Publications by authors named "Nigel Brunton"

53 Publications

The Effect of Carnosol, Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid on the Oxidative Stability of Fat-Filled Milk Powders throughout Accelerated Oxidation Storage.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 11;10(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Food BioSciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, D15 KN3K Dublin, Ireland.

The in vitro antioxidant effects of the most potent antioxidants of rosemary, namely carnosol, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid (c: ca: ra) were assessed in fat-filled milk powders (FFMPs) under accelerated conditions (40 °C and relative humidity (RH) 23%) over 90 days. Lipid oxidation was assessed in FFMPs by measuring peroxide values (PVs), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aroma volatiles using headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant potency of c: ca: ra exhibited a concentration-related effect (308 ppm > 200 ppm > 77 ppm), with the highest concentration being the most effective at controlling the formation of TBARS and PVs. At a concentration of 308 ppm c: ca: ra were particularly effective ( < 0.05) in inhibiting all the evaluated oxidation indices (primary and secondary) compared to the control samples, but in some cases less effectively ( < 0.05) than butylated hydroxyanisole: butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA: BHT) (200 ppm).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151479PMC
May 2021

High-Pressure Processing for the Production of Added-Value Claw Meat from Edible Crab ().

Foods 2021 Apr 27;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, D04 V1W8 Dublin, Ireland.

High-pressure processing (HPP) in a large-scale industrial unit was explored as a means for producing added-value claw meat products from edible crab (). Quality attributes were comparatively evaluated on the meat extracted from pressurized (300 MPa/2 min, 300 MPa/4 min, 500 MPa/2 min) or cooked (92 °C/15 min) chelipeds (i.e., the limb bearing the claw), before and after a thermal in-pack pasteurization ( = 10). Satisfactory meat detachment from the shell was achieved due to HPP-induced cold protein denaturation. Compared to cooked or cooked-pasteurized counterparts, pressurized claws showed significantly higher yield ( < 0.05), which was possibly related to higher intra-myofibrillar water as evidenced by relaxometry data, together with lower volatile nitrogen levels. The polyunsaturated fatty acids content was unaffected, whereas the inactivation of total viable psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria increased with treatment pressure and time (1.1-1.9 log CFU g). Notably, pressurization at 300 MPa for 4 min resulted in meat with no discolorations and, after pasteurization, with high color similarity (Δ = 1.2-1.9) to conventionally thermally processed samples. Following further investigations into eating quality and microbiological stability, these HPP conditions could be exploited for producing uncooked ready-to-heat or pasteurized ready-to-eat claw meat products from edible crab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10050955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146872PMC
April 2021

Bisphenol A and Metabolites in Meat and Meat Products: Occurrence, Toxicity, and Recent Development in Analytical Methods.

Foods 2021 Mar 27;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used compound in many industries and has versatile applications in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins production. BPA is classified as endocrine-disrupting chemical which can hamper fetal development during pregnancy and may have long term negative health outcomes in humans. Dietary sources, main route of BPA exposure, can be contaminated by the migration of BPA into food during processing. The global regulatory framework for using this compound in food contact materials is currently not harmonized. This review aims to outline, survey, and critically evaluate BPA contamination in meat products, including level of BPA and/or metabolites present, exposure route, and recent advancements in the analytical procedures of these compounds from meat and meat products. The contribution of meat and meat products to the total dietary exposure of BPA ranges between 10 and 50% depending on the country and exposure scenario considered. From can lining materials of meat products, BPA migrates towards the solid phase resulting higher BPA concentration in solid phase than the liquid phase of the same can. The analytical procedure is comprised of meat sample pre-treatment, followed by cleaning with solid phase extraction (SPE), and chromatographic analysis. Considering several potential sources of BPA in industrial and home culinary practices, BPA can also accumulate in non-canned or raw meat products. Very few scientific studies have been conducted to identify the amount in raw meat products. Similarly, analysis of metabolites and identification of the origin of BPA contamination in meat products is still a challenge to overcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066211PMC
March 2021

Effect of Cold Plasma on Meat Cholesterol and Lipid Oxidation.

Foods 2020 Dec 1;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Food Chemistry and Technology, Teagasc Food Research Centre, 15 Dublin, Ireland.

