Publications by authors named "Niels Grarup"

212 Publications

The effect of melatonin on incretin hormones - results from experimental and randomized clinical studies.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Steno Diabetes Center Aarhus, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Context: Glucose homeostasis is under circadian control through both endocrine and intracellular mechanisms with several lines of evidence suggesting that melatonin affects glucose homeostasis.

Objective: To evaluate the acute in-vivo and in-situ effects of melatonin on secretion of the incretin hormones, GLP-1 and GIP, and their impact on β-cell insulin secretion.

Design: A human randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study combined with a confirmatory in-situ study of perfused rat intestines.

Setting: Aarhus University Hospital.Methods: Fifteen healthy male participants were examined 2 x 2 times: An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on day one and an isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion replicating the blood glucose profile of the OGTT day was performed on day two. These pairs of study days were repeated on treatment with melatonin and placebo, respectively. For the in-situ study, six rat intestines and four rat pancreases were perfused arterially with perfusion buffer ± melatonin. The intestines were concomitantly perfused with glucose through the luminal compartment.

Results: In humans, melatonin treatment resulted in reduced GIP secretion compared with placebo (ANOVA p=0.003), an effect also observed in the perfused rat intestines (ANOVA p=0.003) in which GLP-1 secretion also was impaired by arterial melatonin infusion (ANOVA p<0.001). Despite a decrease in GIP levels, the in-vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was unaffected by melatonin (p=0.78).

Conclusion: Melatonin reduced GIP secretion during an oral glucose challenge in healthy young men but did not affect insulin secretion. Reduced GIP secretion was confirmed in an in-situ model of the rat intestine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab521DOI Listing
July 2021

Abdominal and gluteofemoral fat depots show opposing associations with postprandial lipemia.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: High postprandial lipemia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, independently of fasting lipid concentrations. Abdominal and gluteofemoral fat depots handle lipoproteins differently, which could affect postprandial lipemia and contribute to the relation between abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular disease risk.

Objectives: We aimed to study the influences of higher abdominal compared with gluteofemoral fat on postprandial lipemia after a high-fat meal in individuals with obesity.

Methods: A total of 755 adults with obesity from a randomized controlled trial in 7 European countries consumed a liquid high-fat meal. Concentrations of triglycerides (TG), glycerol, free fatty acids, and the cholesterol component of remnant-like particles (RLP), LDL, and HDL were measured postprandially for 3 h. Associations of waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with changes in postprandial lipid concentrations, adjusted for fasting concentrations and BMI, were examined using linear regression models. To assess whether the association of WHR with postprandial lipemia could be causal, we performed instrumental variable analyses using a genetic score of 442 variants known to be associated with WHR adjusted for BMI in 2-stage least-squares regression models.

Results: WHR was associated with higher TG and RLP cholesterol concentrations, independent of fasting lipid concentrations and BMI. Instrumental variable analyses suggested that the associations of WHR with postprandial TG (β = 0.038 μmol/L*min, SE = 0.019 μmol/L*min, P = 0.044) and RLP cholesterol concentrations (β = 0.059 mmol/L, SE = 0.025 mmol/L, P = 0.020) may be causal. WC and HC showed opposite effects: higher WC was associated with higher TG and RLP cholesterol concentrations whereas higher HC was associated with lower concentrations.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher fat deposition abdominally versus gluteofemorally may be causally associated with elevated postprandial lipemia after a high-fat meal, independent of fasting lipid concentrations and BMI. Furthermore, higher abdominal and gluteofemoral fat depots show opposing effects on postprandial lipemia.This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN25867281.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab219DOI Listing
July 2021

Insulin resistance genetic risk score and burden of coronary artery disease in patients referred for coronary angiography.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(6):e0252855. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Cardiology, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims: Insulin resistance associates with development of metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. The link between insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease is complex and multifactorial. Confirming the genetic link between insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease, as well as the extent of coronary artery disease, is important and may provide better risk stratification for patients at risk. We investigated whether a genetic risk score of 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms known to be associated with insulin resistance phenotypes was associated with diabetes and burden of coronary artery disease.

Methods And Results: We genotyped patients with a coronary angiography performed in the capital region of Denmark from 2010-2014 and constructed a genetic risk score of the 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Logistic regression using quartiles of the genetic risk score was performed to determine associations with diabetes and coronary artery disease. Associations with the extent of coronary artery disease, defined as one-, two- or three-vessel coronary artery disease, was determined by multinomial logistic regression. We identified 4,963 patients, of which 17% had diabetes and 55% had significant coronary artery disease. Of the latter, 27%, 14% and 14% had one, two or three-vessel coronary artery disease, respectively. No significant increased risk of diabetes was identified comparing the highest genetic risk score quartile with the lowest. An increased risk of coronary artery disease was found for patients with the highest genetic risk score quartile in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, OR 1.21 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.42, p = 0.02) and 1.25 (95% CI 1.06, 1.48, p<0.01), respectively. In the adjusted multinomial logistic regression, patients in the highest genetic risk score quartile were more likely to develop three-vessel coronary artery disease compared with patients in the lowest genetic risk score quartile, OR 1.41 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.82, p<0.01).

