Publications by authors named "Niels Smedegaard Andersen"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Vitamin E and acute graft-versus-host disease after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Mar 19;106(3):417-424. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objectives: Vitamin E has antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects that might influence the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). We investigated the association between plasma vitamin E levels and acute GvHD.

Methods: We studied 115 adults who underwent myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation between July 2015 and August 2018. Vitamin E was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in stored plasma samples obtained pre-transplantation at day -23 (±15 days) and post-transplantation at day +28 (±3 days).

Results: Pre-transplantation vitamin E levels were inversely associated with grade II-IV acute GvHD (hazard ratio 0.68 per 10 µmol/L increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.98). The association remained after adjustment for known prognostic factors for acute GvHD. Patients with levels below the median had a cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GvHD of 46% (CI: 33-59%) versus 21% (CI: 10-32%) in patients with levels above the median. No clear association with non-relapse mortality, relapse, or chronic GvHD was found. Post-transplantation vitamin E levels (measured in 72 [63%] patients) were correlated with pre-transplantation levels (ρ = .31) but were not associated with subsequent grade II-IV acute GvHD.

Conclusions: High pre-transplantation vitamin E levels were associated with less acute GvHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13567DOI Listing
March 2021

Improved Relapse-Free Survival in Patients With High Natural Killer Cell Doses in Grafts and During Early Immune Reconstitution After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2020 29;11:1068. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Mature immunocompetent cells from the stem cell graft as well as early robust immune reconstitution are essential for the graft-vs. -tumor (GVT) effect to eliminate residual malignant cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this prospective study we characterized graft composition of T- and NK cell subsets in 88 recipients of peripheral blood stem cell grafts with multicolor flowcytometry. Our primary aim was to analyze the impact of graft composition on immune reconstitution and clinical outcomes after transplantation. Patients transplanted with graft NK cell doses above the median value of 27 × 10/kg had significantly increased relapse-free-survival compared to patients transplanted with lower doses, HR 2.12 (95% CI 1.01-4.45, = 0.04) Peripheral blood concentrations of NK cells obtained from donors before G-CSF mobilization were significantly correlated to graft NK cell doses (Spearman's ρ 0.53, = 0.03). The dose of transplanted NK cells/kg correlated significantly with NK cell concentrations in patients early after transplantation (Spearman's ρ 0.26, = 0.02, and ρ = 0.35, = 0.001 for days 28 and 56, respectively). Early immune reconstitution above median values of NK cells was significantly associated with improved relapse-free survival (HR 2.84 [95% CI 1.29-6.28], = 0.01, and HR 4.19 [95% CI 1.68-10.4], = 0.002, for day 28 and 56, respectively). Early concentrations above the median value of the mature effector CD56dim NK cell subset were significantly associated with decreased relapse incidences at 1 year, 7% (95% CI 1.8-17) vs. 28% (95% CI 15-42), = 0.04, and 7% (95% CI 1.8-18) vs. 26% (95% CI 14-40) %, = 0.03, for days 28 and 56, respectively. The results suggest a protective effect of high doses of NK cells in grafts and during early immune reconstitution and support the perception of NK cells as innate effector cells with anti-tumor effects in the setting of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273963PMC
May 2020

Improved Outcomes after Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Fludarabine/Treosulfan for Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 06 20;26(6):1091-1098. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet (Copenhagen University Hospital), Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

While allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) currently offers the only curative option for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), there is still a high risk of relapse or transplant-related complications. We collected data on all patients who had undergone allo-HCT at our center (Copenhagen University Hospital) between 2000 and 2018. In total, 215 patients with MDS (n = 196) or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 19) were included. Estimated 1-year overall survival (OS) was 70.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.2% to 77.0%), and the median survival was 7.7 years (95% CI, 4.7 to indeterminable). There was a significant improvement in OS over time (P = .011, comparing 2000 to 2010, 2010 to 2014, and 2014 to 2018). Treatment was standardized throughout the study period, allowing comparison between patients receiving nonmyeloablative (NMA, n = 124), standard myeloablative (SMA, n = 36), and fludarabine and treosulfan (FluTreo, n = 55) conditioning. FluTreo has myeloablative properties but lower toxicity and replaced standard myeloablative conditioning at our center in 2014. The FluTreo group was significantly older and had more comorbidities than the SMA group but similar disease severity. One-year OS was 84.0% (95% CI, 74.3% to 94.9%), 58.3% (95% CI, 44.3% to 76.9%), and 68.3% (95% CI, 60.2% to 77.5%) for FluTreo, SMA, and NMA, respectively (P = .04). In univariate analysis, Revised International Scoring System (IPSS-R) (high versus low), donor sex mismatch, and cytomegalovirus status mismatch were significant factors for OS. In multivariate analysis of OS including age, IPSS-R, and HCT specific comorbidity index, NMA was borderline inferior to FluTreo (P = .073) while SMA was significantly inferior to FluTreo with a hazard ratio of 6.89 (95% CI, 2.53 to 18.77, P < .001). The introduction of FluTreo allowed us to administer a myeloablative regimen to a broader patient group and shows promising results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.02.010DOI Listing
June 2020

