyst excision included: paresthesia in the distribution of the saphenous nerve (3/22, 14%), keloid formation (1/22, 4%), joint effusion requiring aspiration (1/22, 4%), and one recurrence requiring cystectomy 10 years later (4%). All incidences of paresthesia resolved. Mean visual analog pain score decreased by 6 points (p < 0.001) and Rauschning and Lindgren score decreased by two categories, from a 2.6 (category 2-3) preoperatively to 0.6 (category 0-1) postoperatively (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Mini-open popliteal cyst excision is a safe and effective technique for refractory popliteal cysts in patients who desire a decrease in pain, an increase range of motion, and improved function in knee flexion and extension. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients over a longer duration as our one patient with a 10-year follow-up required a repeat procedure.
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September 2019

Single cell dissection of plasma cell heterogeneity in symptomatic and asymptomatic myeloma.

Nat Med 2018 12 6;24(12):1867-1876. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Hematology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Multiple myeloma, a plasma cell malignancy, is the second most common blood cancer. Despite extensive research, disease heterogeneity is poorly characterized, hampering efforts for early diagnosis and improved treatments. Here, we apply single cell RNA sequencing to study the heterogeneity of 40 individuals along the multiple myeloma progression spectrum, including 11 healthy controls, demonstrating high interindividual variability that can be explained by expression of known multiple myeloma drivers and additional putative factors. We identify extensive subclonal structures for 10 of 29 individuals with multiple myeloma. In asymptomatic individuals with early disease and in those with minimal residual disease post-treatment, we detect rare tumor plasma cells with molecular characteristics similar to those of active myeloma, with possible implications for personalized therapies. Single cell analysis of rare circulating tumor cells allows for accurate liquid biopsy and detection of malignant plasma cells, which reflect bone marrow disease. Our work establishes single cell RNA sequencing for dissecting blood malignancies and devising detailed molecular characterization of tumor cells in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0269-2DOI Listing
December 2018

Total Hip Arthroplasty in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients: A Concise Follow-Up at 10 to 14 Years.

J Arthroplasty 2019 03 8;34(3):522-526. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Division of Adult Reconstructive Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedics, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background: Advancements in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) now permit HIV-positive patients to have longer life spans, increasing their cumulative risk of developing an advanced degenerative joint disease, necessitating total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this study was to provide an extended follow-up on a previously published study on a cohort of HIV-positive THA recipients in an effort to confirm the safety and longevity of THA in this population.

Methods: This study is a follow-up on a previous study comprised of 41 hips in 31 HIV-positive THA recipients. At this follow-up, 5 patients from the original cohort required contralateral THA. Postoperative complications were recorded up to the patient's last follow-up date. A survivorship analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with revision THA as the end point.

Results: Since the last report, 2 additional hips were revised (one for aseptic loosening and one for a periprosthetic fracture), and 5 patients underwent contralateral THA. This resulted in a total of 5 (13.8%) hips requiring revision THA at the latest follow-up. The mean follow-up interval for the original cohort and for the contralateral 5 hips was 78.9 ± 50.2 months and 54.6 ± 45.3 months, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis with revision THA for any reason as the end point demonstrated survivorship of 93% (2 years), 90% (5 years), and 81% (10 and 14 years) after primary THA, respectively.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that it is possible to achieve a low incidence of postoperative infection in HIV-positive THA recipients. In addition, our study demonstrates that non-hemophiliac HIV-positive patients have comparable revision rates to previously published reports on HIV-negative patients of similar age, underscoring the clinical efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.11.001DOI Listing
March 2019

Surgical approach for open reduction and internal fixation of clavicle fractures: a comparison of vertical and horizontal incisions.

Int Orthop 2019 08 5;43(8):1977-1982. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Shoulder Unit, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Purpose: This study was designed to compare the results of clavicle fracture open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) with standard horizontal incision versus vertical incision.

