Publications by authors named "Nikola Ilic"

68 Publications

Influence of perioperative risk factors on the development of transmural colonic ischemia after open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Development of colonic ischemia (CI) after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) treatment is a lethal complication with perioperative mortality reported to be high as 50%. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to identify pre-, intra- and postoperative risk factors associated with CI in patients undergoing open repair (OR) due to RAAA, that might help to select patients who are more prone to develop CI.

Methods: This was a single-center prospective cohort study on patients with RAAA undergoing OR between January 1st 2018 and July 1st 2019, at the Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia. During this period 89 patients were treated due to RAAA and all were included in the study. The primary endpoint was grade III CI, or transmural necrosis, diagnosed by laparotomy.

Results: Out of 89 patients operated due to RAAA, CI was diagnosed in 14 (15.73%). During the operation, patients with CI had a longer duration of hypotension (42.86±35.82 vs 24.13±23.48, p=.021) and more common significant hypotension (54.54% vs 14.66%, p=.024). In the postoperative course, patients with CI had more common signs of abdominal compartment syndrome (71.42% vs 25.33%, p=.001) and higher mortality rate (78.57% vs 29.33%, p=.001). The univariate regression model showed that one of the most significant factors that were associated with CI were age higher than 75 years, significant hypotension lasting more than one hour, organ lesion, development of abdominal compartment syndrome and higher potassium values on third and fourth quartile.

Conclusions: Grade III colon ischemia (transmural) remains the important cause of mortality after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. We identified pre- and intraoperative and postoperative risk factors that could improve the selection of patients for primary open abdomen treatment or early exploratory laparotomy in order to prevent or timely diagnose colon ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.21.11861-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Concussive seizure in a 16-year-old football goalkeeper.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Jun;23(3):531

Institute for Mother and Child Healthcare of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine University of Belgrade, Serbia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2021.1284DOI Listing
June 2021

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the liver: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jan;9(1):175-182

Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Clinical Center of Serbia, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11000, Serbia.

Background: Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare and benign mesenchymal tumor with indolent course, most commonly found in young or middle-aged men. The majority of the LGFMSs are located in the trunk and deep soft tissue of the lower extremities. They appear as well circumscribed, although not encapsulated, which often leads to incomplete surgical resection. Despite their seemingly benign appearance, these tumors have aggressive behavior with high metastatic and recurrence rates. Accurate histopathologic examination of the specimen and its immunohistochemical analysis are mandatory for a precise diagnosis.

Case Summary: We report a case of a 38 year-old-man who presented with jaundice and upper abdominal discomfort. Multi-detector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large left liver tumor mass, extending to the hepatoduodenal ligament. Left hepatectomy was performed with resection and reconstruction of hepatic artery and preservation of middle hepatic vein. Histopathologic examination confirmed the tumor being a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Three and a half years after surgery, the patient died after being diagnosed with spine metastasis.

Conclusion: Due to poor response to all modalities of adjuvant treatment, we consider that the focus of treatment should be on surgery as the only option for curing the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i1.175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809678PMC
January 2021

Predictors of in-hospital mortality and complications in acute aortic occlusion: a comparative analysis of patients with embolism and in-situ thrombosis.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2021 Apr 4;62(2):146-152. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Acute aortic occlusion (AAO) represents potentially fatal acute vascular emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and intervention. Clinical condition of patients with AAO is frequently severely devastated when surgical intervention is questionable. Our objective was to retrospectively review our institutional experience with AAO and assess predictors of intrahospital mortality and morbidity.

Methods: This is a retrospective single-center cohort study with prospectively collected data between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2018. The total number of 28 consecutive patients with AAO were included in our analysis. Patients with acute aortic thrombosis manifested by bilateral acute limb ischemia were divided in two groups based on potential caues of AAO (embolism or in-situ thrombosis) differentiated according to condition of aortoilical segment.

Results: We identified 28 patients with AAO. All of them underwent either aortobifemoral bypass (N.=20, 71%) or bilateral trans-femoral thrombectomy (N.=8, 29%). The overall in-hospital mortality was 36%. Factors that influenced in-hospital mortality were: paralysis (OR=4.41, 95% CI: 1.88-21.78) and higher lactate values on admission (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.09-1.83), postoperative development of severe acute kidney injury (OR=3.08, 95% CI: 1.42-14.66), hemodialysis (OR=10.74, 95% CI: 1.64-109.78) and bowel ischemia (OR=5.19, 95% CI: 1.58-55.63).

Conclusions: Paralysis, higher lactate values, development of acute kidney injury, hemodialysis and bowel ischemia are predictors of worse outcome and may be used for risk stratification of patients with acute aortic occlusion and improve counseling patients and their families about expected postoperative outcomes. Patients with embolism and malignant disease have worse outcome; however, this should be tested in future studies on larger sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.20.11247-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Introducing Clinical Informatics Course in Medical School Curricula: Lessons Learned from Medical Faculty University of Belgrade.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2020 Jun;270:1325-1326

Institute for Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine University of Belgrade.

