Publications by authors named "Nigel Beail"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

What do we know about non-epileptic seizures in adults with intellectual disability: A narrative review.

Seizure 2021 Oct 23;91:437-446. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Academic Neurology Unit, University of Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) superficially resemble epileptic seizures, but are not associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain. PNES are a heterogeneous entity and while there is increasing interest in the characterisation of PNES sub-groups, little is known about individuals with PNES who have an intellectual disability (ID). ID is a lifelong condition characterised by significant limitations in cognitive, social and practical skills. ID (commonly with comorbid epilepsy) has been identified as a risk factor for developing PNES. However, people with ID are often excluded from research in PNES. This has unfortunately resulted in a lack of evidence to help inform practice and policy for this population. This narrative review synthesises the currently available evidence in terms of the epidemiology, demographic and clinical profile of adults with PNES and ID. There is a particular focus on demographics, aetiological factors, PNES characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of the condition in this population. Throughout this article, we critique the existing evidence, discuss implications for clinical practice and highlight the need for further research and enquiry. What emerges from the evidence is that, even within the sub-group of those with ID, PNES are a heterogeneous condition. Individuals with ID and PNES are likely to present with diverse and complex needs requiring multidisciplinary care. This review is aimed at the broad range of healthcare professionals who may encounter this group. We hope that it will stimulate further discussion and research initiatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2021.07.021DOI Listing
October 2021

Intense connection and love: The experiences of autistic mothers.

Autism 2021 Oct 12;25(7):1973-1984. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

University of Sheffield, UK.

Lay Abstract: For many women, adulthood involves becoming a mother. Knowledge of how motherhood is experienced by autistic women is currently poor. Poor knowledge has a range of negative consequences and can lead to inappropriate support. In this study, nine autistic women were interviewed about their experiences of motherhood. Seven of the nine mothers had an officially diagnosed autistic child, the final two mothers also suspected at least one of their children to be autistic. Systematic in-depth analysis of interview transcripts identified a range of common themes. Participants largely experienced motherhood as joyful, rewarding, and enjoyable, though managing children's needs had a profound personal impact. Participants reflected on the need for self-care and self-acceptance, resulting in personal growth and adaptation. Participants also spoke of strong bonds, feelings of intense connection, and a range of shared experiences with their children. It was also clear that autistic motherhood is associated with a series of challenges unlikely to be experienced by non-autistic mothers, including the necessity of negotiating misunderstandings from others. The findings demonstrate that, generally, professionals need to be better educated on how autism presents in adulthood, including the fact that autistic women often engage in behaviour to mask their true self. Professionals need to know that there is potential for mismatching between emotional experience and facial expression, that autistic women have sensory needs (especially in pregnancy). Professionals frequently struggle to effectively take the needs and perspectives of autistic mothers into account, resulting in profoundly negative consequences for the mother.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13623613211005987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419292PMC
October 2021

Adults' experiences of living with pulmonary hypertension: a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

BMJ Open 2020 12 7;10(12):e041428. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

South Wales Clinical Psychology Training Programme, Cardiff University, Cardiff, South Glamorgan, UK.

Objectives: Pulmonary hypertension is a life-shortening disease that has a considerable impact on quality of life. Improving our understanding of how individuals are affected and cope with the disease will help to improve services and outcomes. This review synthesises the published qualitative research that has listened to adults discuss their experiences of living with the disease.

Design: A comprehensive systematic search of four databases was conducted in May 2020: Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library. Suitable studies were evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills programme. Findings from the studies were extracted and subjected to a thematic synthesis.

Results: Nineteen articles were identified reflecting the experiences of over 1900 individuals impacted by pulmonary hypertension from Europe, North and South America and Asia. Ten studies did not report participant's WHO functional class of pulmonary hypertension, which resulted in comparing experiences between different severity difficult. All studies met the majority of the quality assessment items. Six descriptive themes emerged discussing participant's experiences of diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, healthcare professionals, impact and coping with pulmonary hypertension. Four higher order analytical themes were developed from the descriptive themes, reflecting: (i) uncertainties and anxiety that participants encountered related to pulmonary hypertension; (ii) lack of recognition of the impact of the condition; (iii) frustration at the paucity of awareness of pulmonary hypertension in society and healthcare settings and (iv) participant's accounts of transitioning through different stages of living with the disease.

