Publications by authors named "Niels J W Verouden"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Contrast Ultrasound, Sonothrombolysis and Sonoperfusion in Cardiovascular Disease: Shifting to Theragnostic Clinical Trials.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location Vrije Universiteit, Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Contrast ultrasound has a variety of applications in cardiovascular medicine, both in diagnosing cardiovascular disease as well as providing prognostic information. Visualization of intravascular contrast microbubbles is based on acoustic cavitation, the characteristic oscillation that results in changes in the reflected ultrasound waves. At high power, this acoustic response generates sufficient shear that is capable of enhancing endothelium-dependent perfusion in atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease (sonoperfusion). The oscillation and collapse of microbubbles in response to ultrasound also induces microstreaming and jetting that can fragment thrombus (sonothrombolysis). Several preclinical studies have focused on identifying optimal diagnostic ultrasound settings and treatment regimens. Clinical trials have been performed in acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease often with improved outcome. In the coming years, results of ongoing clinical trials along with innovation and improvements in sonothrombolysis and sonoperfusion will determine whether this theragnostic technique will become a valuable addition to reperfusion therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.07.028DOI Listing
October 2021

Cangrelor Use in Routine Practice: A Two-Center Experience.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 26;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Cangrelor is the first and only intravenous P2Y-inhibitor and is indicated when (timely) administration of an oral P2Y inhibitor is not feasible in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Our study evaluated the first years of cangrelor use in two Dutch tertiary care centers. Cangrelor-treated patients were identified using a data-mining algorithm. The cumulative incidences of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis and major bleeding at 48 h and 30 days were assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Predictors of 30-day mortality were identified using uni- and multivariable Cox regression models. Between March 2015 and April 2021, 146 patients (median age 63.7 years, 75.3% men) were treated with cangrelor. Cangrelor was primarily used in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (84.2%). Approximately half required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (54.8%) or mechanical ventilation (48.6%). The cumulative incidence of all-cause death was 11.0% and 25.3% at 48 h and 30 days, respectively. Two cases (1.7%) of definite stent thrombosis, both resulting in myocardial infarction, occurred within 30 days, but after 48 h. No other cases of recurrent myocardial infarction transpired within 30 days. Major bleeding occurred in 5.6% and 12.5% of patients within 48 h and 30 days, respectively. Cardiac arrest at presentation was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 5.20, 95%-CI: 2.10-12.9, < 0.01). Conclusively, cangrelor was used almost exclusively in STEMI patients undergoing PCI. Even though cangrelor was used in high-risk patients, its use was associated with a low rate of stent thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269409PMC
June 2021

Outcome and Predictors for Mortality in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock: A Dutch Nationwide Registry-Based Study of 75,407 Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Treated by PCI.

J Clin Med 2021 May 11;10(10). Epub 2021 May 11.

Heart Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

It is important to gain more insight into the cardiogenic shock (CS) population, as currently, little is known on how to improve outcomes. Therefore, we assessed clinical outcome in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with and without CS at admission. Furthermore, the incidence of CS and predictors for mortality in CS patients were evaluated. The Netherlands Heart Registration (NHR) is a nationwide registry on all cardiac interventions. We used NHR data of ACS patients treated with PCI between 2015 and 2019. Among 75,407 ACS patients treated with PCI, 3028 patients (4.1%) were identified with CS, respectively 4.3%, 3.9%, 3.5%, and 4.3% per year. Factors associated with mortality in CS were age (HR 1.02, 95%CI 1.02-1.03), eGFR (HR 0.98, 95%CI 0.98-0.99), diabetes mellitus (DM) (HR 1.25, 95%CI 1.08-1.45), multivessel disease (HR 1.22, 95%CI 1.06-1.39), prior myocardial infarction (MI) (HR 1.24, 95%CI 1.06-1.45), and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) (HR 1.71, 95%CI 1.50-1.94). In conclusion, in this Dutch nationwide registry-based study of ACS patients treated by PCI, the incidence of CS was 4.1% over the 4-year study period. Predictors for mortality in CS were higher age, renal insufficiency, presence of DM, multivessel disease, prior MI, and OHCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151113PMC
May 2021

On-Site Computed Tomography Versus Angiography Alone to Guide Coronary Stent Implantation: A Prospective Randomized Study.