The healthcare environment in Serbia has changed dramatically over a last two decades, pointing out the necessity of clinical informatics (CI) education for future MDs. Total of 77 students were enrolled and 72 (93.5%) have successfully finished this course during 4 academic years. Mean total score for all students was 83.4 Âś 9.0 points, without difference between genders. We presented blended learning module as an effective way of gaining competences in CI and recommend this course to be required for future MDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI200424DOI Listing
June 2020

Besides complicated and uncomplicated dissections, do we face "potentially complicated" dissections?

J Vasc Surg 2020 05;71(5):1817

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.12.022DOI Listing
May 2020

Effect of Intra-operative Intra-arterial Thrombolysis on Long Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Thrombosis.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 02 6;59(2):255-264. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Objective: Acute lower limb ischaemia (ALI) as a result of popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) thrombosis represents a significant problem. The aim of this study was to investigate outcome of intra-operative intra-arterial thrombolysis in the treatment of acute ischaemia due to PAA thrombosis in terms of major adverse limb events (MALE), overall survival, and intrahospital complications, especially those associated with bleeding.

Methods: A total of 156 patients with Rutherford grade IIa and IIb acute ischaemia resulting from PAA thrombosis were admitted between 1 January 2011 and 1 January 2017. The patients were divided into two groups, those who underwent additional treatment with intra-operative intra-arterial thrombolysis (20 patients), and those who did not (136 patients). By using covariables from baseline and angiographic characteristics, a propensity score was calculated for each patient. Each patient who underwent intra-operative thrombolysis was matched to four patients from the non-thrombolysis group. Thus, comparable patient cohorts (20 in the thrombolysis and 80 in the non-thrombolysis group) were identified for further analysis. The primary end point was MALE and the secondary endpoint all cause mortality.

Results: After a median follow up of 55 months, the estimated MALE rate was significantly lower in the thrombolysis group (30% vs. 65%, chi square = 10.86, p < .001, log rank test). Also, patients in the thrombolysis group had a significantly lower mortality rate (20% vs. 42.65%, chi square = 3.65, p = .05, log rank test). The thrombolysis group had wound/haematoma related interventions performed more commonly (25% in thrombolysis vs 8%, in non-thrombolysis group), but the difference was not significant (p=.013). There were no cases of major (intracranial and gastrointestinal) bleeding in either group.

Conclusion: The data suggest that intra-operative thrombolysis in the treatment of selected patients with ALI due to PAA thrombosis has long term MALE and overall survival benefits, without a significant risk of major, life threatening bleeding complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.10.013DOI Listing
February 2020

An Isolated Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome-A Case Report.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Feb 11;63:454.e1-454.e4. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

We present a case of successfully treated abdominal aortic aneurysm in a 24-year-old patient with Marfan syndrome. After initial physical and ultrasound examination, the multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scan revealed infrarenal aortic aneurysm of 6 cm in diameter, 10 cm long, along with slightly dilated iliac arteries. However, dimensions of aortic root, aortic arch, and descending suprarenal aorta were within normal limits. Further on, because the patient presented with signs of impending rupture, an urgent surgical intervention was performed. The patient was discharged in good general medical condition 7 days after surgery. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient's condition was satisfying and no MSCT signs of further aortic dissection/aneurysm were identified. To the best of our knowledge, a case of successful management of a patient with Marfans syndrome and truly isolated infrarenal and symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm has not been described in the literature before.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2018.11.019DOI Listing
February 2020

Bridging the gap between informatics and medicine upon medical school entry: Implementing a course on the Applicative Use of ICT.

PLoS One 2018 23;13(4):e0194194. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department for Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Education is undergoing profound changes due to permanent technological innovations. This paper reports the results of a pilot study aimed at developing, implementing and evaluating the course, "Applicative Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Medicine," upon medical school entry. The Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, introduced a curriculum reform in 2014 that included the implementation of the course, "Applicative Use of ICT in Medicine" for first year medical students. The course was designed using a blended learning format to introduce the concepts of Web-based learning environments. Data regarding student knowledge, use and attitudes towards ICT were prospectively collected for the classes of 2015/16 and 2016/17. The teaching approach was supported by multimedia didactic materials using Moodle LMS. The overall quality of the course was also assessed. The five level Likert scale was used to measure attitudes related to ICT. In total, 1110 students were assessed upon medical school entry. A small number of students (19%) had previous experience with e-learning. Students were largely in agreement that informatics is needed in medical education, and that it is also useful for doctors (4.1±1.0 and 4.1±0.9, respectively). Ability in informatics and use of the Internet in education in the adjusted multivariate regression model were significantly associated with positive student attitudes toward ICT. More than 80% of students stated that they had learned to evaluate medical information and would use the Internet to search medical literature as an additional source for education. The majority of students (77%) agreed that a blended learning approach facilitates access to learning materials and enables time independent learning (72%). Implementing the blended learning course, "Applicative Use of ICT in Medicine," may bridge the gap between medicine and informatics upon medical school entry. Students displayed positive attitudes towards using ICT and gained adequate skills necessary to function effectively in an information-rich environment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0194194PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912767PMC
July 2018