Conclusions: These findings form the first synthesis of experiences of life in individuals impacted by pulmonary hypertension and illustrate the multifaceted impact of the condition. The voices of numerous groups are missing from the literature highlighting the need for additional research. The results have implications for clinical practice emphasising the role of educational and psychological therapies to support those with the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722804PMC
December 2020

The relationship between cognitive variables and offending behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2020 Jul 20;33(4):779-792. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Interventions for offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID) have used cognitive variables as measures of treatment outcome. However, the relevance of cognitive variables to offending in people with intellectual disabilities is unclear. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence for a relationship between cognitive variables and offending in people with intellectual disabilities.

Method: A systematic search identified studies comparing offenders and non-offenders with intellectual disabilities on an aspect of cognition. Seven cognitive variables were found and compared across 15 studies. These were appraised for their quality using an adapted quality appraisal checklist. The reliability and validity of cognitive measures were also considered.

Results And Conclusions: Other than for cognitive distortions, the evidence for a relationship between cognitive variables and offending in people with intellectual disabilities is currently limited due to methodological weaknesses and the small number of studies assessing each variable. Clinicians are advised to focus on cognitive distortions until better evidence is available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12738DOI Listing
July 2020

The views of service users on the accessibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy.

Int J Dev Disabil 2018 Jun 8;64(3):175-183. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Purpose: This study aimed to assess how accessible, acceptable, and effective psychodynamic psychotherapy (PP) is perceived to be by service users.

Method: Interviews were conducted with 10 participants, who had finished, or were attending, PP. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Results: Most participants understood how they had accessed PP. However, a minority were unsure. Some found traveling to sessions anxiety-provoking and appreciated a friendly greeting upon arrival. Participants highlighted feeling listened to. However, many participants were unhappy about therapy ending and struggled to share what they had learned. Some were surprised by the content of sessions. Finally, most participants highlighted problems that had improved because of therapy.

Implications: Clinicians should ensure that service users understand the nature of PP before starting sessions and identify clear goals. Support traveling to sessions may improve attendance, Finally, the importance of planning the ending of therapy was highlighted.

Originality Value: The paper captures the views of those with ID on the accessibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of PP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20473869.2018.1458439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130728PMC
June 2018

Attitudes towards people with intellectual disability in the UK and Libya: A cross-cultural comparison.

Res Dev Disabil 2016 Apr-May;51-52:1-9. Epub 2016 Jan 9.

Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, UK.

Background: The attitude of the general population towards people with intellectual disability (ID) provides important background for policy development. Furthermore, because of changes in attitudes across cultures, it is vital to ground policy development for each country in data from that country.

Aims: This paper aimed to undertake a cross-cultural study, investigating attitudes to people with ID in Libya in the year 2011, and to compare the Libyan data with those for the UK.

Methods And Procedures: This paper provides a cross-cultural analysis of attitudes to people with ID, using a questionnaire study of three groups in Libya and in the UK: science students, psychology students and professionals in ID support. The questionnaire used was the established Community Living Attitude Scales for Mental Retardation (CLAS-MR).

Outcomes And Results: In terms of the four CLAS-MR sub-scales, the Libyan sample showed significantly less favourable scores on Empowerment, Similarity and Exclusion than the UK sample, but no significant difference on the Sheltering sub-scale. Within-country analysis indicated no main effects of gender on all four sub-scales in Libya and the UK.

Conclusions: This study is the first to undertake quantitative analysis of attitudes to people with ID in Libya. The attitudes were in general less favourable than in the UK and other Western countries, but showed similarities with studies of attitudes to people with ID in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2015.12.009DOI Listing
December 2016

Using qualitative methods in research with people who have intellectual disabilities.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2014 Mar 4;27(2):85-96. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Barnsley Adult Learning Disabilities Specialist Health Service, South West Yorkshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, UK; Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: JARID has a long and positive association with qualitative research dating back to its first issue. This paper looks at the development of qualitative methods and their application in the field of intellectual disability (ID).

Method: When invited to make a contribution on qualitative research for the 25th Anniversary of JARID, the present authors considered the options. We examined the frequency with which qualitative studies have been published in three major intellectual disability journals over a decade, and we considered attempting a systematic review or a meta-synthesis.