Improved Overall Survival, Relapse-Free-Survival, and Less Graft-vs.-Host-Disease in Patients With High Immune Reconstitution of TCR Gamma Delta Cells 2 Months After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2019 22;10:1997. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

T-cell receptor (TCR) γδ cells are perceived as innate-like effector cells with the possibility of mediating graft-vs. -tumor (GVT) without causing graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) in the setting of hematopoietic allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We conducted a prospective study to assess the clinical impact of TCR γδ cell immune reconstitution on overall survival, relapse-free-survival, relapse and GVHD. The impact of CD3, CD4, and CD8 T cells together with NK cells including subtypes were analyzed in parallel. A total of 108 patients with hematological malignancies transplanted with HLA-matched, T cell replete stem cell grafts were included for analyses of absolute concentrations of CD3, CD4, and CD8 positive T cells and NK cells together with a multi-color flow cytometry panel with staining for TCRαβ, TCRγδ, Vδ1, Vδ2, CD3, CD4, CD8, HLA-DR, CD196, CD45RO, CD45RA, CD16, CD56, CD337, and CD314 at 28, 56, 91, 180, and 365 days after transplantation. Immune reconstitution data including subsets and differentiation markers of T and NK cells during the first year after transplantation was provided. Patients with TCR γδ cell concentrations above the median value of 21 (0-416) × 10 cells/L 56 days after transplantation had significantly improved overall survival ( = 0.001) and relapse-free survival ( = 0.007) compared to patients with concentrations below this value. When day 56 cell subset concentrations were included as continuous variables, TCR γδ cells were the only T cell subsets with a significant impact on OS and RFS; the impact of TCR γδ cells remained statistically significant in multivariate analyses adjusted for pre-transplant risk factors. The risk of death from relapse was significantly decreased in patients with high concentrations of TCR γδ cells 56 days after transplantation ( = 0.003). Also, the risk of acute GVHD was significantly lower in patients with day 28 TCR γδ cell concentrations above the median of 18 × 10 cells/L compared to patients with low concentrations ( = 0.01). These results suggest a protective role of TCR γδ cells in relapse and GVHD and encourage further research in developing adaptive TCR γδ cell therapy for improving outcomes after HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714591PMC
September 2020

Rituximab-based allogeneic transplant for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with comparison to historical experience.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 01 3;55(1):172-181. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Relapse of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains a clinical challenge. We studied in a phase II trial whether the addition of peri-transplant rituximab would reduce the relapse risk compared with historical controls (n = 157). Patients (n = 55) received fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation combined with rituximab on days -3, + 10, + 24, + 36. Relapse rate at 3 years was significantly lower among rituximab-treated patients versus controls (17% versus 31%; P = 0.04). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were statistically similar: (53% versus 50%; P = 0.8), (44% versus 42%; P = 0.63), and (38% versus 28%; P = 0.2), respectively. In multivariate analysis, rituximab treatment was associated with lower relapse rates both in the overall cohort [hazard ratio (HR): 0.34, P = 0.006] and in patients with high-risk cytogenetics (HR: 0.21, P = 0.0003). Patients with no comorbidities who received rituximab conditioning had an OS rate of 100% and 75% at 1 and 3 years, respectively, with no NRM. Peri-transplant rituximab reduced relapse rates regardless of high-risk cytogenetics. HCT is associated with minimal NRM in patients without comorbidities and is a viable option for patients with high-risk CLL. Clinical trial information: NCT00867529.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0660-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940535PMC
January 2020

Reduced intensity conditioning regimens including alkylating chemotherapy do not alter survival outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared to low-intensity non-myeloablative conditioning.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2019 Nov 29;145(11):2823-2834. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Medical Department I, University Hospital Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Purpose: The optimal dose intensity for conditioning prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unknown.