Combined Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease and Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury on Long-term Outcomes in Patients with Acute Lower Limb Ischaemia.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2018 07 7;56(1):78-86. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Introduction: Acute lower limb ischaemia (ALI) is the sudden onset of decreased arterial perfusion with imminent threat to limb viability. Contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is one of the complications that increases mortality in patients who undergo contrast imaging in coronary procedures. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CI-AKI on long-term clinical outcomes in patients with ALI undergoing lower limb revascularisation.

Methods: A total 1017 consecutive patients with acute lower limb ischaemia who were admitted between July 1, 2006, and January 1, 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had end stage renal disease, those who had end stage heart and malignant disease and died within 7 days of limb revascularisation, and those who did not undergo angiography were excluded. Thus 546 patients were included in the final analysis. Patients were classified as with or without CKD and were then subdivided according to the presence or absence of the development of CI-AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥0.5 mg/dL or by ≥25% from the baseline value within the first 72 h after contrast exposure. The primary end point was all cause mortality and secondary major adverse limb event (MALE).

Results: Both CKD and CI-AKI were associated with the highest rate of all cause mortality (chi square = 55.77, d.f. = 1, p < .01, log rank test) and MALE (chi square = 79.07, d.f. = 1, p < .01, log rank test). The presence of CKD and CI-AKI were significant risk factors associated with long-term all cause mortality (HR = 2.61, p < .01) and MALE (HR = 2.87, p < .01).

Conclusion: In patients with ALI undergoing lower limb revascularisation, both CKD and CI-AKI were significantly associated with poor long-term outcomes compared with either CKD or CI-AKI alone. Further studies are required to assess this association and to confirm the combined effect of CKD and CI-AKI on long-term clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2018.03.008DOI Listing
July 2018

Effects of atmospheric pressure dynamics on abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture onset.

Vasa 2018 Feb 4;47(2):137-142. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

2 Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: The effect of atmospheric pressure (AP) on the onset of abdominal aorta aneurysm rupture (RAAA) remains an unanswered question. We have investigated the seasonal variation and the effect of AP dynamics on RAAA by analysing the largest series of intraoperatively confirmed RAAA.

Patients And Methods: To realize this study we have performed a retrospective analysis of 546 patients with RAAA, operated within 503 days at the Clinic for vascular and endovascular surgery CCS between 1.1.2003 and 31.12.2012. AP data for Belgrade city were obtained from meteorological yearbooks published by the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia measured at the hydrometeorological station "Belgrade Observatory". Only patients with a residence within the extended Belgrade region, exposed to the similar AP values, were included in the analysis of the AP effect on RAAA.

Results: RAAA were observed more frequently during winter and autumn months but without significant difference in comparison to other seasons. Months with higher AP values were associated with a higher RAAA rate (p = 0.0008, R2 = 0.665). A similar trend was observed for the monthly AP variability (p = 0.0311, R2 = 0.374). Average AP values did not differ between days with and without RAAA. However, during the three and seven days periods preceding RAAA AP variability parameters were greater and AP was rising.

Conclusions: Although these pressure differences are very small, higher AP values over longer periods of time as well as greater variability are associated with RAAA. The exact mechanism behind this association remains unclear. The postulation that low AP may precipitate RAAA based on the Laplace law should be discarded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0301-1526/a000681DOI Listing
February 2018

Late Complication after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair: What Is the Role of an Open Surgical Conversion?

Ann Vasc Surg 2018 Feb 8;47:238-246. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: The aim was to evaluate the causes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) failure and conversion to open surgery (COS) in a vascular center with high-volume open surgery and low-volume TEVAR procedures.

Methods: A total of 8 patients (6 men; mean age, 55.14 years) underwent COS after TEVAR. The indications for COS, intraoperative strategy, and early postoperative and mid-follow-up results were analyzed.

Results: The indications for COS were persistent proximal type I endoleak with progressive aneurysm enlargement in 2 patients, type III endoleak in 1 patient, progressive aneurysm enlargement with no endoleak in 1 patient, stent-graft migration in 2 patients, secondary aortoesophageal fistula in 1 patient, secondary aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistula in 1 patient, and distal progression of the aneurysmal disease in 2 patients. In all but one patient, thoracic stent grafts were explanted, and replacement with a Dacron graft was performed using left partial cardiopulmonary bypass. In the remaining patients with disconnection of the distal component and unfavorable anatomy, the proximal stent graft was recycled, and the Dacron prosthesis was sewn to it. Patients with secondary aortobronchial and aortoesophageal fistulas required additional bronchial and esophageal repair. The in-hospital mortality rate was 50% (4 patients). Four (50%) patients were followed up between 7 and 24 months (mean, 16.75 months) without mortality.