Methods: ORIF surgery performed between October 2012 and August 2016 was included. The surgical approach was chosen according to surgeon preference as vertical or horizontal. Functional outcomes, fracture union, complications, scar appearance, skin irritation, and denervation around the scar were assessed at a minimum follow-up of three months.

Results: Thirty-eight patients, age 39 ± 12 years, were operated upon, 22 through vertical incisions and 16 through horizontal incisions. There were no significant group differences in functional scores, fracture union, or complications. Two patients in the vertical incision group had a post-operative haematoma. The scar length was significantly shorter when a vertical incision was used (6.75 ± 1.25 cm vs 8.9 ± 2.3 cm, P = 0.001). The typical distribution of hypoesthetic skin area distal and lateral to the scar represented iatrogenic damage to the supraclavicular nerves and was found in 66% of patients. The mean hypoesthetic surface area was smaller in the vertical incision group (38 ± 29 cm vs 48 ± 28 cm, P = non-significant).

Conclusion: Vertical incision results in shorter scars but may be associated with increased incidence of haematomas. Meticulous closure of the subcutaneous tissue is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-018-4139-9DOI Listing
August 2019

Lower risk of fractures under methylphenidate treatment for ADHD: A dose-response effect.

J Orthop Res 2018 12 7;36(12):3328-3333. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Environmental Epidemiology Department, Public Health Services, Ministry of Health, Israel.

Methylphenidate (MP), a widely used and abused stimulant medication for ADHD, negatively affects bone mass. However, previous epidemiological studies demonstrated that MP is not associated with increased incidence of fractures in children, and may even have a protective effect due to behavior modification. This study aimed to investigate the association between MP and fracture risk in a retrospective cohort of healthy military recruits, aged 18-25, with at least 1 year of service between 2008 and 2017. Subjects were divided into five groups: subjects without ADHD; untreated subjects with ADHD; and subjects with ADHD and prescriptions of 1-90, 91-180, or 181+ tablets during the study period. The primary outcome was at least one fracture diagnosis during the study. Among 682,110 subjects (409,175 men [60%]), 50,999 (7.5%) had fractures. MP was used by 1,681 (0.4%) men and 2.828 (1%) women. The fracture rates in the no ADHD, untreated ADHD, ADHD 0-90, ADHD 91-180, and ADHD 181+ groups were 10.4%, 16.4%, 8.7%, 4.8% and 5.8% in men, and 3.6%, 7.1%, 4.6%, 4.4% and 3% in women, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis confirmed an inverse dose-response association between MP and fractures in men (p < 0.001). In women, untreated ADHD was associated with a significantly higher fracture risk, compared to healthy controls (OR = 1.82, p < 0.001). The study confirms previous literature and demonstrates an inverse dose-response association between MP and fracture risk in men. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:3328-3333, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24129DOI Listing
December 2018

Up to 18-Year Follow-Up Wear Analysis of a First-Generation Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2018 10 18;33(10):3325-3328. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Division of Adult Reconstructive Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedics, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background: The advent of highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) has significantly improved total hip arthroplasty survivorship. HCLPE has been shown to improve wear properties in midterm outcomes when compared to traditional polyethylene liners; however, there is a paucity of studies evaluating long-term outcomes. In addition, there is concern that wear rates may accelerate as the implant ages. Thus, the aims of this study are to report on the longest-to-date follow-up of a specific first-generation HCLPE liner and to determine whether there is a change in the annual wear rate over time.

Methods: Forty hips in 38 patients which were previously reported on in a midterm study were included in this long-term follow-up study. Patients in this cohort all received total hip arthroplasty between March 1999 and August 2004 using the Crossfire HCLPE liner. Annual wear rates (mm/y) were calculated for this cohort. Patients were contacted and asked about complications or revision procedures they may have had since the index procedure.