Conclusions: Among patients referred for coronary angiography, only a strong genetic predisposition to insulin resistance was associated with risk of coronary artery disease and with a greater disease burden.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252855PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213191PMC
June 2021

Determinants of penetrance and variable expressivity in monogenic metabolic conditions across 77,184 exomes.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3505. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Hundreds of thousands of genetic variants have been reported to cause severe monogenic diseases, but the probability that a variant carrier develops the disease (termed penetrance) is unknown for virtually all of them. Additionally, the clinical utility of common polygenetic variation remains uncertain. Using exome sequencing from 77,184 adult individuals (38,618 multi-ancestral individuals from a type 2 diabetes case-control study and 38,566 participants from the UK Biobank, for whom genotype array data were also available), we apply clinical standard-of-care gene variant curation for eight monogenic metabolic conditions. Rare variants causing monogenic diabetes and dyslipidemias display effect sizes significantly larger than the top 1% of the corresponding polygenic scores. Nevertheless, penetrance estimates for monogenic variant carriers average 60% or lower for most conditions. We assess epidemiologic and genetic factors contributing to risk prediction in monogenic variant carriers, demonstrating that inclusion of polygenic variation significantly improves biomarker estimation for two monogenic dyslipidemias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23556-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190084PMC
June 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

Lipolysis drives expression of the constitutively active receptor GPR3 to induce adipose thermogenesis.

Cell 2021 Jun 27;184(13):3502-3518.e33. Epub 2021 May 27.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Thermogenic adipocytes possess a therapeutically appealing, energy-expending capacity, which is canonically cold-induced by ligand-dependent activation of β-adrenergic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we uncover an alternate paradigm of GPCR-mediated adipose thermogenesis through the constitutively active receptor, GPR3. We show that the N terminus of GPR3 confers intrinsic signaling activity, resulting in continuous Gs-coupling and cAMP production without an exogenous ligand. Thus, transcriptional induction of Gpr3 represents the regulatory parallel to ligand-binding of conventional GPCRs. Consequently, increasing Gpr3 expression in thermogenic adipocytes is alone sufficient to drive energy expenditure and counteract metabolic disease in mice. Gpr3 transcription is cold-stimulated by a lipolytic signal, and dietary fat potentiates GPR3-dependent thermogenesis to amplify the response to caloric excess. Moreover, we find GPR3 to be an essential, adrenergic-independent regulator of human brown adipocytes. Taken together, our findings reveal a noncanonical mechanism of GPCR control and thermogenic activation through the lipolysis-induced expression of constitutively active GPR3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238500PMC
June 2021

Genetic markers of abdominal obesity and weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(5):e0252525. Epub 2021 May 28.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Weight loss after bariatric surgery varies widely between individuals, partly due to genetic differences. In addition, genetic determinants of abdominal obesity have been shown to attenuate weight loss after dietary intervention with special attention paid to the rs1358980-T risk allele in the VEGFA locus. Here we aimed to test if updated genetic risk scores (GRSs) for adiposity measures and the rs1358980-T risk allele are linked with weight loss following gastric bypass surgery.

Methods: Five hundred seventy six patients with morbid obesity underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A GRS for BMI and a GRS for waist-hip-ratio adjusted for BMI (proxy for abdominal obesity), respectively, were constructed. All patients were genotyped for the rs1358980-T risk allele. Associations between the genetic determinants and weight loss after bariatric surgery were evaluated.

Results: The GRS for BMI was not associated with weight loss (β = -2.0 kg/100 risk alleles, 95% CI -7.5 to 3.3, p = 0.45). Even though the GRS for abdominal obesity was associated with an attenuated weight loss response adjusted for age, sex and center (β = -14.6 kg/100 risk alleles, 95% CI -25.4 to -3.8, p = 0.008), it was not significantly associated with weight loss after adjustment for baseline BMI (β = -7.9 kg/100 risk alleles, 95% CI -17.5 to 1.6, p = 0.11). Similarly, the rs1358980-T risk allele was not significantly associated with weight loss (β = -0.8 kg/risk allele, 95% CI -2.2 to 0.6, p = 0.25).