Results: The volume of published studies has increased, but there were too many across a diverse range of topics for a systematic review of qualitative research in general; but not enough for a systematic review or meta-synthesis with a particular focus. However, there were many issues that needed to be aired. This paper therefore contains some critical reflections on the use of qualitative methods.

Conclusion: If we want to hear the voices of people who have ID then we need appropriate ways to do this. Qualitative methods are playing an increasing role in bringing the unknown about people who have ID into the known. The approach plays a valuable role in informing us about the experiences and lives of people who have ID. However, we have identified many methodological issues which will need to be further explored. At the same time, we need to develop methods to enable increased participation of people who have ID in some aspects of research. The participatory paradigm is more established in qualitative approaches as it lends itself to participation in generating research questions, developing interview questions, conducting interviews and even stages of the analysis. There are clearly areas that need to be addressed by trained researchers and the whole process will need some facilitation and support. Writing up for journals is one aspect that could be very problematic: so other forms of dissemination need to be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12088DOI Listing
March 2014

A comparison of anger in offenders and non-offenders who have intellectual disabilities.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2013 Sep;26(5):466-70

Men's Personality Disorder Service, Rampton Hospital, Nottinghamshire Healthcare Trust, Retford, UK.

Background: There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy to treat anger in offenders with intellectual disabilities. The aim is to lower anger levels; the rationale is that this will reduce recidivism. However, the hypothesis that anger levels amongst offenders are higher than non-offenders has not been tested.

Method: The study utilizes a case-comparison design to examine whether levels of anger are higher amongst people with intellectual disabilities who have offended in comparison with those who have not offended. Anger levels are compared for 29 offenders with intellectual disabilities and 27 non-offenders with intellectual disabilities (all male).

Results: No differences were found between offenders and non-offenders on measures of anger. The offending group was shown to have higher levels of aggression.

Conclusions: Results suggest that there is no difference in levels of anger between offender and non-offenders to begin with. The limitations of the study are discussed, but the implication of the study questions the legitimacy of the rationale to utilize anger treatment to reduce recidivism in offenders with intellectual disabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12035DOI Listing
September 2013

Why do some people with intellectual disability engage in offending behaviour and what can we do about it? Editorial.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2013 Sep;26(5):351-6

Background: The field of forensic intellectual disabilities has been developing rapidly over the last 15 years. Much of the work has been built on research in mainstream criminality but more recently studies have emerged that reveal issues specific to offenders with intellectual disability.

Method: Research on pathways into offending is reviewed with reference to its relevance to the field of intellectual disability. We also summarize some findings on pathways into and through services for offenders with intellectual disability.

Findings: Studies reveal that developmental adversity is an important risk variable. Previous and recent aggression are potent risk factors. New evidence suggests that immediate, proximal risk factors may be more important in this client group. The studies in this issue add to the knowledge on pathways into offending, important areas for assessment and effective treatments as well as advancing knowledge in the academic literature on general criminality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12042DOI Listing
September 2013

Cognitive behavioural treatment for anger in adults with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2013 Jan;26(1):47-62

Men's Personality Disorder Service, Rampton Hospital, Nottinghamshire Healthcare Trust, Retford, UK.

Background: The cognitive behavioural treatment for anger in adults with intellectual disabilities has received increasing interest. The current study aims to review the current literature and provide a meta-analysis.

Method: A literature search found 12 studies eligible for the quality appraisal. The studies examined cognitive behavioural treatment for anger in adults with intellectual disabilities published since 1999. Nine studies were eligible to be included in the meta-analysis.

Results: The meta-analysis revealed large uncontrolled effect sizes for the treatment for anger in adults with intellectual disabilities, but is viewed with caution due to low sample sizes. The narrative review showed improved methodological quality of the literature.

Conclusions: The emerging literature is encouraging. However, it is limited through concatenated data, a lack of comparative control groups and small study samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12013DOI Listing
January 2013

What things make people with a learning disability happy and satisfied with their lives: an inclusive research project.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2013 Jan;26(1):26-33

Cornwall Foundation Trust, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: We looked at the research that other people have done about what makes people with a learning disability happy and satisfied with their lives. Researchers call being happy and satisfied with your life 'subjective well-being'. They found out that having things like money and good health does not always mean people are happy. They also found that some people are really happy, even if there are things in their lives they would like to change. None of the people who have done research about 'subjective well-being' have interviewed people with a learning disability about what makes them happy with their lives.