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a novel non-thermal technology with potential applications in inactivating microorganisms in food products. However, its impact on food quality is not yet fully understood. The aim of this research is to study the impact of in-package plasma technology on the stability of cholesterol and total lipid in four different types of meat (beef, pork, lamb and chicken breast). Additionally, any changes in the primary or secondary lipid oxidation, which is undesirable from a health perspective, is investigated. CAP was not found to have any impact on the cholesterol or lipid content. However, higher peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were found for the treated samples, indicating that plasma can induce the acceleration of primary and secondary lipid oxidation. Finally, color was not affected by the treatment supporting the suitability of the technology for meat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9121786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761521PMC
December 2020

Fruit, vegetables, and mushrooms for the preparation of extracts with α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties: A review.

Food Chem 2021 Feb 17;338:128119. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

The inhibition of the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity facilitates the maintenance of circulating glucose levels by decreasing the rate of blood sugar absorption. Existing enzyme inhibitors such as acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose are used for inhibiting the activity of these enzymes, however, alternative solutions are required to avoid the side-effects of using these drugs. The current study aims to review recent evidence regarding the in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of extracts derived from selected fruit, vegetables, and mushrooms. The mechanisms of action of the extracts involved in the inhibition of both enzymes are also presented and discussed. Compounds including flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, saponins, carotenoids, terpenes, sugars, proteins, capsaicinoids, fatty acids, alkaloids have been shown to have α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities. Harvesting period, maturity stage, sample preparation, extraction technique, and solvent type are parameters that affect the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of the extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128119DOI Listing
February 2021

Monitoring the effect of different microwave extraction parameters on the recovery of polyphenols from shiitake mushrooms: Comparison with hot-water and organic-solvent extractions.

Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2020 Sep 8;27:e00504. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

The current study aimed to investigate the effect of different microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) parameters (i.e., particle size of the sample, solid-to-liquid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time) on the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and CUPRAC), chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid contents of shiitake mushrooms. All the independent variables affected TPC and antioxidant capacity values. Only the sample particle size had no significant effect on phenolic acid contents. The highest TPC, DPPH, and CUPRAC values were obtained when a particle size of 1.75 mm, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1/40, microwave power of 600 W, and extraction time of 15 min were used. The extracts obtained by MAE were compared with those obtained after hot-water extraction (HWE) and organic-solvent extraction (OSE). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that MAE resulted in cell wall disruption which might be due to an increase in the pressure of the inner part of the cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358658PMC
September 2020

Evaluation of the impact of chlorophyll removal techniques on polyphenols in rosemary and thyme by-products.

J Food Biochem 2020 03 21;44(3):e13148. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Food BioSciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre Ashtown, Dublin, Ireland.

The impact of dechlorophyllization (n-hexane: water partitioning, activated charcoal bleaching, and ChloroFiltr® decolorization) on major polyphenols of two herbal by-products (rosemary and thyme) was assessed. The aim was to produce decolorized extracts for food preservation and improve the quantification of their main phenolics. Activated charcoal bleaching and ChloroFiltr® decolorization effectively removed the chlorophyll a and b, whereas traces were detected after n-hexane: water partitioning. Dechlorophyllized thyme extracts prepared using activated charcoal and ChloroFiltr® had the lowest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) values based on 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assays. Conversely, rosemary extracts had positive RACI values following treatment with activated charcoal, whereas n-hexane led to a significant antioxidant loss. Chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic diterpenes (carnosol and carnosic acid), as well as rosmarinic acid were in general not significantly decreased (p ˃ .05) after activated charcoal treatment, while n-hexane maintained the flavonoids and phenolic acids with nonsignificant losses. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Commercial exploitation of polyphenol-rich plant based extracts as natural antioxidant agents is impeded by their high chlorophyll content, which when incorporated in food products can result in products that do not meet the consumer expectations for appearance. This study has shown that the activated charcoal bleaching has potentials to remove chlorophyll and retain antioxidant polyphenols in particular diterpenes in fresh herb by-products. Moreover, the commonly used n-hexane was less effective in removing chlorophyll but retained the major flavonoids and phenolic acids. Thus, the choice of chlorophyll removal methods depend on retaining the class of antioxidant polyphenols abundant in the plant matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13148DOI Listing
March 2020