Discussion: GRSs for adiposity derived from large meta-analyses and the rs1358980-T risk allele in the VEGFA locus did not predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery. The association between a GRS for abdominal obesity and the response to bariatric surgery may be dependent on the association between the GRS and baseline BMI.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252525PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162622PMC
May 2021

Explaining deep neural networks for knowledge discovery in electrocardiogram analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 May 26;11(1):10949. Epub 2021 May 26.

University of Copenhagen, 2200, Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Deep learning-based tools may annotate and interpret medical data more quickly, consistently, and accurately than medical doctors. However, as medical doctors are ultimately responsible for clinical decision-making, any deep learning-based prediction should be accompanied by an explanation that a human can understand. We present an approach called electrocardiogram gradient class activation map (ECGradCAM), which is used to generate attention maps and explain the reasoning behind deep learning-based decision-making in ECG analysis. Attention maps may be used in the clinic to aid diagnosis, discover new medical knowledge, and identify novel features and characteristics of medical tests. In this paper, we showcase how ECGradCAM attention maps can unmask how a novel deep learning model measures both amplitudes and intervals in 12-lead electrocardiograms, and we show an example of how attention maps may be used to develop novel ECG features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90285-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154909PMC
May 2021

Physical activity attenuates postprandial hyperglycaemia in homozygous TBC1D4 loss-of-function mutation carriers.

Diabetologia 2021 Aug 29;64(8):1795-1804. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims/hypothesis: The common muscle-specific TBC1D4 p.Arg684Ter loss-of-function variant defines a subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes in Arctic populations. Homozygous carriers are characterised by elevated postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Because 3.8% of the Greenlandic population are homozygous carriers, it is important to explore possibilities for precision medicine. We aimed to investigate whether physical activity attenuates the effect of this variant on 2 h plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose load.

Methods: In a Greenlandic population cohort (n = 2655), 2 h plasma glucose levels were obtained after an OGTT, physical activity was estimated as physical activity energy expenditure and TBC1D4 genotype was determined. We performed TBC1D4-physical activity interaction analysis, applying a linear mixed model to correct for genetic admixture and relatedness.

Results: Physical activity was inversely associated with 2 h plasma glucose levels (β[main effect of physical activity] -0.0033 [mmol/l] / [kJ kg day], p = 6.5 × 10), and significantly more so among homozygous carriers of the TBC1D4 risk variant compared with heterozygous carriers and non-carriers (β[interaction] -0.015 [mmol/l] / [kJ kg day], p = 0.0085). The estimated effect size suggests that 1 h of vigorous physical activity per day (compared with resting) reduces 2 h plasma glucose levels by an additional ~0.7 mmol/l in homozygous carriers of the risk variant.

Conclusions/interpretation: Physical activity improves glucose homeostasis particularly in homozygous TBC1D4 risk variant carriers via a skeletal muscle TBC1 domain family member 4-independent pathway. This provides a rationale to implement physical activity as lifestyle precision medicine in Arctic populations.

Data Repository: The Greenlandic Cardio-Metabochip data for the Inuit Health in Transition study has been deposited at the European Genome-phenome Archive ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ega/dacs/EGAC00001000736 ) under accession EGAD00010001428.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05461-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245392PMC
August 2021

FGL1 as a modulator of plasma D-dimer levels: Exome-wide marker analysis of plasma tPA, PAI-1, and D-dimer.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Aug 30;19(8):2019-2028. Epub 2021 May 30.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Use of targeted exome-arrays with common, rare variants and functionally enriched variation has led to discovery of new genes contributing to population variation in risk factors. Plasminogen activator-inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and the plasma product D-dimer are important components of the fibrinolytic system. There have been few large-scale genome-wide or exome-wide studies of PAI-1, tPA, and D-dimer.

Objectives: We sought to discover new genetic loci contributing to variation in these traits using an exome-array approach.

Methods: Cohort-level analyses and fixed effects meta-analyses of PAI-1 (n = 15 603), tPA (n = 6876,) and D-dimer (n = 19 306) from 12 cohorts of European ancestry with diverse study design were conducted, including single-variant analyses and gene-based burden testing.

Results: Five variants located in NME7, FGL1, and the fibrinogen locus, all associated with D-dimer levels, achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10 ). Replication was sought for these 5 variants, as well as 45 well-imputed variants with P < 1 × 10 in the discovery using an independent cohort. Replication was observed for three out of the five significant associations, including a novel and uncommon (0.013 allele frequency) coding variant p.Trp256Leu in FGL1 (fibrinogen-like-1) with increased plasma D-dimer levels. Additionally, a candidate-gene approach revealed a suggestive association for a coding variant (rs143202684-C) in SERPINB2, and suggestive associations with consistent effect in the replication analysis include an intronic variant (rs11057830-A) in SCARB1 associated with increased D-dimer levels.