Materials And Methods: We have carried out a study about what makes people with a learning disability happy and satisfied with their lives. This report talks about the research that we did, and what we found out. We interviewed 20 people with a learning disability who said they were very happy and satisfied. We asked them about what things helped them feel like this.

Results: The people we spoke to said things like relationships, choice and independence, activities and valuable social roles made them feel satisfied with their lives. They told us about the things that enable them to lead happy lives, and the things that disable them. We also found out about the importance of personal characteristics. These are things like looking on the bright side of life or having ways to manage difficult emotions like sadness or anger.

Conclusions: We found out that it is important for people with a learning disability to have good things in their lives, but it is also important to be enabled to access these good things.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12012DOI Listing
January 2013

Mental health and challenging behaviour.

Authors:
Nigel Beail

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2013 Jan;26(1):1-2

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12008DOI Listing
January 2013

Assessing components of empathy in sex-offenders with intellectual disabilities.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2012 Jan 26;25(1):50-9. Epub 2011 Sep 26.

Clinical Psychology Unit, University of Sheffield, UK.

Background: Because of a lack of research investigating empathy in sex offenders with intellectual disabilities, this study explored empathy in sex offenders and non-offenders with intellectual disabilities. Specific aims were to explore differences between these groups on measures of the components of empathy.

Methods: The scores of 21 sex-offenders and 21 non-offenders with intellectual disabilities, matched by age, gender and IQ, were compared on the Test of Emotional Perception.

Results: No differences were found between the two groups across the components of empathy. However, sex offenders who had received treatment performed better on tasks of emotion recognition, emotion replication and response decision than the non-offenders.

Conclusions: Further research is needed to understand empathy in sex offenders with intellectual disabilities before any recommendations can be made regarding treatment programmes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3148.2011.00648.xDOI Listing
January 2012

An exploratory study of the defence mechanisms used in psychotherapy by adults who have intellectual disabilities.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2010 Jul 2;54(7):579-83. Epub 2010 Feb 2.

Barnsley Assessment and Intensive Support Team, Barnsley MBC and NHS Barnsley, Barnsley, UK.

Problem: A significant concept in psychodynamic theory and practice is that of defence mechanisms. The identifications of defences is a key task of the therapist and these are then used in the formulation and form part of the therapist's interventions. Case studies of psychotherapy with adults who have intellectual disabilities (IDs) suggest that they use more primitive defences but this has not been empirically evaluated. This study aimed to find out what defences adults with IDs use within and across sessions of individual psychotherapy.

Methods: Transcripts of psychotherapy sessions with a case series of eight adults with IDs were evaluated using the defence mechanism rating scale.

Results: Contrary to expectation the participants were observed to use a wide range of defences from primitive to mature. There was evidence to suggest that participants had developed a defensive style, but little evidence to show change in defensive structure across the first eight sessions of treatment.

Conclusions: This exploratory study shows that adults who have IDs use a range of defences in psychotherapy and have particular defensive styles. The results suggest that future studies may need more participants and a longer time frame to see if change in defences occurs during psychotherapy. The defence mechanism rating scale may also need some validation work with adults who have IDs and consider inclusion of some defences that are disability-specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2010.01250.xDOI Listing
July 2010

Compulsive hoarding: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Behav Cogn Psychother 2010 Mar 12;38(2):141-55. Epub 2010 Jan 12.

Centre for Psychological Services Research, University of Sheffield, UK.

Background: This project aimed to explore the experiences of people who compulsively hoard and how they make sense of their own hoarding behaviours.

Method: A total of 11 compulsive hoarders were recruited and interviewed using a simple semi-structured interview format, designed for the purposes of the study. The resulting transcribed interviews were analyzed using interpretive-phenomenological analysis.

Results: Four super-ordinate discrete, but interacting, themes were found: (1) childhood factors; (2) the participants' relationship to their hoarded items; (3) cognitive and behavioural avoidance of discard; and (4) the impact of hoarding on self, others and the home environment. The themes as a whole described people entrapped in massively cluttered physical environments of their own making. Efforts at discard appeared consistently sabotaged by cognitive/behavioural avoidance, thereby creating maintaining factors of associated personal distress and environmental decline.