J Invasive Cardiol 2020 Nov 10;32(11):E268-E276. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, National Institute of Cardiology, Alpejska 42, 04-628 Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: The effect of intraprocedural coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA) guidance on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We sought to determine the influence of CTA guidance on procedural strategies and immediate angiographic outcomes of PCI.

Methods: Sixty patients were randomized to CTA-guided PCI (29 patients, 36 lesions) or angiography-guided PCI (31 patients, 39 lesions). To enable hands-free manipulation of CTA images by the interventional cardiologist during PCI, we developed an onsite augmented-reality (AR) system comprising a mobile application and AR glass. The primary endpoints were defined as: (1) stent length; and (2) largest stent diameter according to compliance chart. Procedural strategies, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), and safety outcomes were compared.

Results: Whereas CTA guidance resulted in significantly higher frequency of stent postdilation using non-compliant (67% vs 31%; P<.01) and shorter balloons (16.6 ± 5.4 mm vs 20.5 ± 9.4 mm; P=.04) with numerically larger diameter (3.50 ± 0.63 mm vs 3.28 ± 0.45 mm; P=.10), it did not differ from angiography guidance with respect to lesion predilation, stent length, largest stent diameter according to compliance chart, and nominal stent diameter. The results of 2D- and 3D-QCA and safety outcomes were similar between groups. Neither death nor stroke occurred in either group.

Conclusions: PCI under intraprocedural CTA guidance is associated with similar stent size selection and more frequent stent postdilation, resulting in comparable immediate angiographic and safety outcomes as compared with PCI under angiographic guidance alone.
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November 2020

Non-invasive procedural planning using computed tomography-derived fractional flow reserve.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 03 26;97(4):614-622. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the performance of computed tomography derived fractional flow reserve based interactive planner (FFR planner) to predict the physiological benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as defined by invasive post-PCI FFR.

Background: Advances in FFR technology have enabled the simulation of hyperemic pressure changes after virtual removal of stenoses.

Methods: In 56 patients (63 vessels) invasive FFR measurements before and after PCI were obtained and FFR was calculated using pre-PCI coronary CT angiography. Subsequently, FFR and invasive coronary angiography models were aligned allowing virtual removal of coronary stenoses on pre-PCI FFR models in the same locations as PCI was performed. Relationships between invasive FFR and FFR , between post-PCI FFR and FFR planner, and between delta FFR and delta FFR were evaluated.

Results: Pre PCI, invasive FFR was 0.65 ± 0.12 and FFR was 0.64 ± 0.13 (p = .34) with a mean difference of 0.015 (95% CI: -0.23-0.26). Post-PCI invasive FFR was 0.89 ± 0.07 and FFR planner was 0.85 ± 0.07 (p < .001) with a mean difference of 0.040 (95% CI: -0.10-0.18). Delta invasive FFR and delta FFR were 0.23 ± 0.12 and 0.21 ± 0.12 (p = .09) with a mean difference of 0.025 (95% CI: -0.20-0.25). Significant correlations were found between pre-PCI FFR and FFR (r = 0.53, p < .001), between post-PCI FFR and FFR planner (r = 0.41, p = .001), and between delta FFR and delta FFR (r = 0.57, p < .001).

Conclusions: The non-invasive FFR planner tool demonstrated significant albeit modest agreement with post-PCI FFR and change in FFR values after PCI. The FFR planner tool may hold promise for PCI procedural planning; however, improvement in technology is warranted before clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984343PMC
March 2021

1-Year Outcomes of Delayed Versus Immediate Intervention in Patients With Transient ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2019 11 2;12(22):2272-2282. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a delayed versus an immediate invasive approach on final infarct size and clinical outcome up to 1 year.

Background: Up to 24% of patients with acute coronary syndromes present with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) but show complete resolution of ST-segment elevation and symptoms before revascularization. Current guidelines do not clearly state whether these patients with transient STEMI should be treated with a STEMI-like or non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome-like intervention strategy.

Methods: In this multicenter trial, 142 patients with transient STEMI were randomized 1:1 to either delayed or immediate coronary intervention. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 4 days and at 4-month follow-up to assess infarct size and myocardial function. Clinical follow-up was performed at 4 and 12 months.