Conclusion: This work provides new evidence for a role of FGL1 in hemostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15345DOI Listing
August 2021

The genetic history of Greenlandic-European contact.

Curr Biol 2021 May 11;31(10):2214-2219.e4. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Section for Computational and RNA Biology, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

The Inuit ancestors of the Greenlandic people arrived in Greenland close to 1,000 years ago. Since then, Europeans from many different countries have been present in Greenland. Consequently, the present-day Greenlandic population has ∼25% of its genetic ancestry from Europe. In this study, we investigated to what extent different European countries have contributed to this genetic ancestry. We combined dense SNP chip data from 3,972 Greenlanders and 8,275 Europeans from 14 countries and inferred the ancestry contribution from each of these 14 countries using haplotype-based methods. Due to the rapid increase in population size in Greenland over the past ∼100 years, we hypothesized that earlier European interactions, such as pre-colonial Dutch whalers and early German and Danish-Norwegian missionaries, as well as the later Danish colonists and post-colonial immigrants, all contributed European genetic ancestry. However, we found that the European ancestry is almost entirely Danish and that a substantial fraction is from admixture that took place within the last few generations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284823PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide association study of circulating levels of glucagon during an oral glucose tolerance test.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 01 6;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: In order to explore the pathophysiology underlying type 2 diabetes we examined the impact of gene variants associated with type 2 diabetes on circulating levels of glucagon during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Furthermore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) aiming to identify novel genomic loci affecting plasma glucagon levels.

Methods: Plasma levels of glucagon were examined in samples obtained at three time points during an OGTT; 0, 30 and 120 min, in two separate cohorts with a total of up to 1899 individuals. Cross-sectional analyses were performed separately in the two cohorts and the results were combined in a meta-analysis.

Results: A known type 2 diabetes variant in EYA2 was significantly associated with higher plasma glucagon level at 30 min during the OGTT (Beta 0.145, SE 0.038, P = 1.2 × 10) corresponding to a 7.4% increase in plasma glucagon level per effect allele. In the GWAS, we identified a marker in the MARCH1 locus, which was genome-wide significantly associated with reduced suppression of glucagon during the first 30 min of the OGTT (Beta - 0.210, SE 0.037, P = 1.9 × 10), equivalent to 8.2% less suppression per effect allele. Nine additional independent markers, not previously associated with type 2 diabetes, showed suggestive associations with reduced glucagon suppression during the first 30 min of the OGTT (P < 1.0 × 10).

Conclusions: A type 2 diabetes risk variant in the EYA2 locus was associated with higher plasma glucagon levels at 30 min. Ten additional variants were suggestively associated with reduced glucagon suppression without conferring increased type 2 diabetes risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-020-00841-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788944PMC
January 2021

Investigating the causal effect of maternal vitamin B12 and folate levels on offspring birthweight.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 03;50(1):179-189

University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia.

Background: Lower maternal serum vitamin B12 (B12) and folate levels have been associated with lower offspring birthweight, in observational studies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this relationship is causal.

Methods: We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using summary data on associations between genotype-B12 (10 genetic variants) or genotype-folate (four genetic variants) levels from: a genome-wide association study of 45 576 individuals (sample 1); and both maternal- and fetal-specific genetic effects on offspring birthweight from the latest Early Growth Genetics consortium meta-analysis with 297 356 individuals reporting their own birthweight and 210 248 women reporting their offspring's birthweight (sample 2). We used the inverse variance weighted method, and sensitivity analyses to account for pleiotropy, in addition to excluding a potentially pleiotropic variant in the FUT2 gene for B12 levels.

Results: We did not find evidence for a causal effect of maternal or fetal B12 levels on offspring birthweight. The results were consistent across the different methods. We found a positive causal effect of maternal folate levels on offspring birthweight [0.146 (0.065, 0.227), which corresponds to an increase in birthweight of 71 g per 1 standard deviation higher folate]. We found some evidence for a small inverse effect of fetal folate levels on their own birthweight [-0.051 (-0.100, -0.003)].

Conclusions: Our results are consistent with evidence from randomized controlled trials that higher maternal folate levels increase offspring birthweight. We did not find evidence for a causal effect of B12 levels on offspring birthweight, suggesting previous observational studies may have been confounded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938507PMC
March 2021

The effect of diabetes and the common diabetogenic TBC1D4 p.Arg684Ter variant on cardiovascular risk in Inuit in Greenland.

