Publications by authors named "Nidhi Gupta"

403 Publications

Neurological Soft Signs in Schizophrenia: A Cross-sectional Study.

Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2021 Jan-Mar;11(1):36-39. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Civil Hospital, Bathinda, Punjab, India.

Context: Soft neurological signs are present more frequently in schizophrenics than other patients suffering from other psychiatric illnesses and normal individuals.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to find out the causal relationship of neurological soft signs (NSSs) to schizophrenia.

Materials And Methods: The study was initiated after taking approval of the institute ethics committee. A total of thirty schizophrenic patients and thirty controls were included in the study. Their diagnosis was confirmed by consultant and then were administered Neurological Evaluation Scale developed by Robert Buchanan. The accumulated data were then analyzed statistically.

Results: This study shows a higher prevalence of NSSs in schizophrenia as compared to controls.

Conclusion: To ascertain their role in aetiogenesis and pathogenesis of schizophrenia, further research is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_96_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025955PMC
January 2021

The association of Candida and antifungal therapy with pro-inflammatory cytokines in oral leukoplakia.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: To study the association of Candida and antifungal therapy with pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC) in oral leukoplakia (OL).

Materials And Methods: A prospective observational study where immunocompetent adult subjects with OL (30 homogenous (HL), 30 non-homogenous (NHL)) and 30 age and sex-matched healthy controls (C) with no predisposing factors for oral Candida infection were recruited. Sterile cotton swabs and ophthalmic sponges were used to sample the lesion surface in OL and buccal mucosa in C, for direct microscopy and culture for Candida and to determine levels of PIC (IL-6, IL-8. IL-17, TNF-α) by ELISA, respectively. Sampling for PIC was repeated at same sites in OL, 2 weeks after antifungal therapy.

Results: Candida was associated with 55.3% of NHL, 23.3% of HL and 13.3% of C. The oral secretary levels of PIC were raised in NHL as compared to HL and C. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α (p<0.001) and IL-17 (p<0.01) were significantly raised in Candida positive NHL while IL-6 (p<0.05) and TNF-α (p<0.01) were significantly raised in Candida positive HL before antifungal treatment. After antifungal treatment, there was significant reduction in PIC in Candida positive NHL and HL.

Conclusions: Candida infection contributes to the inflammatory milieu in Candida associated OL which increases the risk of carcinogenesis. Antifungal therapy reduces the PIC in Candida associated OL.

Clinical Relevance: Identification and elimination of predisposing factors for Candida infection, like cessation of harmful habits, maintenance of oral/denture hygiene, surveillance for Candida and antifungal therapy at intervals, are recommended in OL.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04712929.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-021-03927-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Therapeutic implications of phenotypes, virulence factors and antifungal sensitivity in Oral leukoplakia.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):354-360. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Oral Medicine & Radiology Centre for Dental Education Research All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi India.

Objectives: To determine the association of phenotypes, virulence factors, antifungal sensitivity and clinical response to Fluconazole in Oral leukoplakia (OL).

Methods: Sterile swabs were obtained from oral lesions in immunocompetent subjects [30 Homogenous (HOL), 31 Non- Homogenous (NHOL] and normal buccal mucosa in 30 age and sex-matched healthy controls (C). phenotypes, virulence factors (Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase (SAP), Phospholipase (PL), Biofilm formation (BF) and antifungal sensitivity were determined. Clinical features (Size, Erythema, thickness, oral burning sensation (VAS scores) before and after Fluconazole therapy in OL were recorded by two calibrated observers.

Results: was associated with OL (p ​< ​0.01). was the most common phenotype sensitive to Fluconazole. SAP, PL and BF activity was significantly high in NHOL. Strong positive correlation was seen between SAP, and PL activity and pre-treatment VAS scores in NHOL. There was significant reduction in VAS scores, size of lesion [HOL (p ​< ​0.001) NHOL (p ​< ​0.05)], erythematous areas (67.8%) in NHOL and thickness of lesions (42.6%) in both types OL after Fluconazole therapy with substantial inter-observer agreement. Non (NAC) species had similar virulence profiles but resistant to Fluconazole and showed minimal clinical improvement.

Conclusions: Virulence activity of in OL increases severity of lesions. Fluconazole is effective against virulent , causes clinical improvement and down-staging from high -risk NHOL to low-risk HOL which can reduce risk of malignant transformation. Detection of highly virulent NAC infection and antifungal sensitivity is recommended in OL recalcitrant to Fluconazole therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2021.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994788PMC
March 2021

Consensus Statement on Analgo-sedation in Neurocritical Care and Review of Literature.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 Feb;25(2):126-133

Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Aim And Objective: Our main objective in developing this consensus is to bring together a set of most agreed-upon statements from a panel of global experts that would act as a guide for clinicians working in neurocritical care units (NCCUs).

Background: Given the physiological benefits of analgo-sedation in the NCCU, there is little information on their tailoring in the NCCU. This lack of evidence and guidelines on the use of sedation and analgesia in patients with neurological injury leads to a variation in clinical care based on patient requirements and institutional protocols.

