Publications by authors named "Nik Abdullah Nik Mohamad"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of the Parker flex tip and the unoflex reinforced endotracheal tube for orotracheal fibreoptic intubation in simulated difficult intubation patients.

Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2020 ;52(5):377-382

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Introduction: The choice of endotracheal tube (ETT) is important for successful orotracheal fibreoptic intubation (OFI). The aim of this study was to compare the use of the Parker flex tip (PFT) with the unoflex reinforced (UFR) ETT during OFI.

Material And Methods: A total of 58 patients who underwent elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomised to two ETT groups, the PFT group (n = 29) and the UFR group (n = 29), for OFI in simulated difficult intubation patients using a rigid cervical collar. After successful standardised induction and relaxation, OFI and railroading of selected ETT were subsequently performed by a similarly experienced practitioner. Ease of insertion, degree of manipulation, time to successful intubation, post-intubation complications and haemodynamic changes were recorded for both groups.

Results: he percentage of easy intubation was comparable between both groups with a slightly higher percentage in the UFR group than the PFT group (69.0% vs. 62.0%; P = 0.599). Degree of manipulation was also comparable between the two groups; the percentage of cases in which manipulation was not required was slightly higher in the UFR group than the PFT group (69.0% vs. 62.1%; P = 0.849). Time to successful intubation was also comparable between the groups, although the time was slightly shorter for the UFR group than the PFT group (56.9 s ± 39.7 s vs. 63.9 s ± 36.9 s; P = 0.488). There were also no significant differences in other parameters.

Conclusions: The Parker flex tip ETT was comparable to the unoflex reinforced ETT for OFI in simulated difficult airway patients.
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January 2020

A case report: Community-acquired necrotizing fasciitis in a morbidly obese diabetic young man can be fatal.

IDCases 2020 2;22:e01001. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Trauma and Critical Care Research Centre (BTCCRC),University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia.

We present a case study of a 26-year-old morbidly obese man with a three-day history of right leg pain and swelling. The swelling was associated with low grade fever. He was alert and conscious upon presentation to the hospital. His physical examination showed gross swelling of the entire right lower limb with no systemic manifestations. There was no discharge and bullae from the swelling area of the leg. He had high blood sugar and was newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis. An intravenous imipenem-cilastatin 500 mg every 6 h together with clindamycin 900 mg every 8 h was started empirically. Extensive wound debridement was performed. The swab culture obtained intraoperatively grew He required an above knee amputation due to worsening infection despite wound debridement. Post-operatively, he developed acute kidney injury with severe metabolic acidosis, which required daily hemodialysis. However, the patient deteriorated due to septic shock with multi-organ failure, resulting in his death.
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November 2020

Lumbar tinea versicolor and spinal anaesthesia.

IDCases 2019 30;16:e00520. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Anaesthesiology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Infection to the meningeal layer causing meningitis is one of the most feared complications of spinal anaesthesia. Anaesthetists will avoid spinal anaesthesia for those who are having skin infection at the puncture site. However in obstetric population, anaesthetist will try their best to avoid general anaesthesia due to its unwanted effects and complications. Strict and appropriate antiseptic measures such as chlorhexidine 0.5% with 70% alcohol has been suggested to reduce risk of transmission of microorganisms into subarachnoid space. We reported a parturient who had generalized tinea versicolor at the lumbar area, safely anaesthetized under spinal anaesthesia through meticulous antiseptic skin preparation who required delivery by caesarean section.
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March 2019

Undiagnosed chicken meat aspiration as a cause of difficult-to-ventilate in a boy with traumatic brain injury.

Respir Med Case Rep 2018 8;23:93-95. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Introduction: Bronchoscopy is a commonly used procedure in the context of aspiration in the Intensive Care Unit setting. Despite its ability to remove mucus plug and undigested gastric contents, aspiration of gastric content into the trachea is one of the most feared complications among anesthesiologist.

Discussion: The scenario is made worst if the aspiration causes acute hypoxemic respiratory failure immediately post intubation. However, in the event of desaturation, the quick decision to proceed with bronchoscopy is a challenging task to the anesthesiologist without knowing the causes.

Case Presentation: We present a case of a 12-year-old boy who had a difficult-to-ventilate scenario post transferring and immediately connected to ventilator in operation theatre (OT) from portable ventilator from the emergency department. She was successfully managed by bronchoscopy.

Conclusion: Special attention should be given to the difficult-to-ventilate scenario post intubation of traumatic brain injury patient prior to operation. Prompt diagnosis and bronchoscope-assisted removal of foreign body was found to be a successful to reduce morbidity and mortality.
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January 2018

Factors that influence pain intensity and fentanyl requirements after a gynecologic laparotomy.

Pain Manag Nurs 2013 Jun 26;14(2):102-9. Epub 2011 Feb 26.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.