Results: Clinical follow-up averaged 12.9 years with a range of 7-18 years. The average follow-up duration was 12.5 years with a range of 10-17 years. Linear wear was found to be 0.056 ± 0.036 mm/y. Osteolysis was not observed in any of the patients with greater than 10-year radiographic follow-up. Furthermore, only 1 patient required revision surgery following a mechanical fall.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the long-term wear rates associated with HCLPE liners continue to match rates published in midterm studies. Previously, we have reported that this cohort had an average annual wear rate of 0.05 mm/y over 10 years. This most recent report demonstrates a similar wear rate with up to 18-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.06.013DOI Listing
October 2018

The Effect of Previous Methylphenidate Use on Incidence of Stress Fractures in Military Recruits: A Retrospective Cohort.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2018 Jun;100(11):930-935

Orthopaedic Surgery Division, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Affiliated with Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Background: Previous research has detected an increased risk of stress fractures among subjects who reported previous use of methylphenidate. Conversely, stimulant medication use has been associated with traumatic fracture risk reduction, possibly because of the improved control of the underlying symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of previous methylphenidate use on the incidence of traumatic and stress fractures among combat soldiers with previously treated and untreated ADHD.

Methods: The retrospective cohort included 100,000 combat soldiers recruited to the Israeli Defense Forces from 2005 through 2015. Diagnosis of ADHD and previous exposure to methylphenidate were determined on the basis of self-reported recruitment questionnaires and medical records. Accordingly, the cohort was divided into 3 groups: subjects with ADHD who were previously treated with methylphenidate (n = 689), untreated subjects with ADHD reporting no medication use (n = 762), and controls having no ADHD diagnosis (n = 98,549). Logistic regressions were fitted to determine the odds ratios (ORs) of study subjects for stress and non-stress (traumatic) fractures. Multivariate analysis incorporated baseline characteristics, including age, sex, weight, duration of service, and diagnosis of anemia, at some point during the service.

Results: After adjustment for sex, anemia, weight, age, and duration of service, the risk of traumatic fractures was increased in both subjects with treated ADHD (OR, 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00 to 1.05]) and subjects with untreated ADHD (OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02 to 1.07]) compared with controls. Subjects in the treated ADHD group were at a higher risk of stress fractures (OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02 to 1.07]). Interestingly, a diagnosis of anemia was an independent predictor of stress fractures (OR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.04 to 1.06]).

Conclusions: Methylphenidate use is associated with an increased risk of stress fractures but a decreased risk of traumatic fractures in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. These and previous findings may serve as sufficient basis for screening for other risk factors and perhaps taking prevention measures in all those using stimulant medications, especially those planning to engage in strenuous physical activity.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.01267DOI Listing
June 2018

Relatively High Complication and Revision Rates of the Mayo Metaphysical Conservative Femoral Stem in Young Patients.

Orthopedics 2018 Jul 9;41(4):e516-e522. Epub 2018 May 9.

The Mayo metaphysical conservative femoral stem (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana) is a wedge-shaped implant designed to transfer loads proximally, reduce femoral destruction, and enable the preservation of bone stock in the proximal femur. Thus, it is a potentially preferred prosthesis for active, non-elderly patients who may require additional future surgeries. This retrospective case study analyzed the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent total hip replacements with this stem between May 2001 and February 2013. All patients underwent clinical assessment, radiological evaluation for the presence and development of radiolucent lines, and functional assessment (numerical analog scale, Harris hip score, and Short Form-12 questionnaire). Ninety-five hips (79 patients) were available for analysis. The patients' mean age was 43 years (range, 18-64 years), and the mean follow-up was 97 months (range, 26.9-166 months). The postoperative clinical assessments and functional assessments revealed significant improvements. Sixteen patients (20.3%) had 18 orthopedic complications, the most common of which were an intraoperative femoral fracture and implant dislocation requiring revision surgeries in 10 hips (10.5%). Radiological analysis revealed evidence of femoral remodeling in 64 (67.4%) implants, spot welds (neocortex) in 35 (36.8%), and osteolysis in 3 (3.2%). These results suggest that the conservative hip femoral implant has an unacceptable complication rate for non-elderly patients. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(4):e516-e522.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20180503-01DOI Listing
July 2018