Methods: We retrospectively compared outcomes of patients who received a first alloHCST after non-myeloablative (NMA) and reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Data of 432 patients with a median age of 55 years were included, of which 86 patients underwent NMA and 346 RIC.

Results: The median follow-up after alloHSCT was 4.3 years. Compared to the RIC group, more NMA patients had purine-analog-sensitive disease, were in complete remission and received matched related donor transplantation. After RIC, the probabilities for 5-year OS, EFS, CIR, and NRM were 46%, 38%, 28%, and 35% and after NMA the respective probabilities were 52%, 43%, 25%, and 32%. In multivariate analysis, remission status prior to conditioning but not RIC versus NMA conditioning had a significant impact on CIR, EFS, and OS.

Conclusion: Presumed higher anti-leukemic activity of RIC versus NMA conditioning did not translate into better outcomes after alloHSCT, but better remission status prior to conditioning did. Effective pathway inhibitor-based salvage therapies combined with NMA conditioning might thus represent the most attractive contemporary approach for alloHSCT for patients with CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-019-03014-xDOI Listing
November 2019

The Impact of Advanced Patient Age on Mortality after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Retrospective Study by the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Lymphoma Working Party.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 01 13;25(1):86-93. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Medical Clinic V, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

More than 60% of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are age >60 years at presentation. The purpose of this study was to compare the potential risks and benefits of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) in elderly patients with NHL with younger patients in a large sample, also taking into account comorbidity information. All patients age ≥18 years who had undergone alloHCT from a matched sibling or unrelated donor for NHL between 2003 and 2013 and were registered with the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation were eligible for the study. The primary study endpoint was 1-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM). A total of 3919 patients were eligible and were categorized by age: young (Y), 18 to 50 y (n = 1772); middle age (MA), 51 to 65 y (n = 1967); or old (O), 66 to 77 y (n = 180). Follicular lymphoma was present in 37% of the patients; diffuse large B cell lymphoma, in 30%; mantle cell lymphoma, in 21%, and peripheral T cell lymphoma, in 11%. At the time of alloHCT, 85% of the patients were chemosensitive and 15% were chemorefractory. With a median follow-up of 4.5 years in survivors, NRM at 1 year was 13% for the Y group. 20% for the MA group, and 33% for the O group (P <.001), whereas relapse incidence and overall survival (OS) at 3 years in the 3 groups were 30%, 31%, and 28% (P = .355) and 60%, 54%, and 38% (P <.001), respectively. Multivariable adjustment for confounders, including sex, NHL subset, time from diagnosis, chemosensitivity, donor, and conditioning, confirmed older age as a significant predictor for NRM and OS, but not for relapse risk. Although comorbidity was a significant predictor of NRM in a subset analysis restricted to the 979 patients with comorbidity information available, age retained its significant impact on NRM. In conclusion, our data show that alloHCT in patients age >65 y provides similar NHL control as seen in younger patients but is associated with a higher NRM that is not fully explained by comorbidity. Thus, although alloHCT is feasible and effective in very old patients, the increased NRM risk must be taken into account when assessing the indication for alloHCT for NHL in this age group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.08.025DOI Listing
January 2019

Longitudinal follow-up of response status and concomitant immunosuppression in patients treated with extracorporeal photopheresis for chronic graft versus host disease.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 01 8;54(1):35-43. Epub 2018 May 8.

Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, CopenhagenØ, 2100, Denmark.