The association between pain intensity and its control by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) with fentanyl after a laparotomy for cystectomy/salphingoophorectomy, myomectomy, or hysterectomy was investigated. IV fentanyl infusion was administered to patients (n = 94) at 3 μg/kg/h to provide intraoperative analgesia after induction of general anesthesia. Postoperative fentanyl requirements were quantified via IV-PCA, and the amounts of rescue fentanyl required both during and after surgery were recorded. Mean values for PCA use as well as the visual analog scores (VAS) for pain were documented for up to 24 hours. The association between postoperative fentanyl requirements and VAS were then analyzed by using Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Patients with lower midline incisions had greater degrees of pain (p < .05) during the first 16 hours after surgery but did not consume more fentanyl compared with patients with Pfannenstiel incisions. Subjects who underwent operations lasting >4 hours required more rescue fentanyl during surgery (p < .05). However, this group consumed less fentanyl during the first 4 hours after surgery (p < .05). The demand at the fourth 4-hour period was lower among subjects undergoing myomectomy compared with cystectomy/salphingoophorectomy or hysterectomy (p = .045). Only a poor correlation was observed between pain intensity and analgesic usage. Postoperative pain intensity is influenced by the type of surgical incision but not the type of gynecologic surgery nor the duration of surgery. The relationship between subjective pain ratings with analgesic consumption is weak. Prolonged intraoperative administration of continuous IV fentanyl infusion may reduce fentanyl requirements in the immediate postoperative period.
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June 2013

Hand decontamination practices and the appropriate use of gloves in two adult intensive care units in Malaysia.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2010 Mar 8;4(2):118-23. Epub 2010 Mar 8.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Hand decontamination is a critical infection control practice in the prevention of nosocomial infection. This study was conducted to observe the hand hygiene practices of nurses and doctors in two intensive care units (ICUs) in Malaysia.

Methodology: Staff members were observed during patient contacts, and their hand washing techniques and hand hygiene practices were monitored. Five contact periods were observed for staff members while they cared for their assigned patients. Hand hygiene practices before and after patient contacts were categorized as clean uncontaminated, clean recontaminated, new gloves, and unchanged contaminated gloves. Compliance to hand-washing steps and time taken for hand washing were analyzed. Appropriate use of gloves based on CDC criteria also was assessed.

Results: Compliance to hand hygiene practices was 70% before each patient contact. Staff members did not completely adhere to the hand-washing steps. The average time taken to wash hands was 20 seconds, and the necessary steps (rubbing palm over dorsum; rubbing fingers interlaced, and rotational rubbing of thumbs) were practiced minimally by all staff. Hand washing protocol was generally followed by all staff (100%). Alcohol hand rubs were available but were used moderately (60%); when used, staff members did not wait for the alcohol to dry. Only 4% of staff changed contaminated gloves between patients.

Conclusions: Hand hygiene compliance by ICU staff members needs to be improved. Improving adherence to correct hand hygiene techniques will require effective education programs and behavioral modification techniques. Moreover, hand hygiene guidelines must be incorporated into new staff orientation programs and the continuing education curriculum in the two hospitals studied.
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March 2010

Ventilator-associated nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care units in Malaysia.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2009 Oct 22;3(9):704-10. Epub 2009 Oct 22.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: The outcome indicator of nosocomial infection (NI) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is used to benchmark the quality of patient care in Malaysia. We conducted a three-year prospective study on the incidences of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), risk factors, and patterns of the microorganisms isolated in three ICUs.

Methodology: A follow-up in prospective cohort surveillance was conducted on patients admitted to an adult medical-surgical ICU of a university hospital and two governmental hospitals in Malaysia from October 2003 to December 2006. VAP was detected using CDC criteria which included clinical manifestation and confirmed endotracheal secretion culture results.

Results: In total, 215 patients (2,306 patient-days) were enrolled into the study. The incidence of ICU-acquired device-related NI was 29.3 % (n = 63). The device-related VAP infection rate was 27.0 % (n = 58), with a mechanical ventilator utilization rate of 88.7%. The death rate due to all ICU-acquired NI including sepsis was 6.5%. The most common causative pathogen was Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 27). Multivariate analysis using Cox regression showed that the risk factors identified were aspiration pneumonia (HR = 4.09; 95% CI = 1.24, 13.51; P = 0.021), cancer (HR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.27, 4.97; P = 0.008), leucocytosis (HR=3.43; 95% CI= 1.60, 7.37; P=0.002) and duration of mechanical ventilation (HR=1.04; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.08; P = 0.030). Age, gender and race were not identified as risk factors in the multivariable analysis performed.

Conclusion: The incidence of VAP was comparable to that found in the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) System report of June 1998. The incidence of VAP was considered high for the three hospitals studied.
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October 2009