Conclusions: COS after TEVAR has a high mortality rate, and endovascular techniques should be considered as the first line of treatment. Those procedures should be performed by surgeons experienced in open repair which one might expect to be a challenging problem in the era of endovascular therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2017.08.034DOI Listing
February 2018

Evaluation of the renal function using serum Cystatin C following open and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

Vascular 2018 Apr 23;26(2):132-141. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

1 Clinic of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Serbia.

Objectives Controversies regarding renal function impairment after open and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair still exist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the renal function following open repair and endovascular aneurysm repair using Cystatin C. Methods This prospective, observational case-control study was conducted in tertiary referral centre over 3 years, starting from 2012. In total, 60 patients operated due to infrarenal AAA either by means of open repair (30 patients) or endovascular aneurysm repair (30 patients) were included in the study. Biochemical markers of renal function (sCr, urea, potassium) were recorded pre-operatively and at these specific time points, immediately after the operation and at discharge, home (third postoperative day, endovascular aneurysm repair group) or from intensive care unit (third postoperative day, open repair group). Multivariate and propensity score adjustments were used to control for the baseline differences between the groups. Results Creatinine levels in serum remained unchanged during the hospital stay in both groups without significant differences at any time point. Cystatin C levels in endovascular aneurysm repair patients significantly increased postoperatively and restored to values comparable to baseline at the discharge (0.865 ± 0.319 vs. *0.962 ± 0.353 vs. 0.921 ± 0.322, * p < 0.001). Cystatin C levels in patients treated with the open surgery was decreasing over time but not statistically significant comparing to Cystatin C values at the admission. However, decrease in Cystatin C serum levels in patients treated with conventional surgery resulted in statistically significant lower values compared to endovascular aneurysm repair patients both postoperatively and at the time of discharge (0.760 ± 0.225 vs. 0.962 ± 0.353, p < 0.05; 0.750 vs. 0.156, p < 0.05). Both multivariate linear regression models and propensity score adjustment confirm that, even after correction for previously observed intergroup differences, type of surgery, i.e. endovascular aneurysm repair is independently associated with the higher levels of Cystatin C both postoperatively and at the discharge. Conclusions Dynamics of Cystatin C levels have been proven as a more vulnerable marker of renal dysfunction. Endovascular aneurysm repair is associated with higher levels of kidney injury markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1708538117717348DOI Listing
April 2018

Morphological and Biomechanical Features in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Long and Short Neck-Case-Control Study in 64 Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

Ann Vasc Surg 2017 Nov 28;45:223-230. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Both, open and endovascular, procedures are related to higher complication rate in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with shorter neck. Previous study showed that long-neck AAA might have lower risk of rupture. Estimation of biomechanical forces in AAA improves rupture risk assessment. The aim of this study was to compare morphological features and biomechanical forces in the short- and long-neck AAA with threshold of 15 mm.

Methods: Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine images of 64 aneurysms were prospectively collected and analyzed in a case-control study. Using commercially available software, Peak wall Stress (PWS) and Rupture Risk Equivalent Diameter (RRED) were determined. Difference between the maximal aneurysm diameter (MAD) and RRED was calculated and expressed as an absolute and relative (percentage of the MAD) value. In addition, volume of intraluminal thrombus (ILT) was calculated and expressed relative to AAA volume.

Results: Study included 64 AAA divided in group with long (36, 56.25%), and short (28, 43.75%) neck. There was no correlation between neck length and MAD, PWS, and RRED (P = 0.646, P = 0.421, and P = 0.405, respectively). Relative ILT volume was greater in the short-neck aneurysms (P = 0.033). Relative difference between RRED and MAD was -4% and -14.8% in short- and long-neck aneurysms, respectively (P = 0.029). The difference between RRED and MAD was positive in 14/28 patients (50%) with short neck and in 6/35 patients (17.14%) with long neck (P = 0.011).

Conclusions: Based on our biomechanical analysis, in AAA with neck longer than 15 mm rupture risk might be lower than the risk estimated by its diameter. It might be explained with lower relative volume of ILT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2017.06.054DOI Listing
November 2017

Blood groups and acute aortic dissection type III.

Arch Med Sci 2017 Apr 5;13(3):597-600. Epub 2016 May 5.

Clinical Centre of Montenegro, Medical Faculty, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro.