Effects of dietary fat sources on the intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and consumer acceptability of lamb.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Mar 23;100(5):2176-2184. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Background: Lamb diets can alter the fatty acid (FA) profile of muscle and adipose tissue, which may affect the sensory quality and consumer acceptability of the meat. In this study, lambs received one of four pre-slaughter diets: a barley / maize / soya-based concentrate (C), supplemented with a saturated fat source (Megalac®) (SAT), or supplemented with protected linseed oil (PLO); or a by-product (citrus pulp / distillers' grain / soya-based) diet (BPR). Intramuscular FAs and adipose tissue branched-chain FAs were measured and consumer evaluation (hedonic liking and attribute intensity) was undertaken with cooked lamb.

Results: Compared to the other diets, the BPR diet resulted in a higher muscle concentration and a greater proportion of C18:2n-6, and greater proportions of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-C18:2) and n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), whereas the PLO diet resulted in higher muscle proportions of C18:0 and saturated FAs, higher concentrations of C18:3n-3 and n-3 PUFA, and a lower n-6 to n-3 ratio. The consumer acceptability of lamb was not affected by the pre-slaughter diets.

Conclusion: Changes in the FA profile of lamb muscle and adipose tissue through the inclusion of sources of saturated fat, protected linseed oil, or by-products in the pre-slaughter diet did not result in consumer detection of significant effects on the acceptability of the cooked meat. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10242DOI Listing
March 2020

A Validated Method for Cholesterol Determination in Turkey Meat Products Using Relative Response Factors.

Foods 2019 Dec 15;8(12). Epub 2019 Dec 15.

School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.

The objective of this study was to develop a precise and accurate method to quantify cholesterol in turkey meat products using relative response factors, based on a modification of a previously published method for plant sterols determination. Validation was performed using neat solutions to determine linearity, precision, and accuracy. The method was linear in the concentration range considered (1-20 µg/mL, ≥ 0.991). Precision and accuracy were within the acceptability guidelines of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for method validation (<20% relative standard deviation (RSD) at the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and <15% RSD for other standards). Turkey meat was spiked with cholesterol at two levels (low = 3 µg/mL and high = 18 µg/mL), either before or after saponification, to establish the recovery and matrix effects. Recovery ranged from 94% to 105%, with a mean value of 105% at the low spike level and 95% at the high spike level. No significant matrix effects were found (90% to 112% recovery). This method is reliable for the quantification of cholesterol in turkey meat products in the range 0.4-8 mg/g.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8120684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963977PMC
December 2019

Effect of finishing diet and duration on the sensory quality and volatile profile of lamb meat.

Food Res Int 2019 01 2;115:54-64. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

University College Dublin, School of Agriculture and Food Science, Dublin 4, Ireland. Electronic address:

Animal production factors can affect the sensory quality of lamb meat. The study investigated the effect of diet composition and duration of consumption on the proximate analysis, volatile profile and sensory quality of lamb meat. Ninety-nine male Texel × Scottish Blackface lambs were raised at pasture for 10 months before being assigned in groups of 11 to one of the following treatments: 100% Silage (S) for 36 (S36), 54 (S54) or 72 (S72) days; 50% Silage - 50% Concentrate (SC) for 36 (SC36), 54 (SC54) or 72 (SC72) days; 100% Concentrate (C) for 36 (C36) or 54 (C54) or 72 (C72) days. A trained sensory panel found Intensity of Lamb Aroma, Dry Aftertaste and Astringent Aftertaste to be higher in meat from lambs on the concentrate diet. Discriminant analysis showed that the volatile profile enabled discrimination of lamb based on dietary treatment but the volatile differences were insufficient to impact highly on sensory quality. Muscle from animals in the S54 group had higher Manure/Faecal Aroma and Woolly Aroma than the SC54 and C54 groups, possibly related to higher levels of indole and skatole. Further research is required to establish if these small differences would influence consumer acceptability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.07.063DOI Listing
January 2019

Validation of a Rapid Microwave-Assisted Extraction Method and GC-FID Quantification of Total Branched Chain Fatty Acids in Lamb Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

J Food Sci 2019 Jan 17;84(1):80-85. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Agriculture and Food Science, Univ. College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, 4, Ireland.