Inhibition of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1: implications for developing a calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease modifying drug.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2018 08;57(8):1472-1480

Department of Rheumatology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) is associated with osteoarthritis and is the cause of a common inflammatory articular disease. Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (eNPP1) is the major ecto-pyrophosphatase in chondrocytes and cartilage-derived matrix vesicles (MVs). Thus, eNPP1 is a principle contributor to extracellular pyrophosphate levels and a potential target for interventions aimed at preventing CPPD. Recently, we synthesized and described a novel eNPP1-specific inhibitor, SK4A, and we set out to evaluate whether this inhibitor attenuates nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity in human OA cartilage.

Methods: Cartilage tissue, chondrocytes and cartilage-derived MVs were obtained from donors with OA undergoing arthroplasty. The effect of SK4A on cell viability was assayed by the XTT method. eNPP1 expression was evaluated by western blot. Nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity was measured by a colorimetric assay and by HPLC analysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. ATP-induced calcium deposition in cultured chondrocytes was visualized and quantified with Alizarin red S staining.

Results: OA chondrocytes expressed eNPP1 in early passages, but this expression was subsequently lost upon further passaging. Similarly, significant nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity was only detected in early-passage chondrocytes. The eNPP1 inhibitor, SK4A, was not toxic to chondrocytes and stable in culture medium and human plasma. SK4A effectively inhibited nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity in whole cartilage tissue, in chondrocytes and in cartilage-derived MVs and reduced ATP-induced CPPD.

Conclusion: Nucleotide analogues such as SK4A may be developed as potent and specific inhibitors of eNPP1 for the purpose of lowering extracellular pyrophosphate levels in human cartilage with the aim of preventing and treating CPPD disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/key092DOI Listing
August 2018

Functional outcomes after removal of hardware in patellar fracture: are we helping our patients?

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2018 Mar 28;138(3):325-330. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Joint Arthroplasty and Sports Medicine Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weitzman Street, 6423906, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Purpose: Functional outcomes after Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) of the patella are variable. Common complications of patella ORIF include persistent anterior knee pain, limited range of motion and symptomatic hardware. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if removal of hardware is beneficial to symptomatic patients after patellar fracture fixation.

Methods: Patients who presented to our institution between December 2006 and November 2014 with patella fractures treated with ORIF were eligible for inclusion. Patella ORIF was performed using (1) K-wires (KW) with a tension band construct or (2) Cannulated Screws (CS) with a tension band construct. Radiological analyses included (1) AO classification and (2) measurements of prominent hardware length. Patient medical charts were reviewed for demographic and intraoperative data as well as peri/postoperative complications. All patients completed the SF-12 score, visual analog scale, Kujala score, Lysholm score and questionaries' regarding return to previous activity levels.

Results: Forty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. The average time from fracture fixation to removal of hardware was 15.8 (SD ± 14.9) months. The mean follow-up was 43.1 (SD ± 27.1) months. Patella fixation was accomplished using tension band constructs with KW in 28 patients (59.5%) or with CS in 19 patients (40.5%). Patient reported quality of life and pain outcomes improved significantly after removal of hardware (p = 0.001, and p = 0.002 respectively). Functional outcome scores (Kujala and Lysholm) did not improve significantly after hardware removal in the KW or CS groups. Significantly more patients in the KW group returned to pre-injury activity (p = 0.005).

Conclusions: Hardware removal after patella ORIF significantly improves patient reported pain and quality of life outcomes but not functional outcomes. Patients should be counseled regarding the expected outcome of hardware removal following patella ORIF and diabetic patients should be given special consideration before undergoing this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-017-2852-2DOI Listing
March 2018

Effects of Modification of Pain Protocol on Incidence of Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting.

Open Orthop J 2016 31;10:505-511. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, California, USA.