Introduction: Acute aortic type III dissection is one of the most catastrophic events, with in-hospital mortality ranging between 10% and 12%. The majority of patients are treated medically, but complicated dissections, which represent 15% to 20% of cases, require surgical or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). For the best outcomes adequate blood transfusion support is required. Interest in the relationship between blood type and vascular disease has been established. The aim of our study is to evaluate distribution of blood groups among patients with acute aortic type III dissection and to identify any kind of relationship between blood type and patient's survival.

Material And Methods: From January 2005 to December 2014, 115 patients with acute aortic type III dissection were enrolled at the Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery in Belgrade, Serbia and retrospectively analyzed. Patients were separated into two groups. The examination group consisted of patients with a lethal outcome, and the control group consisted of patients who survived.

Results: The analysis of the blood groups and RhD typing between groups did not reveal a statistically significant difference ( = 0.220).

Conclusions: Our results indicated no difference between different blood groups and RhD typing with respect to in-hospital mortality of patients with acute aortic dissection type III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2015.52104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5420615PMC
April 2017

Open Surgical Treatment of Secondary Aortoesophageal and Aortobronchial Fistula after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair and Esophagocoloplasty in a Second Procedure.

Ann Vasc Surg 2017 Oct 11;44:417.e11-417.e16. Epub 2017 May 11.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Aortoesophageal (AEF) and aortobronchial fistula (ABF) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) are rare complications with catastrophic consequences without treatment. In this case report, we presented a patient with AEF and ABF after TEVAR successfully treated with endograft explantation and replaced by Dacron graft followed by esophagectomy and left principal bronchus repairing. We report a patient with AEF and ABF after TEVAR who was evaluated due to dysphagia and chest pain followed by hematemesis and hemoptysis. Endoscopic examination revealed lesion of the esophageal wall with chronic abscess formation and stent-graft protrusion into the cavity. Patient was operated on with extracorporeal circulation. AEF and ABF were confirmed intraoperatively. Endograft was explanted and in situ reconstruction of thoracic aorta was carried out with tubular Dacron 22-mm prosthesis wrapped with omental flap. After aortic reconstruction, esophageal mucosal stripping was performed with cervical esophagostomy, pyloromyotomy, and Stamm-Kader gastrostomy for nutrition. In addition, omentoplasty of the defect in the left principal bronchus was performed. To re-establish peroral food intake esophagocoloplasty was carried out 8 months after previous surgery utilizing transversosplenic segment of the colon and retrosternal route. In very selective cases, stent-graft explantation and in situ reconstruction with Dacron graft covered by omental flap followed by esophagectomy and bronchus repairing permit adequate debridement reducing the risk of mediastinitis and graft infection and allow a safe esophageal reconstruction in a second procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2017.01.019DOI Listing
October 2017

Treatment of a Patient with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Ann Vasc Surg 2017 Apr 24;40:295.e1-295.e4. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Serbian Clinical Centre, Belgrade, Serbia; Belgrade Medical School, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: The surgical tactics in cases of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and intra-abdominal malignancy are not uniform in the literature and are still a matter of debate. In this case report, we present a patient with coexisting AAA and primary liver cancer managed by simultaneous open AAA repair and liver resection After laparotomy and intraoperative liver ultrasonography that confirmed resectability of the tumor, aneurysm repair was performed with aorto-aortic tube grafting after interrenal cross-clamping Radiofrequency-assisted liver transection was performed to complete an anterior anatomic resection of liver segments VI and VII. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on a postoperative day 10.

Methods: This was prospective follow up of one patient.

Results: The patient is free from disease at 18-month follow-up.

Conclusions: The best treatment strategy for patients with AAA and malignant disease is still not clearly defined. Strategy selection is made individually according to the risk of rupture of AAA, general condition of the patient, experience of the teams that should perform the procedure and estimated life expectancy after resection of malignant disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2016.07.075DOI Listing
April 2017

Carotid replacement with Dacron graft in 292 patients.

Vascular 2016 Dec 19;24(6):580-589. Epub 2016 Jan 19.

Faculty of Medical, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Introduction: In case of highly atherosclerotic carotid process, carotid graft replacement might be a potential solution for successful procedure. Many studies evaluated the results of vein and polytetrafluorethilen (PTFE) graft usage at the carotid bifurcation, while the experience on the Dacron graft due to extensive atherosclerotic process is missing. The aim of our study was to evaluate 30-day and long-term results of the Dacron graft on carotid artery used in patients with extensive atherosclerotic disease.

Material And Methods: This retrospective study analysed early and long-term neurological outcome as well as Dacron graft patency in patients operated with carotid reconstruction. Early results were confirmed by follow-up clinical examination, whereas late results were assessed by follow-up clinical examination as well as duplex sonographic examination at least 1 year after the surgery. As for statistical methods we used descriptive analysis tests, Chi-square test, and logistic regression.