Results: In the delayed (22.7 h) and the immediate (0.4 h) invasive groups, final infarct size as a percentage of the left ventricle was very small (0.4% [interquartile range: 0.0% to 2.5%] vs. 0.4% [interquartile range: 0.0% to 3.5%]; p = 0.79), and left ventricular function was good (mean ejection fraction 59.3 ± 6.5% vs. 59.9 ± 5.4%; p = 0.63). In addition, the overall occurrence of major adverse cardiac events, consisting of death, recurrent infarction, and target lesion revascularization, up to 1 year was low and not different between both groups (5.7% vs. 4.4%, respectively; p = 1.00).

Conclusions: At follow-up, patients with transient STEMI have limited infarction and well-preserved myocardial function in general, and delayed or immediate revascularization has no effect on functional outcome and clinical events up to 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.07.018DOI Listing
November 2019

Timing of revascularization in patients with transient ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a randomized clinical trial.

Eur Heart J 2019 01;40(3):283-291

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Aims: Patients with acute coronary syndrome who present initially with ST-elevation on the electrocardiogram but, subsequently, show complete normalization of the ST-segment and relief of symptoms before reperfusion therapy are referred to as transient ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and pose a therapeutic challenge. It is unclear what the optimal timing of revascularization is for these patients and whether they should be treated with a STEMI-like or a non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)-like invasive approach. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of an immediate vs. a delayed invasive strategy on infarct size measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR).

Methods And Results: In a randomized clinical trial, 142 patients with transient STEMI with symptoms of any duration were randomized to an immediate (STEMI-like) [0.3 h; interquartile range (IQR) 0.2-0.7 h] or a delayed (NSTEMI-like) invasive strategy (22.7 h; IQR 18.2-27.3 h). Infarct size as percentage of the left ventricular myocardial mass measured by CMR at day four was generally small and not different between the immediate and the delayed invasive group (1.3%; IQR 0.0-3.5% vs. 1.5% IQR 0.0-4.1%, P = 0.48). By intention to treat, there was no difference in major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as death, reinfarction, or target vessel revascularization at 30 days (2.9% vs. 2.8%, P = 1.00). However, four additional patients (5.6%) in the delayed invasive strategy required urgent intervention due to signs and symptoms of reinfarction while awaiting angiography.

Conclusion: Overall, infarct size in transient STEMI is small and is not influenced by an immediate or delayed invasive strategy. In addition, short-term MACE was low and not different between the treatment groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy651DOI Listing
January 2019

What is the best ST-segment recovery parameter to predict clinical outcome and myocardial infarct size? Amplitude, speed, and completeness of ST-segment recovery after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

J Electrocardiol 2017 Nov - Dec;50(6):952-959. Epub 2017 Apr 22.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, USA; Duke University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Aims: ST-segment recovery (STR) is a strong mechanistic correlate of infarct size (IS) and outcome in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Characterizing measures of speed, amplitude, and completeness of STR may extend the use of this noninvasive biomarker.

Methods And Results: Core laboratory continuous 24-h 12-lead Holter ECG monitoring, IS by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and 30-day mortality of 2 clinical trials of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in STEMI were combined. Multiple ST measures (STR at last contrast injection (LC) measured from peak value; 30, 60, 90, 120, and 240min, residual deviation; time to steady ST recovery; and the 3-h area under the time trend curve [ST-AUC] from LC) were univariably correlated with IS and predictive of mortality. After multivariable adjustment for ST-parameters and GRACE risk factors, STR at 240min remained an additive predictor of mortality. Early STR, residual deviation, and ST-AUC remained associated with IS.

Conclusions: Multiple parameters that quantify the speed, amplitude, and completeness of STR predict mortality and correlate with IS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2017.04.009DOI Listing
August 2018

Precordial junctional ST-segment depression with tall symmetric T-waves signifying proximal LAD occlusion, case reports of STEMI equivalence.

J Electrocardiol 2016 Jan-Feb;49(1):76-80. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center - University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Timely reperfusion therapy by means of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred treatment for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A significant number of patients with large acute myocardial infarction, caused by occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery, do not show ST-elevation on the electrocardiogram. Other ECG abnormalities may be present, the so called STEMI-equivalents. One such STEMI equivalent, junctional ST-segment depression followed by tall symmetrical T-waves in the precordial leads, often in combination with slight ST-elevation in lead AVR, has been associated with proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Recognition of this ECG pattern by ambulance staff, emergency physicians and interventional cardiologists envolved in STEMI networks, is important to ensure timely reperfusion therapy in these patients. In this paper we present three patients with typical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction and the ECG pattern with slight J-point depression combined with tall, symmetrical T-waves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2015.10.005DOI Listing
October 2016

Multiple biomarkers at admission significantly improve the prediction of mortality in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2011 Jan;57(1):29-36

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center–University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: We investigated whether multiple biomarkers improve prognostication in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Background: Few data exist on the prognostic value of combined biomarkers.