Background: A Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) care model applies a standardized multidisciplinary approach to patient care using evidence-based medicine to modify and improve protocols. Analysis of patient outcome measures, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), allows for refinement of existing protocols to improve patient care. We aim to compare the incidence of PONV in patients who underwent primary total joint arthroplasty before and after modification of our PSH pain protocol.

Methods: All total joint replacement PSH (TJR-PSH) patients who underwent primary THA (n=149) or TKA (n=212) in the study period were included. The modified protocol added a single dose of intravenous (IV) ketorolac given in the operating room and oxycodone immediate release orally instead of IV Hydromorphone in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU). The outcomes were (1) incidence of PONV and (2) average pain score in the PACU. We also examined the effect of primary anesthetic (spinal . GA) on these outcomes. The groups were compared using chi-square tests of proportions.

Results: The incidence of post-operative nausea in the PACU decreased significantly with the modified protocol (27.4% . 38.1%, p=0.0442). There was no difference in PONV based on choice of anesthetic or procedure. Average PACU pain scores did not differ significantly between the two protocols.

Conclusion: Simple modifications to TJR-PSH multimodal pain management protocol, with decrease in IV narcotic use, resulted in a lower incidence of postoperative nausea, without compromising average PACU pain scores. This report demonstrates the need for continuous monitoring of PSH pathways and implementation of revisions as needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874325001610010505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5125376PMC
October 2016

Preoperative Planning of Orthopedic Procedures using Digitalized Software Systems.

Isr Med Assoc J 2016 Jun;18(6):354-8

The progression from standard celluloid films to digitalized technology led to the development of new software programs to fulfill the needs of preoperative planning. We describe here preoperative digitalized programs and the variety of conditions for which those programs can be used to facilitate preparation for surgery. A PubMed search using the keywords "digitalized software programs," "preoperative planning" and "total joint arthroplasty" was performed for all studies regarding preoperative planning of orthopedic procedures that were published from 1989 to 2014 in English. Digitalized software programs are enabled to import and export all picture archiving communication system (PACS) files (i.e., X-rays, computerized tomograms, magnetic resonance images) from either the local working station or from any remote PACS. Two-dimension (2D) and 3D CT scans were found to be reliable tools with a high preoperative predicting accuracy for implants. The short learning curve, user-friendly features, accurate prediction of implant size, decreased implant stocks and low-cost maintenance makes digitalized software programs an attractive tool in preoperative planning of total joint replacement, fracture fixation, limb deformity repair and pediatric skeletal disorders.
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June 2016

Factors Influencing Discharge Destination After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Database Analysis.

Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2016 Jun 26;7(2):95-9. Epub 2016 Apr 26.

Health Policy Research Institute, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Introduction: The demand for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) continues to challenge hospital financial resources. Hospitals have countered this economic demand by reducing patient length of stay (LoS), thus requiring a higher utilization of extended care facilities (ECF) and home with home health care (HHC). With an increase in the number of insured low-income families following the Affordable Care Act (ACA), TKA patients' demographics are anticipated to change. Both trends have significant economic implications, and predicting the discharge destinations of TKA patients would help plan for future health expenditures. The purpose of this study was to determine which variables are significant in predicting discharge destinations of patients treated with TKA.

Methods: We utilized the California Hospital Discharge data set of the year 2010. For each hospitalization, the data set includes information about patient demographics (age, gender, race, and ethnicity), insurance type, diagnoses and procedures, and patient disposition. Discharge to home was the reference category. Discharges to a skilled nursing home and discharge to home with home care were the 2 additional alternatives. Independent variables included the Charlson comorbidity index, payer category (private, Medicare, Medical, and other), race, ethnicity, age, and gender.

