Publications by authors named "Nikita S Ivanov"

3 Publications

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B Cell Receptor-Responsive miR-141 Enhances Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Cycle via FOXO3 Inhibition.

mSphere 2021 Apr 14;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA

Antigen recognition by the B cell receptor (BCR) is a physiological trigger for reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and can be recapitulated by cross-linking of surface immunoglobulins. Previously, we identified a subset of EBV microRNAs (miRNAs) that attenuate BCR signal transduction and subsequently dampen lytic reactivation in B cells. The roles of host miRNAs in the EBV lytic cycle are not completely understood. Here, we profiled the small RNAs in reactivated Burkitt lymphoma cells and identified several miRNAs, such as miR-141, that are induced upon BCR cross-linking. Notably, EBV encodes a viral miRNA, miR-BART9, with sequence homology to miR-141. To better understand the functions of these two miRNAs, we examined their molecular targets and experimentally validated multiple candidates commonly regulated by both miRNAs. Targets included B cell transcription factors and known regulators of EBV immediate-early genes, leading us to hypothesize that these miRNAs modulate kinetics of the lytic cascade in B cells. Through functional assays, we identified roles for miR-141 and EBV miR-BART9 and one specific target, FOXO3, in progression of the lytic cycle. Our data support a model whereby EBV exploits BCR-responsive miR-141 and further mimics activity of this miRNA family via a viral miRNA to promote productive lytic replication. EBV is a human pathogen associated with several malignancies. A key aspect of lifelong virus persistence is the ability to switch between latent and lytic replication modes. The mechanisms governing latency, reactivation, and progression of the lytic cycle are only partly understood. This study reveals that specific miRNAs can act to support the EBV lytic phase following BCR-mediated reactivation triggers. Furthermore, this study identifies a role for FOXO3, commonly suppressed by both host and viral miRNAs, in modulating progression of the EBV lytic cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00093-21DOI Listing
April 2021

Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs regulate B cell receptor signal transduction and lytic reactivation.

PLoS Pathog 2019 01 7;15(1):e1007535. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, United States of America.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulatory RNAs that can modulate cell signaling and play key roles in cell state transitions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses >40 viral miRNAs that manipulate both viral and cellular gene expression patterns and contribute to reprogramming of the host environment during infection. Here, we identified a subset of EBV miRNAs that desensitize cells to B cell receptor (BCR) stimuli, and attenuate the downstream activation of NF-kappaB or AP1-dependent transcription. Bioinformatics and pathway analysis of Ago PAR-CLIP datasets identified multiple EBV miRNA targets related to BCR signal transduction, including GRB2, SOS1, MALT1, RAC1, and INPP5D, which we validated in reporter assays. BCR signaling is critical for B cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation, and for EBV, is linked to reactivation. In functional assays, we demonstrate that EBV miR-BHRF1-2-5p contributes to the growth of latently infected B cells through GRB2 regulation. We further determined that activities of EBV miR-BHRF1-2-5p, EBV miR-BART2-5p, and a cellular miRNA, miR-17-5p, directly regulate virus reactivation triggered by BCR engagement. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into some of the key miRNA interactions impacting the proliferation of latently infected B cells and importantly, governing the latent to lytic switch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336353PMC
January 2019

An Epstein-Barr Virus MicroRNA Blocks Interleukin-1 (IL-1) Signaling by Targeting IL-1 Receptor 1.

J Virol 2017 11 13;91(21). Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes >44 viral microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially expressed throughout infection, can be detected in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive tumors, and manipulate several biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and immune responses. Here, we show that EBV BHRF1-2 miRNAs block NF-κB activation following treatment with proinflammatory cytokines, specifically interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Analysis of EBV PAR-CLIP miRNA targetome data sets combined with pathway analysis revealed multiple BHRF1-2 miRNA targets involved in interleukin signaling pathways. By further analyzing changes in cellular gene expression patterns, we identified the IL-1 receptor 1 (IL1R1) as a direct target of miR-BHRF1-2-5p. Targeting the IL1R1 3' untranslated region (UTR) by EBV miR-BHRF1-2-5p was confirmed using 3'-UTR luciferase reporter assays and Western blot assays. Manipulation of EBV BHRF1-2 miRNA activity in latently infected B cells altered steady-state cytokine levels and disrupted IL-1β responsiveness. These studies demonstrate functionally relevant BHRF1-2 miRNA interactions during EBV infection, which is an important step in understanding their roles in pathogenesis. IL-1 signaling plays an important role in inflammation and early activation of host innate immune responses following virus infection. Here, we demonstrate that a viral miRNA downregulates the IL-1 receptor 1 during EBV infection, which consequently alters the responsiveness of cells to IL-1 stimuli and changes the cytokine expression levels within infected cell populations. We postulate that this viral miRNA activity not only disrupts IL-1 autocrine and paracrine signaling loops that can alert effector cells to sites of infection but also provides a survival advantage by dampening excessive inflammation that may be detrimental to the infected cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00530-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5640834PMC
November 2017