Publications by authors named "Nikki Bowen"

7 Publications

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Rad27 and Exo1 function in different excision pathways for mismatch repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Nat Commun 2021 09 22;12(1):5568. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0660, USA.

Eukaryotic DNA Mismatch Repair (MMR) involves redundant exonuclease 1 (Exo1)-dependent and Exo1-independent pathways, of which the Exo1-independent pathway(s) is not well understood. The exo1Δ440-702 mutation, which deletes the MutS Homolog 2 (Msh2) and MutL Homolog 1 (Mlh1) interacting peptides (SHIP and MIP boxes, respectively), eliminates the Exo1 MMR functions but is not lethal in combination with rad27Δ mutations. Analyzing the effect of different combinations of the exo1Δ440-702 mutation, a rad27Δ mutation and the pms1-A99V mutation, which inactivates an Exo1-independent MMR pathway, demonstrated that each of these mutations inactivates a different MMR pathway. Furthermore, it was possible to reconstitute a Rad27- and Msh2-Msh6-dependent MMR reaction in vitro using a mispaired DNA substrate and other MMR proteins. Our results demonstrate Rad27 defines an Exo1-independent eukaryotic MMR pathway that is redundant with at least two other MMR pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25866-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8458276PMC
September 2021

Reconstitution of DNA polymerase ε-dependent mismatch repair with purified proteins.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 04 6;114(14):3607-3612. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093-0669;

Mammalian and mismatch repair (MMR) proteins catalyze two MMR reactions in vitro. In one, mispair binding by either the MutS homolog 2 (Msh2)-MutS homolog 6 (Msh6) or the Msh2-MutS homolog 3 (Msh3) stimulates 5' to 3' excision by exonuclease 1 (Exo1) from a single-strand break 5' to the mispair, excising the mispair. In the other, Msh2-Msh6 or Msh2-Msh3 activate the MutL homolog 1 (Mlh1)-postmeiotic segregation 1 (Pms1) endonuclease in the presence of a mispair and a nick 3' to the mispair, to make nicks 5' to the mispair, allowing Exo1 to excise the mispair. DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) is thought to catalyze DNA synthesis to fill in the gaps resulting from mispair excision. However, colocalization of the mispair recognition proteins with the replicative DNA polymerases during DNA replication has suggested that DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) may also play a role in MMR. Here we describe the reconstitution of Pol ε-dependent MMR using proteins. A mixture of Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), Exo1, RPA, RFC-Δ1N, PCNA, and Pol ε was found to catalyze both short-patch and long-patch 5' nick-directed MMR of a substrate containing a +1 (+T) mispair. When the substrate contained a nick 3' to the mispair, a mixture of Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), Exo1, RPA, RFC-Δ1N, PCNA, and Pol ε was found to catalyze an MMR reaction that required Mlh1-Pms1. These results demonstrate that Pol ε can act in eukaryotic MMR in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1701753114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5389320PMC
April 2017

Activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease in a Reconstituted Mismatch Repair System.

J Biol Chem 2015 Aug 13;290(35):21580-90. Epub 2015 Jul 13.

From the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Moores-UCSD Cancer Center, and the Institute of Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California 92093

Previous studies reported the reconstitution of an Mlh1-Pms1-independent 5' nick-directed mismatch repair (MMR) reaction using Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. Here we describe the reconstitution of a mispair-dependent Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease activation reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and replication factor C (RFC) and a reconstituted Mlh1-Pms1-dependent 3' nick-directed MMR reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), replication protein A (RPA), RFC, PCNA, and DNA polymerase δ. Both reactions required Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) for optimal activity. The MMR reaction also required two reaction stages in which the first stage required incubation of Mlh1-Pms1 with substrate DNA, with or without Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), PCNA, and RFC but did not require nicking of the substrate, followed by a second stage in which other proteins were added. Analysis of different mutant proteins demonstrated that both reactions required a functional Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site, as well as mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment by Msh2-Msh6 but not sliding clamp formation. Mutant Mlh1-Pms1 and PCNA proteins that were defective for Exo1-independent but not Exo1-dependent MMR in vivo were partially defective in the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease and MMR reactions, suggesting that both reactions reflect the activation of Mlh1-Pms1 seen in Exo1-independent MMR in vivo. The availability of this reconstituted MMR reaction should now make it possible to better study both Exo1-independent and Exo1-dependent MMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.662189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4571882PMC
August 2015

Mlh2 is an accessory factor for DNA mismatch repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

PLoS Genet 2014 May 8;10(5):e1004327. Epub 2014 May 8.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America; Moores-UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America; Department of Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential mismatch repair (MMR) endonuclease Mlh1-Pms1 forms foci promoted by Msh2-Msh6 or Msh2-Msh3 in response to mispaired bases. Here we analyzed the Mlh1-Mlh2 complex, whose role in MMR has been unclear. Mlh1-Mlh2 formed foci that often colocalized with and had a longer lifetime than Mlh1-Pms1 foci. Mlh1-Mlh2 foci were similar to Mlh1-Pms1 foci: they required mispair recognition by Msh2-Msh6, increased in response to increased mispairs or downstream defects in MMR, and formed after induction of DNA damage by phleomycin but not double-stranded breaks by I-SceI. Mlh1-Mlh2 could be recruited to mispair-containing DNA in vitro by either Msh2-Msh6 or Msh2-Msh3. Deletion of MLH2 caused a synergistic increase in mutation rate in combination with deletion of MSH6 or reduced expression of Pms1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the S. cerevisiae Mlh2 protein and the mammalian PMS1 protein are homologs. These results support a hypothesis that Mlh1-Mlh2 is a non-essential accessory factor that acts to enhance the activity of Mlh1-Pms1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014439PMC
May 2014

Mispair-specific recruitment of the Mlh1-Pms1 complex identifies repair substrates of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh3 complex.