Results: Over 28 611 TKAs were reviewed with 45.9% discharged to HHC, 29.9% going to ECF, and 24.2% going home without home health care. Race, age, insurance, and morbidity proved to be highly significant factors influencing patient discharge destination (P < .001). Medicare coverage relative to private payers was a strong predictor for discharge destination (relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.69, P < .001). The strongest predictors were black and Asian races relative to whites (RRR 1.54, P < .01). Male gender was the only factor that lowered the risk of discharge to a nursing home (RRR 0.43, P < .001).

Conclusions: This study provides insight on which patient characteristics influence discharge destination after TKA. Race, age, insurance, and morbidity were highly significant (P < .001) factors on patient discharge destination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2151458516645635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872186PMC
June 2016

Does Body Mass Index Decrease Over Time Among Patients Who Undergo Total Knee Arthroplasty Compared to Patients With Osteoarthritis? Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

J Arthroplasty 2016 05 7;31(5):971-5. Epub 2015 Dec 7.

Division of Adult Reconstruction, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Langone Medical Center Hospital For Joint Diseases, New York, New York.

Background: Although total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with improved patient-reported function, pain, and quality of life, the effects on weight loss are less certain. In this study, we use data from a large, prospective cohort study of osteoarthritis (OA) patients to compare the changes in body mass index (BMI) across 6 years in OA patients who received TKA compared with OA patients who did not receive TKA.

Methods: Using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a prospective cohort study of patients with OA, our study divided patients into two groups: patients who received a TKA during the Osteoarthritis Initiative study (N = 140) and those who did not (N = 697). The initial BMI, final BMI, and change in weight over 72 months were compared between groups. Subgroup analysis was performed by dividing patients by their initial BMI, gender, and age.

Results: The TKA group's change in weight, initial BMI, and final BMI were not significantly different from the non-TKA group over 72 months (weight change: -0.763 kg vs +0.191 kg; P = .597). Subgroups of women and patients aged 51-60 years with TKA gained more weight than respective non-TKA OA patients.

Conclusions: Overall, patients who received TKA did not lose or gain more weight than OA patients who did not receive TKA. Patients with longer follow-up after TKA (>2 years) still gained weight on average. Despite the improved patient-reported pain levels, function, and quality of life after TKA, it appears that TKA alone is not a sufficient intervention for obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2015.11.031DOI Listing
May 2016

Dynamic locking plate vs. simple cannulated screws for nondisplaced intracapsular hip fracture: A comparative study.

Injury 2016 Feb 30;47(2):424-7. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Tel Aviv Medical Center, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Introduction: Intracapsular hip fractures (ICHF) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality and pose a great economic burden on the health care systems. Appropriate surgical treatment requires balancing optimal outcomes with the cost of treatment to the health care system. While in elderly patients with displaced ICHF arthroplasty became the standard of care, the internal fixation method for conserving the femoral head in younger patients or in nondisplaced ICHF is still in debate. We compared a dynamic locking plate with the standard cancellous cannulated screws (CCS) for treatment of nondisplaced ICHF.

Methods: All patients treated with internal fixation for nondisplaced ICHF between July 2009 and December 2012 at our level one trauma center were included in this study. Patients treated with Targon FN (Aesculap) implants and CCS (Synthes) were compared. Charts were reviewed for demographics, intraoperative data and peri/post operative complications retrospectively. Radiographical analysis, pain (VAS), quality of life (SF12) and function (MHHS) data were prospectively gathered.

Results: One hundred and fifteen non-displaced ICHFs were treated with internal fixation, 81 with CCS and 34 with Targon FN implant; the mean follow-up was 19 and 28 months, respectively. Group fracture characteristics (Garden/Powel classification), and demographics, excluding age, were not significantly different. Post-operative revision rates of the Targon FN and CCS groups, perioperative complications were not statistically different (p>0.05). Quality of life (SF-12), function (Modified Harris Hip Score) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scores were not statistical different.

Conclusions: Complication rates and clinical outcomes for the treatment of nondisplaced ICHF with Targon FN and SCC showed no significant differences. Based on this evidence in consideration of the substantial cost differential between the Targon FN and SCC we suggest SCC for treatment of nondisplaced ICHF.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2015.10.054DOI Listing
February 2016

Expandable proximal femoral nail versus gamma proximal femoral nail for the treatment of AO/OTA 31A1-3 fractures.