Improvement in chronic graft vs. host disease (cGvHD) following treatment with extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has been shown previously. However, the effect is often measured at only one point in time or as best response. Chronic GvHD activity fluctuates over time, so we retrospectively evaluated cGvHD responses in 54 patients with primarily moderate or severe cGvHD throughout the ECP treatment course and after stopping ECP. The dominant response was partial remission (PR) in 33 patients, no change (NC) in 10 patients, progressive disease (PD) in 10 patients and complete remission (CR) in one patient. Response rates and reduction in glucocorticoid dose reached a plateau after nine months. The main reason for stopping ECP was the absence of further improvement. Flares in cGvHD activity were seen in 36 patients. Additional treatment during ECP was administered to 29 patients. Failure free survival with response was achieved for 52% of patients at 6 months and 43% at 1 year. Our study confirms that ECP is a safe option for cGvHD therapy. The majority of the patients experience improvement and reduction in glucocorticoid dose but flares in cGvHD activity and the need for additional immunosuppression are seen frequently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0206-5DOI Listing
January 2019

Evaluation of infliximab as second-line treatment of acute graft versus host disease -validating response on day 7 and 28 as predictors of survival.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 07 1;53(7):844-851. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Hematology, National University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark.

Several immunosuppressive drugs have been proposed for second-line treatment of steroid-refractory acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, the studies on these drugs are small, retrospective, uncontrolled and use different endpoints. Therefore, it remains unknown which treatment is superior. We retrospectively evaluated 68 consecutive patients treated with infliximab for aGvHD. We adhered to recently proposed guidelines for aGvHD trials and thus evaluated response on day 7 and 28. Furthermore, we assessed the composite endpoint 6 months freedom from treatment failure (6MFTF). The majority of patients had grade III-IV aGvHD. We found that 41 patients (60%) responded on day 7 and 31 patients (46%) on day 28. Twenty-four patients (35%) achieved 6MFTF. The main reasons for failure within 6 months were death (n = 31) or additional immunosuppression (n = 16). By six and 24 months, 44 and 34% of the patients were alive respectively. Patients with response to infliximab on day 7 and 28 had significantly higher overall survival (OS) probability than non-responders. We show that response on day 7 and 28 identifies high and low risk groups. Patients who fail to respond should be identified early and offered alternative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0099-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7086567PMC
July 2018

C-Reactive Protein Levels at Diagnosis of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Predict Steroid-Refractory Disease, Treatment-Related Mortality, and Overall Survival after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 03 23;24(3):600-607. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Unit, Department of Hematology L, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a cause of excessive morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Primary treatment consists of high-dose corticosteroids, but a small group of patients develop steroid-refractory disease, and their prognosis is especially poor. There is experimental evidence that coexisting inflammation aggravates aGVHD. Because C-reactive protein (CRP) is a systemic inflammatory marker, we aimed to investigate whether plasma CRP concentrations at the diagnosis of aGVHD can predict the risk of failing first-line therapy and developing steroid-refractory disease. We retrospectively studied 461 patients who underwent HSCT between 2010 and 2015. aGVHD grade II-IV was diagnosed in 148 patients (32%). CRP level and total white blood cell, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts were available for all patients at the time of aGVHD diagnosis. According to local protocol, patients with failed response to high-dose steroid therapy (2 mg/kg) were treated with the TNF-α inhibitor infliximab and categorized as having steroid-refractory disease. Of 148 patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, 28 (19%) developed steroid-refractory disease. In these patients, plasma CRP concentration at diagnosis ranged between <1 and 253 mg/L. CRP levels were significantly higher in patients who developed steroid-refractory disease compared with those who responded to high-dose corticosteroid therapy (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.93; P = .001). This translated into significantly increased transplantation-related mortality and decreased overall survival in the patients with high CRP levels. Total white blood cell, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts were not associated with steroid resistance in the patients with aGVHD. These results suggest that CRP level at diagnosis is a valid predictor of the development of steroid-refractory disease in patients who develop grade II-IV aGVHD after HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.10.025DOI Listing
March 2018

Baseline Characteristics Predicting Very Good Outcome of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Young Patients With High Cytogenetic Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - A Retrospective Analysis From the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2017 10 17;17(10):667-675.e2. Epub 2017 Jun 17.

DKMS Clinical Trials Unit, Dresden, Germany; Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, University Hospital of the Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: Patients with genetically high-risk relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia have shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) with kinase- and BCL2-inhibitors (KI, BCL2i). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) may result in sustained PFS, especially in younger patients because of its age-dependent non-relapse mortality (NRM) risk, but outcome data are lacking for this population.

Patients And Methods: Risk factors for 2-year NRM and 8-year PFS were identified in patients < 50 years in an updated European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry cohort (n = 197; median follow-up, 90.4 months) by Cox regression modeling, and predicted probabilities of NRM and PFS of 2 reference patients with favorable or unfavorable characteristics were plotted.