A rapid microwave-assisted extraction and derivatization of three branched chain fatty acids (BCFA): 4-methyloctanoic acid (MOA), 4-ethyloctanoic acid (EOA) and 4-methylnonanoic acid (MNA) from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of lamb was developed and validated. Linearity was excellent (R > 0.99), and the limits of detection and quantification (μg/mL) were between 0.03 to 0.05 and 0.04 to 0.06, respectively. The relative response factors were 0.9416, 1.2840, and 1.0370 determined with high precision (RSD: 5.8%, 6.7%, and 5.9%) for MOA, EOA, and MNA, respectively. The accuracy, recoveries and matrix effect were 92.5% to 108.3%, 103.1% to 103.8%, and 89.3% to 101.9%, respectively. Analysis of 24 SAT samples can be done in under 4 hr. The levels of total BCFA in SAT of lambs were in good agreement with levels found in literature using more time-consuming method. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Microwave-assisted preparation and quantification of branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) in lamb subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was developed and validated. This method requires the use of less toxic chemicals and a relatively higher number of samples can be analyzed in a short period of time in comparison to established methods of fatty acid analysis. The validated method met the internationally accepted standards, and the BCFA levels in lamb SAT were consistent with published values; consequently, the method can be used for future analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14410DOI Listing
January 2019

The Effect of Organic Acid, Trisodium Phosphate and Essential Oil Component Immersion Treatments on the Microbiology of Cod () during Chilled Storage.

Foods 2018 Dec 8;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, 15 Dublin, Ireland.

Spoilage is a major issue for the seafood sector with the sale and exportation of fish limited by their short shelf-life. The immediate and storage effects of immersion (30 s at 20 °C) with 5% (/) citric acid (CA), 5% (/) lactic acid (LA), 5% (/) capric acid (CP) and 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP) (experiment 1) and essential oil components (EOC) (1% (/) citral (CIT), 1% (/) carvacrol (CAR), 1% (/) thymol (THY) and 1% (/) eugenol (EUG)) (experiment 2) on the concentrations of indicator (total viable counts (TVC) (mesophilic and psychrophilic) and total counts (TEC)), and spoilage organisms ( spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), , spp. and hydrogen sulphide producing bacteria (HSPB)) on cod () (stored aerobically at 2 °C) was investigated. There was no significant reduction for most treatment-bacteria combinations, with the following exceptions; TSP and TVC (time = 6), TSP and TVC ( = 6), CP and LAB ( = 6, 8 and 10), CP and ( = 4, 6, 8, 10, 14 and 16), TSP and spp. ( = 4), CAR and ( = 6) and CAR and HSPB ( = 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18). Although the majority of treatments did not significantly ( > 0.05) reduce bacterial counts, the limited success with CP and CAR warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods7120200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306782PMC
December 2018

Spoilage indicator bacteria in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored on ice for 10 days.

Food Microbiol 2019 Feb 2;77:38-42. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland. Electronic address:

This study investigated the growth of indicator and spoilage bacteria on whole Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored aerobically at 2 °C. On days 0, 2, 3, 6, 8 and 10 microbiological analysis was carried out on inner flesh and outer skin samples as well as outer skin swabs (25 cm surface areas). Mesophilic total viable counts (TVC) on skin, flesh and swab samples increased from 1.9, 1.1 and 2.7 log CFUcm to 6.0, 5.1 and 5.7 log CFU/cm after 10 days, respectively. Psychrotrophic counts (TVC), increased from 2.2, 1.8 and 3.1 log CFU/cm to 6.2, 5.3 and 5.9 log CFU/cm, for skin, flesh and swab samples respectively. Hydrogen sulphide producing bacteria (HSPB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and Photobacterium spp. grew well with similar growth rates (mean generation times of 17.2-26 h). It was concluded that the shelf-life of salmon at 2 °C was approximately 10 days and that HSPB, LAB, Pseudomonas spp., Br. thermosphacta and Photobacterium spp. may be a better indicator of fish spoilage rather than TVC growth, with a count of 5-6 log CFU/cm indicating the end of shelf-life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2018.08.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Volatile Profile of Grilled Lamb as Affected by Castration and Age at Slaughter in Two Breeds.