Methods: We used data from 1,034 STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention in a high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention center in the Netherlands and investigated whether combining N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, glucose, C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and cardiac troponin T improved the prediction of mortality. A risk score was developed based on the strongest predicting biomarkers in multivariate Cox regression. The additional prognostic value of the strongest predicting biomarkers to the established prognostic factors (age, body weight, diabetes, hypertension, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, anterior myocardial infarction, and time to treatment) was assessed in multivariable Cox regression.

Results: During follow-up (median, 901 days), 120 of the 1,034 patients died. In Cox regression, glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide were the strongest predictors for mortality (p < 0.05, for all). A risk score incorporating these biomarkers identified a high-risk STEMI subgroup with a significantly higher mortality when compared with an intermediate- or low-risk subgroup (p < 0.001). Addition of the 3 biomarkers to established prognostic factors significantly improved prediction for mortality, as shown by the net reclassification improvement (0.481, p < 0.001) [corrected] and integrated discrimination improvement (0.0226, p = 0.03) [corrected].

Conclusions: Our data suggest that addition of a multimarker to a model including established risk factors improves the prediction of mortality in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Furthermore, the use of a simple risk score based on these biomarkers identifies a high-risk subgroup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2010.06.053DOI Listing
January 2011

Impact of early, late, and no ST-segment resolution measured by continuous ST Holter monitoring on left ventricular ejection fraction and infarct size as determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

J Electrocardiol 2011 Jan-Feb;44(1):36-41

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of ST-segment resolution (STR) early after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), late STR, and no STR for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size (IS) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at follow-up in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Methods: The analysis included 199 patients who were enrolled in the PRoximal Embolic Protection in Acute myocardial infarction and Resolution of ST-Elevation trial and in whom both continuous ST Holter and CMR at follow-up were available. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: (1) early complete (≥70%) STR measured immediately after last contrast injection (n = 113); (2) late complete STR (n = 52), defined as complete STR from 30 to 240 minutes after PCI; and (3) no complete STR after 240 minutes (n = 34).

Results: Patients with early STR had more preserved LVEF and smaller IS compared to patients with late STR or no STR (LVEF: early STR, 54% ± 8%; late STR, 46% ± 13%; no STR, 43% ± 11%; and IS: 3.9 ± 3.3 g/m(2); 8.0 ± 6.9 g/m(2); 12.0 ± 6.0 g/m(2); respectively; all P < .0001). Early STR was independently predictive for LVEF (β = 8.5; P = .0005) and IS (β = -7.0; P < .0001). Late STR was not predictive for LVEF (β = 1.6; P = .51) but predictive for IS (β = -3.5; P = .003).

Conclusions: Patients with early complete STR after primary PCI have better preserved LVEF and smaller IS. Patients with late complete STR do not have better preserved LVEF but do have smaller IS. ST-segment resolution is a strong, independent predictor of LVEF and IS as assessed by CMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2010.08.004DOI Listing
April 2011

Prediction of 1-year mortality with different measures of ST-segment recovery in all-comers after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010 Sep 17;3(5):522-9. Epub 2010 Aug 17.

Department of Cardiology of the Academic Medical Center-University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Post hoc analyses from several randomized, controlled trials have established the prognostic importance of different measures of ST-segment recovery in highly selected patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this single-center registry, we investigated whether various measures of ST-segment recovery can be applied to unselected STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI.

Methods And Results: We analyzed 12-lead ECGs from 2124 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI at our institution between November 1, 2000, and January 1, 2007. ECGs were recorded at the catheterization laboratory immediately before arterial puncture and at the end of PCI. We examined measures assessing ST-segment recovery on the postprocedural ECG and measures comparing both ECGs and related these to 1-year, all-cause mortality. Cumulative ST-segment recovery (∑ST-D resolution) at a 50% cutoff had the highest unadjusted accuracy (C statistic, 0.646; 95% confidence interval, 0.602 to 0.689; P<0.001) as compared with the other 8 measures evaluated. Furthermore, ∑ST-D resolution was the strongest contributor to both the net reclassification and integrated discrimination improvement.