Results: Carotid graft replacement was performed in 292 patients, before endarterectomy in 155 (53.09%), or after already attempted unsuccessful eversion endarterectomy in 137 (46.91%). Nineteen (6.5%) patients had a stroke due to ipsilateral and contralateral ischaemia or haemorrhagic in 17 (5.8%), 1 (0.3%) and 1 (0.3%) patients, respectively. Significantly higher rate of strokes occurred when the graft reconstruction was used after the failure of endarterectomy (8.5% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.029). Stroke and death rate was 7.19%. Factors that increased risk of early stroke were the length of plaque in the internal carotid artery measured intraoperatively (p = 0.025) and the surgical tactic to perform graft reconstruction after attempted extensive endarterectomy (p = 0.029).

Conclusion: Low number of patients with carotid stenosis has extensive atherosclerotic process longer than 4 cm that might jeopardise eversion endarterectomy. Carotid graft replacement with Dacron graft provide early results that are comparable with other conduits; however, in such patients reconstruction should be selected individually based on surgical experience and anatomical distribution of stenotic disease. Due to high risk of stroke, only symptomatic patients with such extensive atherosclerotic disease should be operated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1708538115627576DOI Listing
December 2016

Open Repair of AAA in a High Volume Center.

World J Surg 2017 Mar;41(3):884-891

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Objective: To assess results of open repair (OR) of AAA in a single high volume center.

Methods: We analyzed prospectively collected data of 450 patients who underwent elective OR of AAA at the Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery of the Serbian Clinical Centre in the period between January 2013 and September 2014.

Results: Postoperative death occurred in seven patients (1. 55%) during the first 30 postoperative days. The mortality was caused by: uncontrolled bleeding-1, acute myocardial infarction-1, ischemic colitis-2, MOFS-2, sepsis due to infection and dehiscence of laparotomy wound-1. Coronary artery disease (OR 3.89; CI 0.85-17.7; p = 0.0058), postoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR 29.9; CI 2.56-334.95; p = 0.0053), chronic renal failure (OR 7.5; CI 1.35-8.5; p = 0.0073), colonic necrosis (OR 88.2; CI 4.77-1629.69; p = 0.0026), occlusion of the both hypogastric arteries and the inability to preserve at least one hypogastric artery (OR 17.4; CI 1.99-178.33; p = 0.0230), aortobifemoral reconstruction (OR 9.06; CI 1.76-46.49; p = 0.016), significant perioperative bleeding (>2 L) (OR 7.32; CI 1.31-10.79; p = 0.0001), hostile abdomen (OR 5.25; CI 1.3-21.1; p = 0.0055), inflammatory aneurysm (OR 13.99; CI 2.88-65.09; p = 0.0002), supraceliac aortic cross-clamping (OR 18.7; CI 3.8-90.6; p = 0.0003), prolonged aortic cross-clamping (>60 min) (OR 14.25; CI 2.75-64.5; p = 0.0003), the intraoperative hypotension (OR 6.61; CI 0.71-61.07; p = 0.0545), the prolonged operation (>240 min) (OR 8.66; CI 0.91-81.56; p = 0.0585) and complete dehiscence of the laparotomy (OR 44.1; CI 3.39-572.78; p = 0.0396) increased the 30-day mortality in our study.

Conclusions: Early mortality after open repair of AAA in high volume center might be very low due to experienced multidisciplinary team. Centralized open aortic surgery might be solution for effective treatment of patients with unsuitable anatomy or for young patients with long life expectancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-016-3788-3DOI Listing
March 2017

Treatment strategies for carotid artery aneurysms.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2016 Dec 28;57(6):872-880. Epub 2014 May 28.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia -

Background: The aim of this paper was to present single centre experience in the treatment of extra cranial carotid artery aneurysms (ECCA) and to analyze results discussing different treatment modalities.

Methods: The study analyzed 60 patients with 62 ECCA treated surgically at the Clinic for vascular and endovascular surgery, Serbian Clinical Center (Belgrade) in the period between 1985 and 2013. Treatment strategy was individually selected and demographic, morphologic, intraoperative and postoperative data were collected.

Results: Thirty-day operative mortality was 3.3% and completely stroke related. Besides two fatal strokes one additional was registered making total number of 3 (4.8%) postoperative strokes. Only one (1.6%) early graft thrombosis has been found. The 30-day-patency rate was 98.4%. During the same period seven local complications were found: three (4.8%) hemorrhage and four (6.4%) cranial nerves injuries. In all cases of hemorrhage successful re-intervention was performed without any consequences. Cranial nerves injuries included transient contusions of hypoglossal (2) and superior laryngeal nerve (2).