J Food Sci 2018 Oct 25;83(10):2466-2477. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

School of Agriculture and Food Science, Univ. College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of castration and slaughter age on the volatile profile of cooked meat from Scottish Blackface (SB) and Texel × Scottish Blackface (T × SB) lambs. M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sampled at slaughter and subjected to volatile analysis by SPME-GC-MS. Rams had higher relative proportions, expressed as relative abundance (RA), in lipid oxidation products while castrates had higher RA in pyrazines and benzenoid compounds. There was no consistent age effect on the RA of volatiles, although rams in November and January had a different volatile profile to castrates. There were higher proportions of free branched-chain fatty acids in muscle from SB compared to T × SB lambs. Overall, the results showed that production factors affected the volatile profile of cooked lamb meat which may explain differences in lamb flavor.

Practical Application: Lamb meat has a characteristic flavor which, according to the evidence to date, may be influenced by farm production factors like gender or slaughter age. Our results showed variations in the proportions of some flavor compounds in cooked lamb between rams and castrated lambs while an increase in slaughter age did not have a consistent effect on proportions of compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14337DOI Listing
October 2018

Increasing the Yield of Irish Brown Crab () during Processing without Adversely Affecting Shelf-Life.

Foods 2018 Jun 27;7(7). Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland.

During the processing of Irish Brown Crab (), protein and moisture are released and losses up to 10% (by weight) are common. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of clean label ingredients to reduce this loss, without adversely affecting shelf-life or promoting the growth of spoilage bacteria. Following preliminary studies, 5% () sodium caseinate (SC) and (5%, ) potato starch (PS), with and without (0.5%, ) ascorbic acid (AA) were selected. Ninety crabs (30 per treatment) were soaked and boiled in water (control 1), AA (control 2), SC, PS, SC plus AA, or PS plus AA and analyzed for cook loss as well as pH, aw, water holding capacity (WHC), and microbial shelf-life (total viable count (TVC), total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC), and spoilage bacteria) during 28 days storage at 4 °C. On average, 11.1% of the control 1 weight was lost during processing. This was reduced to 8.0% when treated with AA (control 2) and to 3.5%, 4.7%, 5.8%, and 2.3% with SC, PS, SC plus AA, and PS plus AA, respectively. None of these treatments negatively impacted on shelf-life and similar growth curves were observed for TVC, TEC, spp., spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and hydrogen disulphide producing bacteria, regardless of treatment. It was therefore concluded that, subject to sensory evaluation and validation under commercial conditions, these natural ingredients could be used to substantially increase the yield and hence commercial value of crab meat, without adversely affecting shelf-life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods7070099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6068797PMC
June 2018

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Polyphenols in Lamiaceae Plants-A Review.

Plants (Basel) 2018 Mar 26;7(2). Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Food BioSciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre Ashtown, D15 KN3K Dublin, Ireland.

species are promising potential sources of natural antioxidants, owing to their high polyphenol content. In addition, increasing scientific and epidemiological evidence have associated consumption of foods rich in polyphenols with health benefits such as decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases mediated through anti-inflammatory effects. The complex and diverse nature of polyphenols and the huge variation in their levels in commonly consumed herbs make their analysis challenging. Innovative robust analytical tools are constantly developing to meet these challenges. In this review, we present advances in the state of the art for the identification and quantification of polyphenols in species. Novel chromatographic techniques that have been employed in the past decades are discussed, ranging from ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography to hyphenated spectroscopic methods, whereas performance characteristics such as selectivity and specificity are also summarized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants7020025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027318PMC
March 2018

Effect of mode of addition of flaxseed oil on the quality characteristics of chicken sausage containing vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids at levels to support a health claim.