Sci Rep 2020 12 16;10(1):22081. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a well-known complication of diabetes, but the association has not been studied among Inuit in Greenland. The aim was to examine the association between diabetes and incident CVD among Inuit in Greenland and determine if the common diabetogenic TBC1D4 variant confers increased risk of CVD. We followed an initial study population of 4127 adults in Greenland who had participated in at least one population-based health survey, in national registers. We used Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) of cardiovascular endpoints, comparing participants with and without diabetes and comparing homozygous TBC1D4 carriers with heterozygous carriers and non-carriers combined. Close to 10% had diabetes and age range was 18-96 years (45% male). Of the 3924 participants without prior CVD, 362 (~ 9%) had CVD events during a median follow-up of 10 years. Multivariate IRR for the effect of diabetes on CVD was 1.12 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.57) p = 0.50. Using a recessive genetic model, we compared homozygous TBC1D4 carriers with wildtype and heterozygous carriers combined, with a multivariate IRR of 1.20 (95% CI: 0.69, 2.11) p = 0.52. Neither diabetes nor the TBC1D4 variant significantly increased CVD risk among Inuit in Greenland in adjusted models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79132-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745023PMC
December 2020

FUT2-ABO epistasis increases the risk of early childhood asthma and Streptococcus pneumoniae respiratory illnesses.

Nat Commun 2020 12 16;11(1):6398. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Asthma with severe exacerbation is the most common cause of hospitalization among young children. We aim to increase the understanding of this clinically important disease entity through a genome-wide association study. The discovery analysis comprises 2866 children experiencing severe asthma exacerbation between ages 2 and 6 years, and 65,415 non-asthmatic controls, and we replicate findings in 918 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohorts. We identify rs281379 near FUT2/MAMSTR on chromosome 19 as a novel risk locus (OR = 1.18 (95% CI = 1.11-1.25), P = 2.6 × 10) as well as a biologically plausible interaction between functional variants in FUT2 and ABO. We further discover and replicate a potential causal mechanism behind this interaction related to S. pneumoniae respiratory illnesses. These results suggest a novel mechanism of early childhood asthma and demonstrates the importance of phenotype-specificity for discovery of asthma genes and epistasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19814-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744576PMC
December 2020

Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.

Nat Genet 2020 12 23;52(12):1314-1332. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00713-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610439PMC
December 2020

Acute metabolic effects of melatonin-A randomized crossover study in healthy young men.

J Pineal Res 2021 Mar 6;70(2):e12706. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Steno Diabetes Center Aarhus, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Melatonin regulates circadian rhythm, but may also have effects on glucose homeostasis. A common G-allele in the MTNR1B locus has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We aimed to examine acute effects of high doses of melatonin on glucose metabolism with attention to MTNR1B genotype. Twenty men were examined in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study on two nonconsecutive days with four doses of 10 mg oral melatonin or placebo. Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (HEC). Blood samples were drawn to determine the metabolic profile and MTNR1B rs10830963 genotype. Indirect calorimetry and blood pressure measurements were also performed. Insulin sensitivity index was significantly reduced on the melatonin day (P = .028) in the whole group and in homozygous carriers of the rs10830963 C-allele (P = .041). Glucose during the IVGTT was unaffected, but there was a tendency towards lower insulin and C-peptide levels in the first minutes after glucose administration in G-allele carriers. Systolic blood pressure decreased and lipid oxidation increased significantly on the melatonin day in rs10830963 G-allele carriers. Overall, our study reports that acute administration of melatonin in supra-physiological doses may have a negative impact on insulin sensitivity. Clinical trial registration number (clinicaltrial.gov): NCT03204877.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12706DOI Listing
March 2021

GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Treatment in Morbid Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Due to Pathogenic Homozygous Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutation: A Case Report.

Cell Rep Med 2020 Apr 21;1(1):100006. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Individuals with obesity due to pathogenic heterozygous () mutations can be treated efficiently with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) liraglutide. Here, we report the effect of 16 weeks of liraglutide 3 mg/day treatment in a woman with morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to homozygous pathogenic mutation. The body weight loss was 9.7 kg, similar to weight loss in heterozygous mutation carriers and common obesity. In addition, the treatment led to clinically relevant decreases in fasting glucose, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and normalization of glucose tolerance. We conclude that liraglutide reduces body weight and blood glucose levels in hetero- and homozygous mutation carriers. This serves as proof-of-concept that MC4Rs are not required for the body weight and glucose lowering effects of GLP-1 RAs and that liraglutide may be used as part of the treatment of obesity and T2D due to mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659505PMC
April 2020

Novel loci for childhood body mass index and shared heritability with adult cardiometabolic traits.

PLoS Genet 2020 10 12;16(10):e1008718. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Public Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values <0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The well-known observational associations of BMI in childhood with cardio-metabolic diseases in adulthood may reflect partial genetic overlap, but in light of previous evidence, it is also likely that they are explained through phenotypic continuity of BMI from childhood into adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581004PMC
October 2020

Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Glucose Sensitivity.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jan;106(1):80-90

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Context: Pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity is the slope of the plasma glucose-insulin secretion relationship and is a key predictor of deteriorating glucose tolerance and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no large-scale studies looking at the genetic determinants of beta-cell glucose sensitivity.