Conclusions: Although each measure of ST-segment recovery provided univariable prognostic information, the ∑ST-D resolution measure comparing summed ST-segment deviations on the preprocedural and postprocedural ECG was the best independent predictor of 1-year mortality in all-comer STEMI patients after primary PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.109.923797DOI Listing
September 2010

Clinical and angiographic predictors of ST-segment recovery after primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Am J Cardiol 2010 Jun 27;105(12):1692-7. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Department of Cardiology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Important determinants of incomplete ST-segment recovery in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have been incompletely characterized. Early risk stratification could identify patients with STEMI and incomplete ST-segment recovery who may benefit from adjunctive therapy. For the present study, we analyzed 12-lead electrocardiograms from 2,124 patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI at our institution from 2000 to 2007. ST-segment recovery was defined as percent change in cumulative ST-segment deviation between preprocedural and immediately postprocedural electrocardiograms and categorized as incomplete when <50%. A total of 1,032 patients (49%) had incomplete ST-segment recovery. After multivariable adjustment, age >60 years (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.54, p = 0.011), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, p = 0.034), left anterior descending coronary artery-related STEMI (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.30, p<0.001), and multivessel disease (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.63, p = 0.004) were independent predictors of incomplete ST-segment recovery. Current smoking (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.95, p = 0.013) and a preprocedural Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade <3 flow (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.93, p = 0.014) were inversely related to ST-segment recovery. Incomplete ST-segment recovery was a strong predictor of long-term mortality (hazard ratio 2.07, 95% CI 1.59 to 2.69, p <0.001) in addition to identified characteristics that independently predicted incomplete ST-segment recovery. In conclusion, incomplete ST-segment recovery at the end of PCI occurred significantly more often in the presence of an age >60 years, nonsmoking, diabetes mellitus, left anterior descending coronary artery-related STEMI, multivessel disease, and preprocedural Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow. Patients with STEMI and these clinical features are at increased risk of impaired myocardial salvage and are appropriate candidates for adjunctive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.01.343DOI Listing
June 2010

Histopathology of aspirated thrombus and its association with ST-segment recovery in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with routine thrombus aspiration.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2011 Jan;77(1):35-42

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center-University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with thrombus aspiration, the histopathology of aspirated thrombus was previously related to long-term mortality. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between histopathology of aspirated thrombus and ST-segment recovery, a marker of microvascular dysfunction, immediately at the end of the PCI procedure.

Methods: We included 892 STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI with routine thrombus aspiration and for whom combined data on histopathology of aspirated thrombus and ST-segment recovery were available. Patients were categorized according to histopathology of aspirated thrombus: fresh only (<1 day), older (>1 day), or no material aspirated. ST-segment recovery was defined as incomplete if <50%.

Results: Incomplete ST-segment recovery occurred in 134 of 363 patients (37%) with fresh thrombus, in 104 of 238 patients (44%) with older thrombus, and in 142 of 291 patients (49%) with no material. Unadjusted odds ratios for incomplete ST-segment recovery of patients with older thrombus and no material, when compared with patients with fresh thrombus, were 1.33 (95% CI, 0.95-1.85; P = 0.097) and 1.63 (95% CI 1.19-2.23; P = 0.002), respectively. Both associations were unchanged after multivariable adjustment for clinical predictors of ST-segment recovery. ST-segment recovery was a strong predictor of long-term mortality, independent of the histopathology of aspirated thrombus.

Conclusions: This study shows that ST-segment recovery immediately at the end of the PCI procedure was a significant prognosticator, independent of the histopathology of aspirated thrombus. We found that the histopathology of aspirated thrombus (fresh, older, no material) was associated with ST-segment recovery in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI with thrombus aspiration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.22616DOI Listing
January 2011

Comparison of usefulness of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as an independent predictor of cardiac function among admission cardiac serum biomarkers in patients with anterior wall versus nonanterior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Am J Cardiol 2010 Apr 20;105(8):1065-9. Epub 2010 Feb 20.