Food Funct 2017 Oct;8(10):3563-3575

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids can be incorporated into meat products at levels supporting health claims of "protecting against oxidative stress" and "maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels", respectively. Chicken sausages were formulated to contain vitamin E (12 mg per 100 g) and flaxseed oil (2 g per 100 g) using different oil incorporation methods. The formulations were: (1) control (no oil); (2) oil; (3) emulsified oil; (4) freeze-dried encapsulated oil; (5) freeze-dried encapsulated oil with cross-linker genipin; (6) spray-dried encapsulated oil. α-Linolenic acid and α-tocopherol were retained in all fortified formulations at levels to meet nutrient and health claims but emulsification or encapsulation had no additional benefit in retention following cooking or on product quality as measured by proximate composition, lipid oxidation, colour, microbial analysis, cook loss and texture profile analysis. While the addition of flaxseed oil had a negative effect on consumer acceptance of flavour (although not when emulsified), overall acceptance of the chicken sausages was only reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) when oil was encapsulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7fo00929aDOI Listing
October 2017

Fatty acid, volatile and sensory characteristics of beef as affected by grass silage or pasture in the bovine diet.

Food Chem 2017 Nov 5;235:86-97. Epub 2017 May 5.

Teagasc, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Grange, Dunsany, Co. Meath, Ireland. Electronic address:

Fatty acids, volatile compounds and sensory attributes of beef from bulls fed concentrates to slaughter (C), grass silage for 120days (GS) followed by C (GSC), or GS followed by 100days at pasture and then C (GSPC), and slaughtered at 3 target carcass weights, were determined. Total intramuscular fat (IMF) was lower for GSPC than for GSC and C. C18:3n-3 concentration and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio were higher and C18:2n-6 and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio lower for GSPC than C. C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1c9 increased with carcass weight when expressed quantitatively, but not when expressed proportionately. Hexanal concentration was higher and 2-methyl-1-butanol and toluene lower for C and GSC than for GSPC. Overall liking was negatively correlated with C20:5n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratio, but differences in sensory attributes (tenderness, flavour liking, overall liking) were most strongly correlated with IMF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.05.025DOI Listing
November 2017

Quality attributes and retention of vitamin E in reduced salt chicken sausages fortified with vitamin E.

J Food Sci Technol 2016 Nov 12;53(11):3948-3959. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

The effect of salt reduction and vitamin E (α-tocopherol) fortification, at a level in excess of that required for a European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) health claim, on the quality of chicken sausages was investigated. Four formulations of chicken sausages were prepared: C (control, 1.3% NaCl, 0 mg/kg added α-tocopherol), L (low salt, 0.47% NaCl, 0 mg/kg added α-tocopherol), CE (1.3% NaCl, 200 mg/kg added α-tocopherol), LE (0.47% NaCl, 200 mg/kg added α-tocopherol). Salt or α-tocopherol level did not significantly affect the fat content, protein content, moisture content, lipid oxidation, microbial growth, cook loss or texture profile analysis values of raw or cooked sausages. There was a significant effect of salt level on the ash content of raw and cooked sausages. Colour of cooked sausages was affected by salt reduction, with fried low salt sausages being darker and yellower than control, while grilled low salt sausages were lighter and redder than control. Cooking and storage did not significantly affect α-tocopherol retention, and enough was retained to meet both the EFSA nutrient and health claims. The sensory properties of the sausages were unaffected by the reduction in salt, and by fortification with α-tocopherol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2385-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5156637PMC
November 2016

Antioxidant-guided isolation and mass spectrometric identification of the major polyphenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain.

Food Chem 2016 Nov 21;210:212-20. Epub 2016 Apr 21.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland.

In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613.17), were identified as constituents of the fraction with highest antioxidant capacity. Upon identification of phenolics in the other active fractions, the order of most potent contributors to observed antioxidant capacity of barley extract were, flavanols>flavonols (quercetin)>hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, caffeic, coumaric acids). The most abundant polyphenol in the overall extract was ferulic acid (277.7μg/gdw barley), followed by procyanidin B (73.7μg/gdw barley).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.098DOI Listing
November 2016

Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries.

Molecules 2016 Mar 25;21(4):403. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

Department of Food Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, D15 DY05 Dublin, Ireland.

The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries). The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6273710PMC
March 2016

In silico and in vitro analyses of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of hydrolysates generated from crude barley (Hordeum vulgare) protein concentrates.

Food Chem 2016 Jul 15;203:367-374. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland.

Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) plays a key role in control of hypertension, and type-2 diabetes mellitus, which frequently co-exist. Our current work utilised in silico methodologies and peptide databases as tools for predicting release of ACE-I inhibitory peptides from barley proteins. Papain was the enzyme of choice, based on in silico analysis, for experimental hydrolysis of barley protein concentrate, which was performed at the enzyme's optimum conditions (60 °C, pH 6.0) for 24 h. The generated hydrolysate was subjected to molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filtration, following which the non-ultrafiltered hydrolysate (NUFH), and the generated 3 kDa and 10 kDa MWCO filtrates were assessed for their in vitro ACE-I inhibitory activities. The 3 kDa filtrate (1 mg/ml), that demonstrated highest ACE-I inhibitory activity of 70.37%, was characterised in terms of its peptidic composition using mass spectrometry and 1882 peptides derived from 61 barley proteins were identified, amongst which 15 peptides were selected for chemical synthesis based on their predicted ACE-I inhibitory properties. Of the synthesized peptides, FQLPKF and GFPTLKIF were most potent, demonstrating ACE-I IC50 values of 28.2 μM and 41.2 μM respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.097DOI Listing
July 2016

In Vitro Protocols for Measuring the Antioxidant Capacity of Algal Extracts.

Methods Mol Biol 2015 ;1308:375-402

Department of Food Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin, 15, Ireland.

In the last decade a large amount of research has been directed at targeting algal resources for biologically active molecules. High-throughput in vitro antioxidant assays are routinely used to screen for biologically active compounds present in algal extracts when the requirement is to identify samples for progression to more detailed biological scrutiny. Whilst a myriad of antioxidant assays have been developed, this present chapter aims to give step-by-step practical guidance on how to carry out some of the most popular and biologically relevant assays at the bench.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2684-8_24DOI Listing
March 2016

Optimisation and validation of ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of potato steroidal alkaloids.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2015 Aug 9;997:110-5. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.

An ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for quantification of potato steroidal alkaloids, namely α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine was developed and validated. Three different column chemistries, i.e. ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) C18, hydrophilic lipophilic interaction and amide columns, were assessed. The BEH C18 column showed best separation and sensitivity for the alkaloids. Validation data (inter-day and intra-day combined) for accuracy and recovery ranged from 94.3 to 107.7% and 97.0 to 103.5%, respectively. The accuracy data were within the acceptable range of 15% as outlined in the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) guidelines. The recovery data were consistent and reproducible with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 6.2 to 9.7%. In addition, precision of the method also met the criteria of the USFDA with CV values lower than 15% even at lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), while the permissible variation is considered acceptable below 20%. The limit of detection and LLOQ of the four alkaloids were in the range of 0.001-0.004μg/mL whereas the linearities of the standard curves were between 0.980 and 0.995.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2015.05.033DOI Listing
August 2015

A Review of Extraction and Analysis of Bioactives in Oat and Barley and Scope for Use of Novel Food Processing Technologies.

Molecules 2015 Jun 12;20(6):10884-909. Epub 2015 Jun 12.

Food Science and Nutrition, School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Oat and barely are cereal crops mainly used as animal feed and for the purposes of malting and brewing, respectively. Some studies have indicated that consumption of oat and barley rich foods may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, type II diabetes and cancer. Whilst there is no absolute consensus, some of these benefits may be linked to presence of compounds such as phenolics, vitamin E and β-glucan in these cereals. A number of benefits have also been linked to the lipid component (sterols, fatty acids) and the proteins and bioactive peptides in oats and barley. Since the available evidence is pointing toward the possible health benefits of oat and barley components, a number of authors have examined techniques for recovering them from their native sources. In the present review, we summarise and examine the range of conventional techniques that have been used for the purpose of extraction and detection of these bioactives. In addition, the recent advances in use of novel food processing technologies as a substitute to conventional processes for extraction of bioactives from oats and barley, has been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules200610884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6272431PMC
June 2015

Recovery of steroidal alkaloids from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction.

Molecules 2015 May 13;20(5):8560-73. Epub 2015 May 13.

Department of Food Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin D15, Ireland.

A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels) compared to conventional solid-liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels). Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol) for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules20058560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6272683PMC
May 2015

An assessment of the impact of pulsed electric fields processing factors on oxidation, color, texture, and sensory attributes of turkey breast meat.