Injury 2016 Feb 28;47(2):419-23. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Division of Orthopedic Surgery. Tel Aviv Medical Center, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Introduction: The gamma-proximal femoral nail (GPFN) and the expandable proximal femoral nail (EPFN) are two commonly used intramedullary devices for the treatment of AO 31A1-3 proximal femur fractures. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes and complication rates in patients treated by both devices.

Patients And Methods: A total of 299 patients (149 in the GPFN group and 150 in the EPFN group, average age 83.6 years) were treated for AO 31A1-3 proximal femur fractures in our institution between July 2008 and February 2013. Time from presentation to surgery, level of experience of the surgeon, operative time, amount of blood loss and number of blood transfusions were recorded. Postoperative radiological variables, including peg/screw location, tip to apex distance and orthopaedic complications, as, malunion, nonunion, surgical wound infection rates, cutouts, periprosthetic fractures and the incidence of non-orthopaedic complications. Functional results were estimated using the modified Harris Hip Score, and quality of life was queried by the SF-36 questionnaire.

Results: The GPFN and the EPFN fixation methods were similar in terms of functional outcomes, complication rates and quality of life assessments. More patients (107 vs. 73) from the GPFN group were operated within 48 h from presentation (44.8 h vs. 49.9 h for the EPFN group, p=0.351), and their surgery duration and hospitalisation were significantly longer (18.5 days vs. 26 days, respectively, p<0.001). The GPFN patients were frequently operated by junior surgeons: 90% (135) while 50.6% (76) of the EPFN operations were performed by senior doctors. Other intraoperative measures were similar between groups. Cutout was the most common complication affecting 6.7% of the GPFN group and 3.3% of the EPFN group (p=0.182).

Conclusions: Good clinical outcomes and low complication rates in the GPFN and the EPFN groups indicate essentially equivalent safety and reliability on the part of both devices for the treatment of proximal femoral fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2015.10.013DOI Listing
February 2016

The Importance of Tear Edge Fixation in Modified Transosseous-Equivalent Rotator Cuff Repair: A Biomechanical Study.

Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013) 2015 Mar;73(1):10-7

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dog ear fixation with peripheral sutures on the biomechanical properties of transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair.

Methods: Eight matched-pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were dissected to create an isolated, full thickness supraspinatus tear. One shoulder in each matched pair was randomly selected for repair with a standard transosseous-equivalent suture-bridge technique (TOE), and the contralateral shoulder underwent TOE repair with additional tear edge fixation (TEF). Unidirectional tensile testing was conducted to determine cyclic displacement, linear stiffness, yield load, ultimate load, and mode of failure for each specimen.

Results: The ultimate load and yield load were significantly higher for the TEF group (460 ± 104 N and 455 ± 97 N) than the TOE group (409 ± 111 N and 356 ± 143 N) (p = 0.020, p = 0.019, respectively). No statistical difference was noted in stiffness or displacement. Seven of eight TOE specimens versus two of eight TEF specimens failed by medial row tendon rupture, while one of eight TOE specimens versus five of eight TEF specimens failed by lateral row anchor pullout.

Conclusions: The addition of peripheral tear edge fixation to transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair improves the initial load to failure properties of the construct. However, dog ear fixation has no significant impact on cyclical displacement or stiffness.

Clinical Relevance: Tear edge fixation with peripheral sutures should be considered to increase the initial strength of transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair while restoring the anatomic footprint. The addition of dog ear fixation may promote healing and minimize the risk of construct failure during the immediate postoperative period.
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March 2015

Primary vs Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Cost Analysis.

J Arthroplasty 2016 Feb 29;31(2):362-7. Epub 2015 Aug 29.

Division of Adult Reconstruction, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.