Department of Cardiology, University of Amsterdam Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), among other serum biomarkers, on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging parameters of cardiac function and infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We measured NT-pro-BNP, cardiac troponin T, creatinine kinase-MB fraction, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and creatinine on the patients' arrival at the catheterization laboratory in 206 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The NT-pro-BNP levels were divided into quartiles and correlated with left ventricular function and infarct size measured by CMR imaging at 4 to 6 months. Compared to the lower quartiles, patients with nonanterior wall myocardial infarction in the highest quartile of NT-pro-BNP (> or = 260 pg/ml) more often had a greater left ventricular end-systolic volume (68 vs 39 ml/m(2), p <0.001), a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (42% vs 54%, p <0.001), a larger infarct size (9 vs 4 g/m(2), p = 0.002), and a larger number of transmural segments (11% of segments vs 3% of segments, p <0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that a NT-pro-BNP level of > or = 260 pg/ml was the strongest independent predictor of left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with nonanterior wall myocardial infarction compared to the other serum biomarkers (beta = -5.8; p = 0.019). In conclusion, in patients with nonanterior wall myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, an admission NT-pro-BNP level of > or = 260 pg/ml was a strong, independent predictor of left ventricular function assessed by CMR imaging at follow-up. Our findings suggest that NT-pro-BNP, a widely available biomarker, might be helpful in the early risk stratification of patients with nonanterior wall myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.12.003DOI Listing
April 2010

Comparison of the usefulness of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide to other serum biomarkers as an early predictor of ST-segment recovery after primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Am J Cardiol 2010 Apr 20;105(8):1047-52. Epub 2010 Feb 20.

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Data on the ability of serum biomarkers to predict microvascular obstruction by ST-segment recovery after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is largely absent. Therefore, we determined the association between 5 serum biomarkers, obtained before emergency coronary angiography, and immediate ST-segment recovery in patients who had undergone primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. We measured N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), cardiac troponin T, creatinine kinase-MB fraction, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and serum creatinine from blood samples obtained through the arterial sheath at the start of primary PCI. Serial 12-lead electrocardiograms were recorded in the catheterization laboratory before arterial puncture and at the end of the PCI. ST-segment recovery was defined as incomplete if <50%. Of 662 included patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 338 (51%) had incomplete ST-segment recovery. An elevated NT-pro-BNP level (> or = 608 ng/L) was the strongest predictor of incomplete ST-segment recovery (adjusted odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.1; p <0.001) compared to other serum biomarkers and clinical predictors. An elevated NT-pro-BNP level was more strongly predictive in patients without a history of coronary artery disease or hypertension (adjusted odds ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval 2.4 to 9.2; p <0.001). NT-pro-BNP was the best contributor to both net reclassification (0.43; p <0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.04; p <0.001) when added to a multivariate model with clinical predictors of incomplete ST-segment recovery. In conclusion, NT-pro-BNP was the strongest independent predictor of ST-segment recovery at the end of primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction compared to the other serum biomarkers reflecting myocardial cell damage, renal function, and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.12.002DOI Listing
April 2010

Genous endothelial progenitor cell capturing stent vs. the Taxus Liberte stent in patients with de novo coronary lesions with a high-risk of coronary restenosis: a randomized, single-centre, pilot study.

Eur Heart J 2010 May 18;31(9):1055-64. Epub 2009 Nov 18.

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, B2-137 Meibergdreef 9, PO Box 22660, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Genous(TM) endothelial progenitor cell capturing stent vs. the Taxus Liberté paclitaxel-eluting stent in patients with de novo coronary lesions with a high-risk of coronary restenosis.

Methods And Results: We randomly assigned 193 patients with lesions carrying a high risk of restenosis to have the Genous stent or the Taxus stent implanted. Lesions were considered high risk of restenosis if one of the following applied: chronic total occlusion, lesion length >23 mm, vessel diameter <2.8 mm, or any lesion in a diabetic patient. At 1-year, the rate of the primary end point, target vessel failure (TVF), was 17.3% in the Genous stent group when compared with 10.5% in the Taxus stent group [risk difference (RD) 6.8%, 95% CI -3.1 to 16.7%], a difference predominantly due to a higher incidence of repeat revascularization in patients treated with the Genous stent. In contrast, no stent thrombosis was observed in the Genous stent group compared to 4 stent thromboses in the Taxus stent group (RD -4.2%; 95% CI -10.3 to 0.3%). Repeat angiography between 6 and 12 months in a subgroup of patients showed a significantly higher late loss in the Genous stent compared with the Taxus stent (1.14 +/- 0.64 and 0.55 +/- 0.61 mm).