Objective: To understand the genetic determinants of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity using genome-wide meta-analysis and candidate gene studies.

Design: We performed a genome-wide meta-analysis for beta-cell glucose sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic subjects from 6 independent cohorts (n = 5706). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was calculated from mixed meal and oral glucose tolerance tests, and its associations between known glycemia-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome-wide association study (GWAS) SNPs were estimated using linear regression models.

Results: Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was moderately heritable (h2 ranged from 34% to 55%) using SNP and family-based analyses. GWAS meta-analysis identified multiple correlated SNPs in the CDKAL1 gene and GIPR-QPCTL gene loci that reached genome-wide significance, with SNP rs2238691 in GIPR-QPCTL (P value = 2.64 × 10-9) and rs9368219 in the CDKAL1 (P value = 3.15 × 10-9) showing the strongest association with beta-cell glucose sensitivity. These loci surpassed genome-wide significance when the GWAS meta-analysis was repeated after exclusion of the diabetic subjects. After correction for multiple testing, glycemia-associated SNPs in or near the HHEX and IGF2B2 loci were also associated with beta-cell glucose sensitivity.

Conclusion: We show that, variation at the GIPR-QPCTL and CDKAL1 loci are key determinants of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765651PMC
January 2021

Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and associations with cardiometabolic risk in Inuit, Africans and Europeans: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2020 09 14;10(9):e038071. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Clinical Epidemiology, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.

Objectives: Abdominal fat has been identified as a risk marker of cardiometabolic disease independent of overall adiposity. However, it is not clear whether there are ethnic disparities in this risk. We investigated the associations of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with cardiometabolic risk factors in three ethnic diverse populations of Inuit, Africans and Europeans.

Design: Cross-sectional pooled study.

Setting: Greenland, Kenya and Denmark.

Methods: A total of 5113 participants (2933 Inuit, 1397 Africans and 783 Europeans) from three studies in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark were included. Measurements included abdominal fat distribution assessed by ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance test, hepatic insulin resistance, blood pressure and lipids. The associations were analysed using multiple linear regressions.

Results: Across ethnic group and gender, an increase in VAT of 1 SD was associated with higher levels of hepatic insulin resistance (ranging from 14% to 28%), triglycerides (8% to 16%) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, -1.0 to -0.05 mmol/L) independent of body mass index. VAT showed positive associations with most of the other cardiometabolic risk factors in Inuit and Europeans, but not in Africans. In contrast, SAT was mainly associated with the outcomes in Inuit and Africans. Of notice was that higher SAT was associated with higher HDL-C in African men (0.11 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.18) and with lower HDL-C in Inuit (-0.07 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.12 to -0.02), but not in European men (-0.02 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.05). Generally weaker associations were observed for women. Furthermore, the absolute levels of several of the cardiometabolic outcomes differed between the ethnic groups.

Conclusions: VAT and SAT were associated with several of the cardiometabolic risk factors beyond overall adiposity. Some of these associations were specific to ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity plays a role in the pathway from abdominal fat to selected cardiometabolic risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490939PMC
September 2020

Genetic Studies of Leptin Concentrations Implicate Leptin in the Regulation of Early Adiposity.

Diabetes 2020 12 11;69(12):2806-2818. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Leptin influences food intake by informing the brain about the status of body fat stores. Rare mutations associated with congenital leptin deficiency cause severe early-onset obesity that can be mitigated by administering leptin. However, the role of genetic regulation of leptin in polygenic obesity remains poorly understood. We performed an exome-based analysis in up to 57,232 individuals of diverse ancestries to identify genetic variants that influence adiposity-adjusted leptin concentrations. We identify five novel variants, including four missense variants, in , , , and , and one intergenic variant near The missense variant Val94Met (rs17151919) in was common in individuals of African ancestry only, and its association with lower leptin concentrations was specific to this ancestry ( = 2 × 10, = 3,901). Using in vitro analyses, we show that the Met94 allele decreases leptin secretion. We also show that the Met94 allele is associated with higher BMI in young African-ancestry children but not in adults, suggesting that leptin regulates early adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db20-0070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7679778PMC
December 2020

The Polygenic and Monogenic Basis of Blood Traits and Diseases.