Introduction: Increasing hip fracture incidence in the United States is leading to higher occurrences of conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) for failed surgical treatment of the hip. In spite of studies showing higher complication rates in conversion THA, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services currently bundles conversion and primary THA under the same diagnosis-related group. We examined the cost of treatment of conversion THA compared with primary THA. Our hypothesis is that conversion THA will have higher cost and resource use than primary THA.

Methods: Fifty-one consecutive conversion THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27132) and 105 matched primary THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27130) were included in this study. The natural log-transformed costs for conversion and primary THA were compared using regression analysis. Age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologist, Charlson comorbidity score, and smoker status were controlled in the analysis. Conversion THA subgroups formed based on etiology were compared using analysis of variance analysis.

Results: Conversion and primary THAs were determined to be significantly different (P<.05) and greater in the following costs: hospital operating direct cost (29.2% greater), hospital operating total cost (28.8% greater), direct hospital cost (24.7% greater), and total hospital cost (26.4% greater).

Conclusions: Based on greater hospital operating direct cost, hospital operating total cost, direct hospital cost, and total hospital cost, conversion THA has significantly greater cost and resource use than primary THA. In order to prevent disincentives for treating these complex surgical patients, reclassification of conversion THA is needed, as they do not fit together with primary THA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2015.08.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5863729PMC
February 2016

Factors Influencing Discharge Destination After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A California State Database Analysis.

Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2015 Sep;6(3):215-9

Health Policy Research Institute, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Introduction: With this growing demand, the length of stay for total hip arthroplasty (THA) procedures has decreased, and as a trade-off, we have seen a higher utilization of extended care facilities (ECFs). Both trends have significant economic implications on the health care system, and predicting the discharge destinations of THA patients would help policy makers plan for future health expenditures. We performed a retrospective data analysis of a large patient database to determine which variables are significant in predicting discharge destinations of THA patients.

Methods: We used the California Hospital Discharge data set of the year 2010, collected and provided by the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. The data set includes information about patient demographics, insurance type, diagnoses and procedures, and patient disposition. The study cohort included 14 326 patients. Discharge to home was the reference category. Discharge to ECF and discharge to home with home care were the 2 additional alternatives.

Results: In all, 46.9% of patients were discharged home with home health care, followed by 29.6% to ECF, and 23.5% to home without care. Discharge to ECF was more likely for patients with more comorbidities and a higher age. The strongest predictors were Medicaid and black or Asian race. Medicare relative to private payer was a strong predictor of ECF discharge. Male gender was the only factor that lowered the risk of discharge to ECF. The strongest predictor for discharge to home with home care was black race relative to whites. Medicaid lowered the risk of home care, and gender did not matter.

Conclusion: This study serves to provide insight on which patient characteristics influence discharge destination after THA. Race, insurance, and morbidity were highly significant factors on patient discharge destination to a subacute nursing facility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2151458515593778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4536515PMC
September 2015

Platelet-rich plasma did not improve early healing of medial collateral ligament in rats.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2015 Nov 23;135(11):1571-7. Epub 2015 Aug 23.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizman Street, 64239, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most frequently injured ligament of the knee. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a relatively new treatment option developed to enhance the healing response after injury to different tissue types. This study aimed at investigating whether the addition of PRP to MCL tears in rats would alter healing both biomechanically and histologically.

Methods: Bilateral full-thickness tears of the MCL were surgically induced in the knees of 32 rats. Right ligament was saturated with PRP (n = 32, study group), and the left ligament was saturated with saline (n = 32, control group). The animals were killed 3 weeks later and the surgical sites were evaluated by gross inspection, biomechanically and histologically.

Results: There was no gross difference in the mass of granulation tissue, load to failure, stiffness and displacement between the study and control groups. Histological examination by means of maturity score revealed no significant differences between the study and control groups.

Conclusion: The addition of PRP to a healing MCL did not improve any of the outcome measures in this model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-015-2306-7DOI Listing
November 2015
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