Poult Sci 2015 May 25;94(5):1088-95. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland

Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel nonthermal technology that has the potential to cause physical disruption to muscle tissue which in turn could alter the sensorial aspects of meat in both a positive (e.g., enhanced tenderization) and a negative way (e.g., off-flavor development). If there is a risk of off-flavor development it should be identified prior to embarking on an extensive investigation on PEF in meat tenderization and turkey meat was chosen for this purpose as it is particularly prone to oxidation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various PEF treatments on the quality attributes of turkey breast meat. Turkey breast meat obtained 1 d postslaughter was treated in a batch PEF chamber with increasing electric field strength up to 3 kV/cm and analyzed for lipid oxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) with up to 5 d storage at 4°C in aerobic conditions. In a separate experiment, turkey breast meat samples were exposed to PEF under various combinations of pulse number, frequency, and voltage. Following PEF treatments weight loss, cook loss, lipid oxidation, texture, and color were assessed by instrumental methods. A sensory analysis was also performed to determine consumer acceptability for color, texture, and odor of the samples. Lipid oxidation in all PEF-treated samples progressed at the same rate with storage as the untreated samples and was not found to be significantly different to the control. Under the conditions examined PEF treatments did not induce differences in instrumentally measured weight loss, cook loss, lipid oxidation, texture, and color (raw and cooked) either on fresh or frozen samples. However, the sensory evaluation suggested that panelists could detect slight differences between the PEF-treated samples and the controls in terms of texture and odor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev097DOI Listing
May 2015

Synthesis of novel 24-amino-25,26,27-trinorlanost-8-enes: cytotoxic and apoptotic potential in U937 cells.

Bioorg Med Chem 2015 May 5;23(9):2270-80. Epub 2015 Mar 5.

Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility, Synthesis and Solid State Pharmaceutical Centre, University College Cork, Ireland. Electronic address:

In the present study, the synthesis of a range of novel 24-amino-25,26,27-trinorlanost-8-ene derivatives including 24-piperadino-trinorlanost-8-enes, 24-piperazino-trinorlanost-8-enes, 24-morpholino-trinorlanost-8-enes, and 24-diethylamino-trinorlanost-8-enes is reported and their cytotoxic and apoptotic potential evaluated in U937 cell lines. Excellent IC₅₀ results for piperidine and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine derivatives have been observed (IC₅₀ values of 1.9 μM and 2.7 μM in U937 cells, respectively).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2015.02.034DOI Listing
May 2015

Exploring the effects of pulsed electric field processing parameters on polyacetylene extraction from carrot slices.

Molecules 2015 Mar 2;20(3):3942-54. Epub 2015 Mar 2.

Department of Food Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland.

The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1-4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100-1500), pulse frequency (10-200 Hz) and pulse width (10-30 μs) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p < 0.0001) the proposed second-order response functions with high regression coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.82 to 0.75. Maximal FaOH (188%), FaDOH (164.9%) and FaDOAc (166.8%) levels relative to untreated samples were obtained from carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules20033942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6272167PMC
March 2015

Profiling of the molecular weight and structural isomer abundance of macroalgae-derived phlorotannins.

Mar Drugs 2015 Jan 16;13(1):509-28. Epub 2015 Jan 16.

Department of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo, Ireland.

Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) unique to macroalgae. These phenolic compounds are integral structural components of the cell wall in brown algae, but also play many secondary ecological roles such as protection from UV radiation and defense against grazing. This study employed Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry to investigate isomeric complexity and observed differences in phlorotannins derived from macroalgae harvested off the Irish coast (Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata and Cystoseira nodicaulis). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content assays were used as an index for producing phlorotannin fractions, enriched using molecular weight cut-off dialysis with subsequent flash chromatography to profile phlorotannin isomers in these macroalgae. These fractions were profiled using UPLC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and the level of isomerization for specific molecular weight phlorotannins between 3 and 16 monomers were determined. The majority of the low molecular weight (LMW) phlorotannins were found to have a molecular weight range equivalent to 4-12 monomers of phloroglucinol. The level of isomerization within the individual macroalgal species differed, resulting in substantially different numbers of phlorotannin isomers for particular molecular weights. F. vesiculosus had the highest number of isomers of 61 at one specific molecular mass, corresponding to 12 phloroglucinol units (PGUs). These results highlight the complex nature of these extracts and emphasize the challenges involved in structural elucidation of these compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md13010509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4306949PMC
January 2015
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