Cell 2020 09;182(5):1214-1231.e11

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Science, National Institute on Aging/NIH, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Blood cells play essential roles in human health, underpinning physiological processes such as immunity, oxygen transport, and clotting, which when perturbed cause a significant global health burden. Here we integrate data from UK Biobank and a large-scale international collaborative effort, including data for 563,085 European ancestry participants, and discover 5,106 new genetic variants independently associated with 29 blood cell phenotypes covering a range of variation impacting hematopoiesis. We holistically characterize the genetic architecture of hematopoiesis, assess the relevance of the omnigenic model to blood cell phenotypes, delineate relevant hematopoietic cell states influenced by regulatory genetic variants and gene networks, identify novel splice-altering variants mediating the associations, and assess the polygenic prediction potential for blood traits and clinical disorders at the interface of complex and Mendelian genetics. These results show the power of large-scale blood cell trait GWAS to interrogate clinically meaningful variants across a wide allelic spectrum of human variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482360PMC
September 2020

Trans-ethnic and Ancestry-Specific Blood-Cell Genetics in 746,667 Individuals from 5 Global Populations.

Cell 2020 09;182(5):1198-1213.e14

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA; Department of Medicine, Division on Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Most loci identified by GWASs have been found in populations of European ancestry (EUR). In trans-ethnic meta-analyses for 15 hematological traits in 746,667 participants, including 184,535 non-EUR individuals, we identified 5,552 trait-variant associations at p < 5 × 10, including 71 novel associations not found in EUR populations. We also identified 28 additional novel variants in ancestry-specific, non-EUR meta-analyses, including an IL7 missense variant in South Asians associated with lymphocyte count in vivo and IL-7 secretion levels in vitro. Fine-mapping prioritized variants annotated as functional and generated 95% credible sets that were 30% smaller when using the trans-ethnic as opposed to the EUR-only results. We explored the clinical significance and predictive value of trans-ethnic variants in multiple populations and compared genetic architecture and the effect of natural selection on these blood phenotypes between populations. Altogether, our results for hematological traits highlight the value of a more global representation of populations in genetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480402PMC
September 2020

Genetic Determinants of Electrocardiographic P-Wave Duration and Relation to Atrial Fibrillation.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 10 21;13(5):387-395. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Germany (A.T., U.V., M.D., S.B.F.).

Background: The P-wave duration (PWD) is an electrocardiographic measurement that represents cardiac conduction in the atria. Shortened or prolonged PWD is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We used exome-chip data to examine the associations between common and rare variants with PWD.

Methods: Fifteen studies comprising 64 440 individuals (56 943 European, 5681 African, 1186 Hispanic, 630 Asian) and ≈230 000 variants were used to examine associations with maximum PWD across the 12-lead ECG. Meta-analyses summarized association results for common variants; gene-based burden and sequence kernel association tests examined low-frequency variant-PWD associations. Additionally, we examined the associations between PWD loci and AF using previous AF genome-wide association studies.

Results: We identified 21 common and low-frequency genetic loci (14 novel) associated with maximum PWD, including several AF loci (, , , , , , , ). The top variants at known sarcomere genes () were associated with longer PWD and increased AF risk. However, top variants at other loci (eg, and ) were associated with longer PWD but lower AF risk.

Conclusions: Our results highlight multiple novel genetic loci associated with PWD, and underscore the shared mechanisms of atrial conduction and AF. Prolonged PWD may be an endophenotype for several different genetic mechanisms of AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578098PMC
October 2020

Skeletal muscle enhancer interactions identify genes controlling whole-body metabolism.

Nat Commun 2020 06 1;11(1):2695. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic disorders influenced by lifestyle and genetic factors that are characterized by insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, a prominent site of glucose disposal. Numerous genetic variants have been associated with obesity and T2D, of which the majority are located in non-coding DNA regions. This suggests that most variants mediate their effect by altering the activity of gene-regulatory elements, including enhancers. Here, we map skeletal muscle genomic enhancer elements that are dynamically regulated after exposure to the free fatty acid palmitate or the inflammatory cytokine TNFα. By overlapping enhancer positions with the location of disease-associated genetic variants, and resolving long-range chromatin interactions between enhancers and gene promoters, we identify target genes involved in metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle. The majority of these genes also associate with altered whole-body metabolic phenotypes in the murine BXD genetic reference population. Thus, our combined genomic investigations identified genes that are involved in skeletal muscle metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16537-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264154PMC
June 2020

Obesity, unfavourable lifestyle and genetic risk of type 2 diabetes: a case-cohort study.

Diabetologia 2020 07 15;63(7):1324-1332. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to investigate whether the impact of obesity and unfavourable lifestyle on type 2 diabetes risk is accentuated by genetic predisposition.