Conclusions: The results are discussed in the context of the extant evidence concerning hoarding, the distinct contribution made by the current results and the identified methodological shortcomings of the research approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465809990622DOI Listing
March 2010

Utility of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale.

Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 2009 May;114(3):172-8

Nottingham University, UK.

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) continues to be used to purportedly measure self-esteem of people with intellectual disabilities, despite the lack of sound evidence concerning its validity and reliability when employed with this population. The psychometric foundations of the RSES were analyzed here with a sample of 219 participants with intellectual disabilities. The factor analytic methods employed revealed two factors (Self-Worth and Self-Criticism) and more specific problems with RSES Items 5 and 8. Overall, this scale showed only moderate temporal and moderate internal reliability and poor aspects of criterion validity. Results are discussed with reference to either developing a new measure of self-esteem or redesigning and simplifying the RSES in order to increase its initial face validity in intellectual disability samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-114.3.172DOI Listing
May 2009

Compulsive hoarding: a qualitative investigation of partner and carer perspectives.

Br J Clin Psychol 2008 Mar;47(Pt 1):59-73

Assertive Outreach Team, Kendray Hospital, Barnsley PCT, South Yorkshire, UK.

Objective: This study explores the experiences of family members caring for a person who compulsively hoards.

Design: Ten participants, all 'key carers' for a hoarding family member, were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule designed for the purpose of the study.

Methods: Transcribed interviews were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis.

Results: Five superordinate, discrete but interconnecting themes were identified: 'loss of normal family life'; 'the need for understanding'; 'coping with the situation'; 'impact on relationships'; and 'marginalization'. Carers' accommodation of hoarding behaviours and role isolation were examined in drawing connections between themes. Outlying themes suggesting factors protective of relationships and facilitating coping were also identified.

Conclusion: Carers struggled to cope with both the environmental and interpersonal impacts of the hoarding. Lacking both formal and informal networks of support, carers are in need of information and treatment options for themselves and their families. Possible avenues for future clinical and theoretical research are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466507X240740DOI Listing
March 2008

Empathy and theory of mind in offenders with intellectual disability.

J Intellect Dev Disabil 2007 Jun;32(2):82-93

Derby Adult Learning Disability Service, UK.

Background: Little research has been carried out on empathy and theory of mind in offenders with intellectual disability (ID) and these concepts are often poorly defined.

Method: Various models of empathy and theory of mind are discussed and scores on 2 empathy and 3 theory of mind tasks are compared for 25 offenders with ID and 25 non-offenders with ID (all male).

Results: Differences were found in empathy and theory of mind performance of offenders and non-offenders with ID. Offenders performed better than non-offenders on a second order theory of mind task and on emotion recognition. They required fewer prompts to mention emotions, and gave empathic/caring responses more often than non-offenders when observing happiness (but not sadness or anger).

Conclusions: Results suggest that offenders with ID may have better, rather than poorer, empathy and theory of mind abilities than non-offenders, and that empathy training is therefore not indicated for this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13668250701373331DOI Listing
June 2007

A naturalistic comparison of the effectiveness of trainee and qualified clinical psychologists.

Psychol Psychother 2006 Mar;79(Pt 1):137-44

Psychological Services, St Luke's Hospital, Huddersfield, UK.

Objective: To compare the effect of clinician type on the outcome for adult mental health clients treated by trainee and qualified clinical psychologists.

Design: Naturalistic, non-random between-participants group design: a group of 60 adult mental health out-patients treated by trainees and a matched group of 60 patients treated by qualified clinical psychologists.

Method: Participants completed a range of established measures at assessment and outcome of their treatment during routine clinical practice.

Results: Significant improvements in mental health were made for both groups from assessment to outcome; however, no significant effect of clinician type was evident.

Conclusions: A variety of factors (e.g. quantity of supervision) contributing to trainee effectiveness are identified and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/147608305X52595DOI Listing
March 2006

Responses to Sturmey (2005) on psychotherapy evidence base for behavioral interventions: critical commentary.

Authors:
Nigel Beail

Ment Retard 2005 Dec;43(6):442-5

Barnsley Learning Disability Service, The Keresforth Centre, Keresforth Close, Barnsley, S70 6RS, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765(2005)43[442:RTSOPE]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
December 2005

Analysis of assimilation during psychotherapy with people who have mental retardation.