J Biol Chem 2014 Mar 18;289(13):9352-64. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

From the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.

DNA mismatch repair is initiated by either the Msh2-Msh6 or the Msh2-Msh3 mispair recognition heterodimer. Here we optimized the expression and purification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh3 and performed a comparative study of Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-Msh6 for mispair binding, sliding clamp formation, and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment. Msh2-Msh3 formed sliding clamps and recruited Mlh1-Pms1 on +1, +2, +3, and +4 insertion/deletions and CC, AA, and possibly GG mispairs, whereas Msh2-Msh6 formed mispair-dependent sliding clamps and recruited Mlh1-Pms1 on 7 of the 8 possible base:base mispairs, the +1 insertion/deletion mispair, and to a low level on the +2 but not the +3 or +4 insertion/deletion mispairs and not on the CC mispair. The mispair specificity of sliding clamp formation and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment but not mispair binding alone correlated best with genetic data on the mispair specificity of Msh2-Msh3- and Msh2-Msh6-dependent mismatch repair in vivo. Analysis of an Msh2-Msh6/Msh3 chimeric protein and mutant Msh2-Msh3 complexes showed that the nucleotide binding domain and communicating regions but not the mispair binding domain of Msh2-Msh3 are responsible for the extremely rapid dissociation of Msh2-Msh3 sliding clamps from DNA relative to that seen for Msh2-Msh6, and that amino acid residues predicted to stabilize Msh2-Msh3 interactions with bent, strand-separated mispair-containing DNA are more critical for the recognition of small +1 insertion/deletions than larger +4 insertion/deletions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.552190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3979400PMC
March 2014

Dominant mutations in S. cerevisiae PMS1 identify the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site and an exonuclease 1-independent mismatch repair pathway.

PLoS Genet 2013 Oct 31;9(10):e1003869. Epub 2013 Oct 31.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR) caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. To better understand the function of Mlh1-Pms1 in MMR, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify six pms1 mutations (pms1-G683E, pms1-C817R, pms1-C848S, pms1-H850R, pms1-H703A and pms1-E707A) that were weakly dominant in wild-type cells, which surprisingly caused a strong MMR defect when present on low copy plasmids in an exo1Δ mutant. Molecular modeling showed these mutations caused amino acid substitutions in the metal coordination pocket of the Pms1 endonuclease active site and biochemical studies showed that they inactivated the endonuclease activity. This model of Mlh1-Pms1 suggested that the Mlh1-FERC motif contributes to the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this, the mlh1-E767stp mutation caused both MMR and endonuclease defects similar to those caused by the dominant pms1 mutations whereas mutations affecting the predicted metal coordinating residue Mlh1-C769 had no effect. These studies establish that the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease is required for MMR in a previously uncharacterized Exo1-independent MMR pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3814310PMC
October 2013

Reconstitution of long and short patch mismatch repair reactions using Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Nov 1;110(46):18472-7. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Moores-University of California, San Diego Cancer Center, and Institute of Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093.

A problem in understanding eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) mechanisms is linking insights into MMR mechanisms from genetics and cell-biology studies with those from biochemical studies of MMR proteins and reconstituted MMR reactions. This type of analysis has proven difficult because reconstitution approaches have been most successful for human MMR whereas analysis of MMR in vivo has been most advanced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we describe the reconstitution of MMR reactions using purified S. cerevisiae proteins and mispair-containing DNA substrates. A mixture of MutS homolog 2 (Msh2)-MutS homolog 6, Exonuclease 1, replication protein A, replication factor C-Δ1N, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and DNA polymerase δ was found to repair substrates containing TG, CC, +1 (+T), +2 (+GC), and +4 (+ACGA) mispairs and either a 5' or 3' strand interruption with different efficiencies. The Msh2-MutS homolog 3 mispair recognition protein could substitute for the Msh2-Msh6 mispair recognition protein and showed a different specificity of repair of the different mispairs whereas addition of MutL homolog 1-postmeiotic segregation 1 had no affect on MMR. Repair was catalytic, with as many as 11 substrates repaired per molecule of Exo1. Repair of the substrates containing either a 5' or 3' strand interruption occurred by mispair binding-dependent 5' excision and subsequent resynthesis with excision tracts of up to ~2.9 kb occurring during the repair of the substrate with a 3' strand interruption. The availability of this reconstituted MMR reaction now makes possible detailed biochemical studies of the wealth of mutations identified that affect S. cerevisiae MMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1318971110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831976PMC
November 2013
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