Conclusions: The etiology, location, and morphology of an ECCA are determining selection of appropriate therapy. Large or tortuous aneurysms, as well as aneurysms involving common carotid or proximal internal carotid artery, are also absolutely indicated to open surgical therapy. Aneurysms which involve the distal internal carotid artery and false anastomotic aneurysms are best managed with endovascular techniques. The ligature is indicated for the treatment of external carotid aneurysms, mycotic aneurysms with local infection and in ruptured ECCA with uncontrolled bleeding.
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December 2016

The Rationale for Continuing Open Repair of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

Ann Vasc Surg 2016 Oct 6;36:64-73. Epub 2016 Jul 6.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Mortality after open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs) remains high. The purpose of this study is to present the results of open RAAA treatment observing 2 different 10-year periods in a single high-volume center and to consider the possibilities of result improvement in the future.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of 729 RAAA patients who were treated through 1991-2001 (229 patients, Group A) and 2002-2011 (500 patients, Group B) was performed. Variables significantly associated with mortality were defined and analyzed.

Results: Overall 30-day mortality in Group A was 53.7% (123/229 patients) with intraoperative mortality of 13.5% (31/229 patients), while in Group B it was 37.4% (187/500 patients) with intraoperative mortality of 12.4% (62/500 patients). Overall 30-day mortality was significantly lower in Group B (P = 0.012). There was no difference regarding intraoperative mortality (P = 0.797). Preoperative severe hemodynamic instability (P < 0.01, P < 0.001), cardiac arrest (P < 0.01, P < 0.001), consciousness deterioration (P < 0.05, P < 0.001), renal malfunction (P < 0.01, P < 0.001), and significant anemia (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) were associated with increased mortality in both A and B groups, respectively. Aortic cross-clamping level in Group A was predominantly infrarenal (68%) while in Group B it was mostly supraceliac (53%) (P < 0.001). Cross-clamping time, duration of surgery, and type of aortic reconstruction had no influence on survival in Group B (P > 0.05). Intraoperative hemodynamic instability (P < 0.01, P < 0.001), significant bleeding (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and low urine output (P < 0.05, P < 0.001) remained parameters that favored lethal outcome in both A and B groups, respectively. Cell saving was used only in Group B. The multivariate logistic regression applied on the complete sample of patients presented several significant predictors of lethal outcome: congestive heart failure on admission (odds ratio [OR] 1.954, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.103-3.460), intraperitoneal rupture (OR 3.009, 95% CI 1.771-5.423), aortofemoral reconstruction (OR 1.928, 95% CI 1.044-3.563), and total operative time (OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001-1.010). Postoperative multisystem organ failure (P < 0.01, P < 0.001), respiratory (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) and renal (P < 0.05, P < 0.001) failure, postoperative bleeding (P < 0.05), and cerebrovascular incidents (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) significantly increased mortality in both A and B groups.

Conclusions: Although unselective, aggressive surgical approach in RAAA performed by teams experienced in open repair can improve patient's survival. Short admission/surgery time, supraceliac aortic cross-clamping, and the use of intraoperative cell saving are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2016.02.037DOI Listing
October 2016

Simultaneous Endovascular Treatment of Tandem Internal Carotid Lesions: Case Report and Review of Literature.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2016 Jul 2;50(5):359-62. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

The incidence of concomitant extracranial carotid artery stenosis and ipsilateral intracranial carotid aneurysm has been reported to vary between 2.8% and 5%. These complex lesions may present a challenge for treatment decision-making. This case report describes an asymptomatic male patient with severe carotid bifurcation stenosis, coupled with an unruptured supraclinoid internal carotid aneurysm. Both lesions were treated simultaneously. Patient underwent carotid stenting followed by aneurysm coiling in the same setting without any complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1538574416652246DOI Listing
July 2016

Complete Immediate Paraplegia Reversal after Performing Aorto-Lumbar Bypass on the Patient who Underwent Aortoiliac Reconstruction.

Ann Vasc Surg 2016 Aug 26;35:203.e1-3. Epub 2016 May 26.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address:

Although both internal iliac arteries were saved during operation, the patient developed paraplegia immediately after aortoiliac reconstruction due to the spinal cord ischemia. We report a successfully treated immediate postoperative paraplegia by performing second operation and creating bypass from the bifurcated Dacron graft to the previously detected nonpaired huge lumbar artery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2016.01.028DOI Listing
August 2016

Giant Posttraumatic Cervical Hematoma: Acute Presentation of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in an Adolescent.

Med Princ Pract 2016;25(4):385-7. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Objective: To describe a rare case of acute presentation of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).

Clinical Presentation And Intervention: A 19-year-old male presented with an expanding cervical mass following blunt trauma. A computed tomography scan revealed a mass suspected to be hematoma that was compressing the vessels and thereby deviating the trachea. Immediate surgery was performed. Neither vascular injury nor active bleeding was seen; instead, a solid, hematoma-like tumefaction in the right thyroid lobe was revealed. A total thyroid lobectomy was performed. A histologic paraffin section confirmed a PTC that was permeated by hematoma.

