Publications by authors named "Nienke M van de Velde"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preserved thenar muscles in non-ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jun 8;12(3):694-703. Epub 2021 May 8.

Duchenne Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Background: Clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) focus primarily on ambulant patients. Results cannot be extrapolated to later disease stages due to a decline in targeted muscle tissue. In non-ambulant DMD patients, hand function is relatively preserved and crucial for daily-life activities. We used quantitative MRI (qMRI) to establish whether the thenar muscles could be valuable to monitor treatment effects in non-ambulant DMD patients.

Methods: Seventeen non-ambulant DMD patients (range 10.2-24.1 years) and 13 healthy controls (range 9.5-25.4 years) underwent qMRI of the right hand at 3 T at baseline. Thenar fat fraction (FF), total volume (TV), and contractile volume (CV) were determined using 4-point Dixon, and T2 was determined using multiecho spin-echo. Clinical assessments at baseline (n = 17) and 12 months (n = 13) included pinch strength (kg), performance of the upper limb (PUL) 2.0, DMD upper limb patient reported outcome measure (PROM), and playing a video game for 10 min using a game controller. Group differences and correlations were assessed with non-parametric tests.

Results: Total volume was lower in patients compared with healthy controls (6.9 cm , 5.3-9.0 cm vs. 13.0 cm , 7.6-15.8 cm , P = 0.010). CV was also lower in patients (6.3 cm , 4.6-8.3 cm vs. 11.9 cm , 6.9-14.6 cm , P = 0.010). FF was slightly elevated (9.7%, 7.3-11.4% vs. 7.7%, 6.6-8.4%, P = 0.043), while T2 was higher (31.5 ms, 30.0-32.6 ms vs. 28.1 ms, 27.8-29.4 ms, P < 0.001). Pinch strength and PUL decreased over 12 months (2.857 kg, 2.137-4.010 to 2.243 kg, 1.930-3.339 kg, and 29 points, 20-36 to 23 points, 17-30, both P < 0.001), while PROM did not (49 points, 36-57 to 44 points, 30-54, P = 0.041). All patients were able to play for 10 min at baseline or follow-up, but some did not comply with the study procedures regarding this endpoint. Pinch strength correlated with TV and CV in patients (rho = 0.72 and rho = 0.68) and controls (both rho = 0.89). PUL correlated with TV, CV, and T2 (rho = 0.57, rho = 0.51, and rho = -0.59).

Conclusions: Low thenar FF, increased T2 , correlation of muscle size with strength and function, and the decrease in strength and function over 1 year indicate that the thenar muscles are a valuable and quantifiable target for therapy in later stages of DMD. Further studies are needed to relate these data to the loss of a clinically meaningful milestone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200430PMC
June 2021

The feasibility of quantitative MRI of extra-ocular muscles in myasthenia gravis and Graves' orbitopathy.

NMR Biomed 2021 01 7;34(1):e4407. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

CJ Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Although quantitative MRI can be instrumental in the diagnosis and assessment of disease progression in orbital diseases involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOM), acquisition can be challenging as EOM are small and prone to eye-motion artefacts. We explored the feasibility of assessing fat fractions (FF), muscle volumes and water T2 (T2 ) of EOM in healthy controls (HC), myasthenia gravis (MG) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) patients. FF, EOM volumes and T2 values were determined in 12 HC (aged 22-65 years), 11 MG (aged 28-71 years) and six GO (aged 28-64 years) patients at 7 T using Dixon and multi-echo spin-echo sequences. The EOM were semi-automatically 3D-segmented by two independent observers. MANOVA and t-tests were used to assess differences in FF, T2 and volume of EOM between groups (P < .05). Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LoA) were used to assess the reproducibility of segmentations and Dixon scans. The scans were well tolerated by all subjects. The bias in FF between the repeated Dixon scans was -0.7% (LoA: ±2.1%) for the different observers; the bias in FF was -0.3% (LoA: ±2.8%) and 0.03 cm (LoA: ± 0.36 cm ) for volume. Mean FF of EOM in MG (14.1% ± 1.6%) was higher than in HC (10.4% ± 2.5%). Mean muscle volume was higher in both GO (1.2 ± 0.4 cm ) and MG (0.8 ± 0.2 cm ) compared with HC (0.6 ± 0.2 cm ). The average T2 for all EOM was 24.6 ± 4.0 ms for HC, 24.0 ± 4.7 ms for MG patients and 27.4 ± 4.2 ms for the GO patient. Quantitative MRI at 7 T is feasible for measuring FF and muscle volumes of EOM in HC, MG and GO patients. The measured T2 was on average comparable with skeletal muscle, although with higher variation between subjects. The increased FF in the EOM in MG patients suggests that EOM involvement in MG is accompanied by fat replacement. The unexpected EOM volume increase in MG may provide novel insights into underlying pathophysiological processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.4407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757175PMC
January 2021

Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulation Prevents and Reverses Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Mice.

Endocrinology 2018 12;159(12):3925-3936

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, ZA Leiden, Netherlands.

Medication for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an unmet need. Glucocorticoid (GC) stress hormones drive fat metabolism in the liver, but both full blockade and full stimulation of GC signaling aggravate NAFLD pathology. We investigated the efficacy of selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulator CORT118335, which recapitulates only a subset of GC actions, in reducing liver lipid accumulation in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice received a low-fat diet or high-fat diet mixed with vehicle or CORT118335. Livers were analyzed histologically and for genome-wide mRNA expression. Functionally, hepatic long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) composition was determined by gas chromatography. We determined very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production by treatment with a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor after which blood was collected to isolate radiolabeled VLDL particles and apoB proteins. CORT118335 strongly prevented and reversed hepatic lipid accumulation. Liver transcriptome analysis showed increased expression of GR target genes involved in VLDL production. Accordingly, CORT118335 led to increased lipidation of VLDL particles, mimicking physiological GC action. Independent pathway analysis revealed that CORT118335 lacked induction of GC-responsive genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and LCFA uptake, which was indeed reflected in unaltered hepatic LCFA uptake in vivo. Our data thus reveal that the robust hepatic lipid-lowering effect of CORT118335 is due to a unique combination of GR-dependent stimulation of lipid (VLDL) efflux from the liver, with a lack of stimulation of GR-dependent hepatic fatty acid uptake. Our findings firmly demonstrate the potential use of CORT118335 in the treatment of NAFLD and underscore the potential of selective GR modulation in metabolic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2018-00671DOI Listing
December 2018

Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Antagonist CORT125281 Activates Brown Adipose Tissue and Alters Lipid Distribution in Male Mice.

Endocrinology 2018 01;159(1):535-546

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of metabolic processes in the human body, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disease. We evaluated the utility of the novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist CORT125281 for its potential to overcome adiposity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia and compared this head-to-head with the classic GR antagonist RU486 (mifepristone). We show that, although RU486 displays cross-reactivity to the progesterone and androgen receptor, CORT125281 selectively inhibits GR transcriptional activity. In a mouse model for diet-induced obesity, rhythmicity of circulating corticosterone levels was disturbed. CORT125281 restored this disturbed rhythmicity, in contrast to RU486, which further inhibited endogenous corticosterone levels and suppressed adrenal weight. Both CORT125281 and RU486 reduced body weight gain and fat mass. In addition, CORT125281, but not RU486, lowered plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids and strongly stimulated triglyceride-derived fatty acid uptake by brown adipose tissue depots. In combination with reduced lipid content in brown adipocytes, this indicates that CORT125281 enhances metabolic activity of brown adipose tissue depots. CORT125281 was also found to increase liver lipid accumulation. Taken together, CORT125281 displayed a wide range of beneficial metabolic activities that are in part distinct from RU486, but clinical utility may be limited due to liver lipid accumulation. This warrants further evaluation of GR antagonists or selective modulators that are not accompanied by liver lipid accumulation while preserving their beneficial metabolic activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2017-00512DOI Listing
January 2018