Results: Predictors for poor 8-year PFS were no remission at the time of alloHCT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.5) and partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched unrelated donor (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.2). The latter variable also predicted a higher risk of 2-year NRM (HR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.4-11.6) compared with HLA-matched sibling donors. Predicted 2-year NRM and 8-year PFS of a high cytogenetic risk (del(17p) and/or del(11q)) patient in remission with a matched related donor were 12% (95% CI, 3%-22%) and 54% (95% CI, 38%-69%), and for an unresponsive patient with a female partially HLA-matched unrelated donor 37% (95% CI, 12%-62%) and 38% (95% CI, 13%-63%).

Conclusion: Low predicted NRM and high 8-year PFS in favorable transplant high cytogenetic risk patients compares favorably with outcomes with KI or BCL2i. Taking into account the amount of uncertainty for predicting survival after alloHCT and after sequential administration of KI and BCL2i, alloHCT remains a valid option for younger patients with high cytogenetic risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia with a well-HLA-matched donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2017.06.007DOI Listing
October 2017

Molecular Monitoring after Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and Preemptive Rituximab Treatment of Molecular Relapse; Results from the Nordic Mantle Cell Lymphoma Studies (MCL2 and MCL3) with Median Follow-Up of 8.5 Years.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Mar 27;23(3):428-435. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The main objectives of the present study were to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in the bone marrow of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) to predict clinical relapse and guide preemptive treatment with rituximab. Among the patients enrolled in 2 prospective trials by the Nordic Lymphoma Group, 183 who had completed autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and in whom an MRD marker had been obtained were included in our analysis. Fresh samples of bone marrow were analyzed for MRD by a combined standard nested and quantitative real-time PCR assay for Bcl-1/immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) and clonal IgH rearrangements. Significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was demonstrated for patients who were MRD positive pre-ASCT (54 patients) or in the first analysis post-ASCT (23 patients). The median PFS was only 20 months in those who were MRD-positive in the first sample post-ASCT, compared with 142 months in the MRD-negative group (P < .0001). OS was 75% at 10 years and median not reached in the MRD-negative group, compared with only 35 months in the MRD-positive group (P < .0001). Of the 86 patients (47%) who remained in continuous molecular remission, 73% were still in clinical remission after 10 years. For all patients, the median time from ASCT to first molecular relapse was 55 months, with a continuous occurrence of late molecular relapses. Fifty-eight patients who experienced MRD relapse received rituximab as preemptive treatment on 1 or more occasions, and in this group, the median time from first molecular relapse to clinical relapse was 55 months. In most cases, rituximab converted patients to MRD negativity (87%), but many patients became MRD-positive again later during follow-up (69%). By multivariate analysis, high-risk Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score and positive MRD status pre-ASCT predicted early molecular relapse. In conclusion, preemptive rituximab treatment converts patients to MRD negativity and likely postpones clinical relapse. Molecular monitoring offers an opportunity to select some patients for therapeutic intervention and to avoid unnecessary treatment in others. MRD-positive patients in the first analysis post-ASCT have a dismal prognosis and thus are in need of novel strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.12.634DOI Listing
March 2017

Early Natural Killer Cell Reconstitution Predicts Overall Survival in T Cell-Replete Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2016 12 21;22(12):2187-2193. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Unit, Department of Hematology, National University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Early immune reconstitution plays a critical role in clinical outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Natural killer (NK) cells are the first lymphocytes to recover after transplantation and are considered powerful effector cells in HSCT. We aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of early NK cell recovery in T cell-replete transplant recipients. Immune reconstitution was studied in 298 adult patients undergoing HSCT for acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome from 2005 to 2013. In multivariate analysis NK cell numbers on day 30 (NK30) > 150 cells/µL were independently associated with superior overall survival (hazard ratio, .79; 95% confidence interval, .66 to .95; P = .01). Cumulative incidence analyses showed that patients with NK30 > 150 cells/µL had significantly less transplant-related mortality (TRM), P = .01. Patients with NK30 > 150 cells/µL experienced significantly lower numbers of life-threatening bacterial infections as well as viral infections, including cytomegalovirus. No association was observed in relation to relapse. These results suggest an independent protective effect of high early NK cell reconstitution on TRM that translates into improved overall survival after T cell-replete HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.09.006DOI Listing
December 2016