Conclusion: This was a unique case of an acute, life-threatening presentation of previously asymptomatic PTC in an adolescent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000445117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5588419PMC
August 2017

Regarding "Recurrent spinal cord ischemia after endovascular stent grafting for chronic traumatic aneurysm of the aortic isthmus".

J Vasc Surg 2016 Feb;63(2):567-8

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, and Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.08.116DOI Listing
February 2016

Open Treatment of Blunt Injuries of Supra-Aortic Branches: Case Series.

Ann Vasc Surg 2016 Feb 2;31:205.e5-205.e10. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Blunt injuries of the supra-aortic branches are rare entity, and majority of patients die before arrival at the hospital. Those who arrive alive require complex and fast procedure that requires sternotomy. We report 3 successfully managed cases.

Case Reports: We report 3 patients with injury of supra-aortic branches. One was treated urgently due to longitudinal rupture on the posterior wall of innominate artery after car accident, and another 2 had chronic false aneurysm located at the very orifice of the right subclavian and left common carotid artery. In first and second patient bypass grafting with a hand-made, Y-shaped, 8-mm Dacron graft from the ascending aorta to the right common carotid and proximal right subclavian artery were performed, whereas in last 1 bypass grafting from the ascending aorta to the cervical part of the left common carotid artery was performed. In our facility, there were no possibilities for any endovascular treatment.

Conclusions: When endovascular technology is not available, open surgical repair of blunt injuries of supra-aortic vessels can be performed without complications. No matter to that, endovascular and hybrid procedures should be considered whenever possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2015.07.049DOI Listing
February 2016

Unusual Case of Parkes Weber Syndrome with Aneurysm of the Left Common Iliac Vein and Thrombus in Inferior Vena Cava.

Ann Vasc Surg 2015 Oct 27;29(7):1450.e17-9. Epub 2015 Jun 27.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

We report an unusual case of aneurysm of the left common iliac vein and thrombus formation in inferior vena cava associated with Parkes Weber syndrome (PWS). In addition to many already known clinical signs which determine PWS, common iliac vein aneurysm formation together with inferior vena cava thrombus present a new clinical feature and new challenges in treatment strategy of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2015.04.063DOI Listing
October 2015

Open Surgical Repair of Aortoiliac Aneurysm, Left Pelvic Kidney and Right Kidney Malposition with Aberrant Vascularization, and Compressive Syndrome.

Ann Vasc Surg 2015 Oct 23;29(7):1447.e1-3. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro. Electronic address:

We present the case of a 65-year-old male patient with aortoiliac aneurysm associated with a congenital left pelvic kidney vascularized by left common iliac artery and right malposition kidney vascularized by 2 aberrant arteries, which sprout from the aneurysm. In addition, the patient had right iliacofemoral vein thrombosis caused by right iliac artery aneurysm compression. We faced the challenge of treating the patient while preserving renal function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2015.02.030DOI Listing
October 2015

Multiple visceral artery aneurysms.

Ann Vasc Surg 2015 Aug 12;29(6):1318.e7-1318.e10. Epub 2015 Jun 12.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Montenegro, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro. Electronic address:

A 63-year-old woman patient was presented with 3 visceral artery aneurysms, which were identified accidentally at nuclear magnetic resonance imaging carried out because of small mass in the left adrenal gland, which was suspected by ultrasound. Computed tomography (CT) examination was indicated and showed fusiform aneurysm on splenic artery, saccular aneurysm of right renal artery, and saccular aneurysm of left segmental renal artery. Also, she experienced hypertension, cardiomyopathy, thyroid gland strum with normal hormone levels, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The patient was treated by open conventional surgery followed by end-to-end anastomosis reconstructions firstly of the right renal and then splenic artery. In 5 days, the patient was released from hospital in good condition. Control CT examination in 9 months did not show enlargement of remaining aneurysm. Histopathology confirmed just typical aneurysm degeneration based on atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2015.02.026DOI Listing
August 2015

[High rate of native arteriovenous fistulas: how to reach this goal?].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2015 Mar-Apr;143(3-4):226-9

The types of vascular accesses for hemodialysis (HD) include the native arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft (AVG) and central venous catheter (CVC). Adequately matured native AVF is the best choice for HD patients and a high percentage of its presence is the goal of every nephrologist and vascular surgeon. This paper analyses the number and type of vascular accesses for HD performed over a 10-year period at the Clinical Center of Serbia, and presents the factors of importance for the creation of such a high number of successful native AVF (over 80%). Such a result is, inter alia, the consequence of the appointment of the Vascular Access Coordinator, whose task was to improve the quality of care of blood vessels in the predialysis period as well as of functional vascular accesses, and to promote the cooperation among different specialists within the field. Vascular access is the "lifeline"for HD patients. Thus, its successful planning, creation and monitoring of vascular access is a continuous process that requires the collaboration and cooperation of the patient, nephrologist, vascular surgeon, radiologist and medical personnel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh1504226jDOI Listing
October 2015
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