Conclusion: In patients with lesions carrying a high risk of restenosis, the Genous stent resulted in a non-significant higher rate of TVF compared with the Taxus stent mainly due to more repeat revascularizations in the Genous stent group. There were four stent thromboses with Taxus stent, none with the Genous stent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehp476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2862178PMC
May 2010

Design and rationale of the TRI-stent adjudication study (TRIAS) program.

Am Heart J 2009 Oct;158(4):527-532.e1

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: In the treatment of coronary artery disease, a "pro-healing" approach for prevention of in-stent restenosis and late stent thrombosis is intuitively favored over the use of cytotoxic or cytostatic drugs released from a drug-eluting stent (DES). Promoting accelerated endothelial coverage of the stent surface, the endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) capturing stent has shown its safety and efficacy in the HEALING observational studies; however, randomized trials evaluating the device are lacking.

Methods: The multicenter, randomized, controlled, 2-armed TRIAS program aims to include a total of 2560 patients. In the TRIAS Low Risk trial, a total of 1300 patients with lesions carrying a low risk of restenosis are randomized between the EPC capturing stent and a bare metal stent, assuming superiority in the incidence of target lesion failure (TLF) at 1 year. In the TRIAS High Risk trial, 1260 patients with lesions carrying a high risk of restenosis are randomized, assuming the noninferiority in TLF at 1 year of the EPC capturing stent as compared to DES. TLF is defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and clinically driven target lesion revascularization. In addition, the duration of clinical follow-up is extended to 5 years to capture late events. Angiographic follow-up at 13 months is performed as part of the TRIAS Program ancillary study.

Implication: The results of the TRIAS Program will provide information on a relevant patient population with coronary artery lesions, comprising the full spectrum of low risk and high risk of restenosis treated with a novel stent technology in a randomized, controlled manner (TRIAS Low Risk trial: ISRCTN 47701105 and TRIAS High Risk trial: ISRCTN 74297220).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2009.07.022DOI Listing
October 2009

Current status of distal embolization in percutaneous coronary intervention: mechanical and pharmacological strategies.

Future Cardiol 2009 Jul;5(4):385-402

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Distal embolization during percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction or saphenous vein graft disease may result in microvascular obstruction and the 'no-reflow' phenomenon. The incidence of distal embolization ranges from 2 to 42% in saphenous vein graft intervention and from 6 to 15% in primary percutaneous coronary intervention and is associated with impaired myocardial perfusion and poor outcome. Several mechanical and pharmacological strategies have been proposed to prevent or to treat embolization in percutaneous coronary intervention and have been tested in clinical trials. The pivotal role of distal embolization in the pathophysiology of microvascular obstruction will lead to the further development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Strategies to counteract distal embolization and future directions are discussed in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fca.09.25DOI Listing
July 2009

Comparison of long-term mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients treated for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction versus those with unstable and stable angina pectoris.

Am J Cardiol 2009 Aug 6;104(3):333-7. Epub 2009 Jun 6.

Department of Cardiology, University of Amsterdam Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Data remain limited regarding the comparative long-term mortality across the spectrum of patients with different indications for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated early and late mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary PCI compared with early and late mortality in patients undergoing PCI for unstable angina (UA) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and stable angina. A total of 10,549 consecutive patients undergoing PCI from 1997 to 2005 at a single institution were followed up prospectively (median 3.2 years, interquartile range 1.5 to 5.6) to assess all-cause mortality. The indication for PCI was STEMI in 28%, UA/NSTEMI in 32%, and stable angina in 40%. The mortality rate at 6 years was 18.9% in patients with STEMI, 16.2% in patients with UA/NSTEMI, and 11.7% in those with stable angina. During the initial 6 months, patients with STEMI had an increased risk of death compared with patients with UA/NSTEMI (relative risk [RR] 3.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.46 to 3.89) and stable angina (RR 5.82, 95% CI 4.45 to 7.62). However, between 6 months and 6 years, mortality accrued at an almost similar rate among patients with STEMI and those with stable angina (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.32) and mortality was greatest in patients with UA/NSTEMI (UA/NSTEMI vs stable angina: RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.58; STEMI vs UA/NSTEMI: RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.99). In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the inferior survival rates in patients with STEMI after primary PCI are mainly attributed to greater mortality in the first months after the event. These observations highlight that new adjunctive therapeutic strategies should aim at mortality reduction in the first months after primary PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.03.052DOI Listing
August 2009
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