Methods: We examined the joint association of genetic predisposition, obesity and unfavourable lifestyle with incident type 2 diabetes using a case-cohort study nested within the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort in Denmark. The study sample included 4729 individuals who developed type 2 diabetes during a median 14.7 years of follow-up, and a randomly selected cohort sample of 5402 individuals. Genetic predisposition was quantified using a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising 193 known type 2 diabetes-associated loci (excluding known BMI loci) and stratified into low (quintile 1), intermediate and high (quintile 5) genetic risk groups. Lifestyle was assessed by a lifestyle score composed of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. We used Prentice-weighted Cox proportional-hazards models to test the associations of the GRS, obesity and lifestyle score with incident type 2 diabetes, as well as the interactions of the GRS with obesity and unfavourable lifestyle in relation to incident type 2 diabetes.

Results: Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m) and unfavourable lifestyle were associated with higher risk for incident type 2 diabetes regardless of genetic predisposition (p > 0.05 for GRS-obesity and GRS-lifestyle interaction). The effect of obesity on type 2 diabetes risk (HR 5.81 [95% CI 5.16, 6.55]) was high, whereas the effects of high genetic risk (HR 2.00 [95% CI 1.76, 2.27]) and unfavourable lifestyle (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.06, 1.30]) were relatively modest. Even among individuals with low GRS and favourable lifestyle, obesity was associated with a >8-fold risk of type 2 diabetes compared with normal-weight individuals in the same GRS and lifestyle stratum.

Conclusions/interpretation: Having normal body weight is crucial in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, regardless of genetic predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05140-5DOI Listing
July 2020

Estimating narrow-sense heritability using family data from admixed populations.

Heredity (Edinb) 2020 06 9;124(6):751-762. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Biology, Section for Computational and RNA Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Estimating total narrow-sense heritability in admixed populations remains an open question. In this work, we used extensive simulations to evaluate existing linear mixed-model frameworks for estimating total narrow-sense heritability in two population-based cohorts from Greenland, and compared the results with data from unadmixed individuals from Denmark. When our analysis focused on Greenlandic sib pairs, and under the assumption that shared environment among siblings has a negligible effect, the model with two relationship matrices, one capturing identity by descent and one capturing identity by state, returned heritability estimates close to the true simulated value, while using each of the two matrices alone led to downward biases. When phenotypes correlated with ancestry, heritability estimates were inflated. Based on these observations, we propose a PCA-based adjustment that recovers the true simulated heritability. We use this knowledge to estimate the heritability of ten quantitative traits from the two Greenlandic cohorts, and report differences such as lower heritability for height in Greenlanders compared with Europeans. In conclusion, narrow-sense heritability in admixed populations is best estimated when using a mixture of genetic relationship matrices on individuals with at least one first-degree relative included in the sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41437-020-0311-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239878PMC
June 2020

The derived allele of a novel intergenic variant at chromosome 11 associates with lower body mass index and a favorable metabolic phenotype in Greenlanders.

PLoS Genet 2020 01 24;16(1):e1008544. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The genetic architecture of the small and isolated Greenlandic population is advantageous for identification of novel genetic variants associated with cardio-metabolic traits. We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with body mass index (BMI), to expand the knowledge of the genetic and biological mechanisms underlying obesity. Stage 1 BMI-association analyses were performed in 4,626 Greenlanders. Stage 2 replication and meta-analysis were performed in additional cohorts comprising 1,058 Yup'ik Alaska Native people, and 1,529 Greenlanders. Obesity-related traits were assessed in the stage 1 study population. We identified a common variant on chromosome 11, rs4936356, where the derived G-allele had a frequency of 24% in the stage 1 study population. The derived allele was genome-wide significantly associated with lower BMI (beta (SE), -0.14 SD (0.03), p = 3.2x10-8), corresponding to 0.64 kg/m2 lower BMI per G allele in the stage 1 study population. We observed a similar effect in the Yup'ik cohort (-0.09 SD, p = 0.038), and a non-significant effect in the same direction in the independent Greenlandic stage 2 cohort (-0.03 SD, p = 0.514). The association remained genome-wide significant in meta-analysis of the Arctic cohorts (-0.10 SD (0.02), p = 4.7x10-8). Moreover, the variant was associated with a leaner body type (weight, -1.68 (0.37) kg; waist circumference, -1.52 (0.33) cm; hip circumference, -0.85 (0.24) cm; lean mass, -0.84 (0.19) kg; fat mass and percent, -1.66 (0.33) kg and -1.39 (0.27) %; visceral adipose tissue, -0.30 (0.07) cm; subcutaneous adipose tissue, -0.16 (0.05) cm, all p<0.0002), lower insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -0.12 (0.04), p = 0.00021), and favorable lipid levels (triglyceride, -0.05 (0.02) mmol/l, p = 0.025; HDL-cholesterol, 0.04 (0.01) mmol/l, p = 0.0015). In conclusion, we identified a novel variant, where the derived G-allele possibly associated with lower BMI in Arctic populations, and as a consequence also leaner body type, lower insulin resistance, and a favorable lipid profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001991PMC
January 2020
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