Am J Ment Retard 2005 Sep;110(5):359-65

Barnsley Learning Disability Service, The Keresforth Centre, Off Broadway, Barnsley, United Kingdom.

The assimilation model provides a structured account of changes occurring within psychotherapy. The model proposes that clients assimilate their problematic experience through the development of schema observable in psychotherapeutic settings. The research procedure involved applying the Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Scale (APES) to transcripts from 8 clients. Quantitative methods were applied to examine whether clients with mental retardation illustrate changes in level of assimilation within and across sessions. Results suggest that people with mental retardation do assimilate problematic experiences during psychotherapy. Methodological issues and clinical implications are discussed. Our goal was to provide a clinically relevant account, applicable to the achievements of people with mental retardation, in the context of psychotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2005)110[359:AOADPW]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
September 2005

Measuring interpersonal problems in people with mental retardation.

Am J Ment Retard 2005 Mar;110(2):136-44

Psychological Healthcare, Keresforth Centre (Barnsley, UK).

Despite interpersonal problems being commonplace in the clinical presentations of people with mental retardation, previous efforts to index interpersonal difficulties have tended to unsatisfactorily rely on external ratings. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32 is a psychometrically robust self-report measure of interpersonal problems in adult populations. We found that this instrument retained many of its psychometric properties when used with a sample of 255 respondents with mild mental retardation. Results indicate four usable subscales alongside the full-scale when employed with this population. The subscales produced generally satisfactory internal and test-retest reliabilities and sound concurrent and internal-external criterion-related validities. Results are discussed with reference to further development of the measure in relation to people with mental retardation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2005)110<136:MIPIPW>2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
March 2005

Rigidity and flexibility in diagnosing mental retardation in capital cases.

Ment Retard 2004 Dec;42(6):480-3

The Keresforth Centre, Off Broadway, Barnsley S70 6RS, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765(2004)42<480:RAFIDM>2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
December 2004

Risk factors for dementia in people with down syndrome: issues in assessment and diagnosis.

Am J Ment Retard 2004 Mar;109(2):83-97

Community Assessment and Intensive Support Service, Community Health Sheffield NHS Trust, United Kingdom.

It has been clearly established that there is an increased incidence of early onset dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) in people who have Down syndrome. There are variations in the age of onset of the clinical signs of DAT, which may be accounted for by different risk factors. In this review we examined the evidence that different biological and psychological factors may influence the risk for DAT. Limitations in design of early studies, the need for consistent diagnostic criteria for DAT in individuals with Down syndrome, and the lack of adequate psychometric tools to detect cognitive change are highlighted. Implications for research and clinical practice are considered in order to assess potential risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2004)109<83:RFFDIP>2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
March 2004

What works for people with mental retardation? Critical commentary on cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic psychotherapy research.

Authors:
Nigel Beail

Ment Retard 2003 Dec;41(6):468-72

The Keresforth Centre, Off Broadway, Barnsley S70 6RS, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765(2003)41<468:WWFPWM>2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
December 2003

Utility of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales in diagnosis and research with adults who have mental retardation.

Authors:
Nigel Beail

Ment Retard 2003 Aug;41(4):286-9

Barnsley Psychological Health Care, The Keresforth Centre, Off Broadway, Barnsley S70 6RS, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765(2003)41<286:UOTVAB>2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
August 2003

A qualitative study of the theoretical models used by UK mental health nurses to guide their assessments with family caregivers of people with dementia.

Int J Nurs Stud 2002 Jan;39(1):17-26

University of Sheffield, UK.

Some researchers suggest that nurse training does not provide adequate theoretical knowledge to guide mental health nurses' work with carers of people with dementia. In recent years theoretical guidance for working with carers has emerged in the nursing literature. However, little attention has been given to theory practice links. This study used interpretative phenomenological analysis to investigate the theoretical model used by nurses to guide carer assessments. During the analysis the data evolved into a description of the model underlying the nurses' work. In the discussion this model was compared with the stress process model (SPM). This comparison highlighted striking similarities between the themes in the nurses' model of carer stress and the theoretical constructs of the SPM. However, the SPM describes influential links between different constructs which were absent in the nurses' model. The research illustrates developmental training needs for mental health nursing to improve the efficacy of assessments and therefore, interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0020-7489(01)00008-6DOI Listing
January 2002
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