Review Results: Thirty-nine international experts agreed to be a member of this consensus panel. A Delphi method based on a Web-based questionnaire developed with Google Forms on a secure institute server was used to seek opinions of experts. Questions were related to sedation and analgesia in the neurocritical care unit. A predefined threshold of agreement was established as 70% to support any recommendation, strong, moderate, or weak. No recommendations were made below this threshold. Responses were collected from all the experts, summated, and expressed as percentage (%). After three rounds, consensus could be reached for 6 statements related to analgesia and 5 statements related to sedation. Consensus could not be reached for 10 statements related to analgesia and 5 statements related to sedation.

Conclusion: This global consensus statement may help in guiding practitioners in clinical decision-making regarding analgo-sedation in the NCCUs, thereby helping in improving patient recovery profiles.

Clinical Significance: In the lack of high-level evidence, the recommendations may be seen as the current best clinical practice.

How To Cite This Article: Prabhakar H, Tripathy S, Gupta N, Singhal V, Mahajan C, Kapoor I, . Consensus Statement on Analgo-sedation in Neurocritical Care and Review of Literature. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(2):126-133.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922463PMC
February 2021

Inhibition of miR-144/199 promote myeloma pathogenesis via upregulation of versican and FAK/STAT3 signaling.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.

The continuous rise in relapse rate and mortality for multiple myeloma (MM) demands an effective treatment option. The microRNAs are emerging nowadays for their promising therapeutic potential. Earlier, we reported involvement of Versican (VCAN) in myeloma pathogenesis which could be inhibited by miR-144 and miR-199 in stroma. However, there is dearth of literature showcasing the direct effect of these miRs in association with VCAN in MM. Expression of miR-144 and miR-199 was determined in myeloma cell lines (RPMI8226 & U266). These miRs were inhibited by small oligos to elucidate changes in expression of VCAN along with variation in parameters such as proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion in vitro. Moreover, effect on certain downstream signaling cascades was also evaluated. Lastly, interaction of miRs with VCAN was assessed by reporter luciferase assay. microRNAs expression were found significantly elevated in myeloma cells in comparison to stromal levels reported previously. The antagomirs-mediated inhibition of miR-144 and miR-199 significantly induced VCAN expression in myeloma cells along with alteration in myeloma-associated parameters in favor of myeloma pathogenesis with downstream activation of FAK/STAT3 signaling. Interestingly, miR-144 found to have direct binding with VCAN 3' UTR while miR-199 possess different mechanism. The inhibition of miR-144 and miR-199 contributed in myeloma progression via upregulation of VCAN in vitro affirming the translational significance of VCAN and associated microRNAs in MM. These miRs, hence might be employed for targeting VCAN and might emerge as an effective therapy for the better outcome of MM in clinical settings in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-020-04038-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Prevalence and Pattern of Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars in Children in Delhi-NCR.

Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020 Sep-Oct;13(5):501-503

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Santosh Dental College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Developmental defects of enamel especially enamel hypomineralization are prevalent among children. Hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM) present a serious clinical dilemma for the current practitioners. It represents as a potential predictive factor for molar incisal hypomineralization (MIH). The reported prevalence of HSPMs in India however still remains uncertain.

Methodology: A total of 649 children aged 6-10 years were randomly selected from various schools in Delhi NCR. The teeth were indexed for developmental defects of enamel using modified European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry judgment criteria given by Ghanim et al.

Results: A total of 83 HSPMs were observed in 33 of the 649 subjects examined, with a prevalence of 5%. Molars affected had prevalence of 62.88%, with two deciduous molars being most commonly affected. Of the defects present, creamy white opacities were most common followed by yellowish brown opacities. Posteruptive breakdowns (PEB) were more commonly associated with yellowish brown opacities.

Conclusion: The prevalence of HSPMs in Delhi, NCR was 5%. Creamy white opacities were the most common lesion present.

How To Cite This Article: Singh R, Srivastava B, Gupta N. Prevalence and Pattern of Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars in Children in Delhi-NCR. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020;13(5):501-503.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887165PMC
February 2021

PGMD/curcumin nanoparticles for the treatment of breast cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 15;11(1):3824. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan, Bandarsindri, N.H. 8, Teh., Kishangarh, Dist., Ajmer, Rajasthan, 305817, India.

The present study aims at developing PGMD (poly-glycerol-malic acid-dodecanedioic acid)/curcumin nanoparticles based formulation for anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. The nanoparticles were prepared using both the variants of PGMD polymer (PGMD 7:3 and PGMD 6:4) with curcumin (i.e. CUR NP 7:3 and CUR NP 6:4). The size of CUR NP 7:3 and CUR NP 6:4 were found to be ~ 110 and 218 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.174 and 0.36, respectively. Further, the zeta potential of the particles was - 18.9 and - 17.5 mV for CUR NP 7:3 and CUR NP 6:4, respectively. The entrapment efficiency of both the nanoparticles was in the range of 75-81%. In vitro anticancer activity and the scratch assay were conducted on breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The IC of the nanoformulations was observed to be 40.2 and 33.6 μM at 48 h for CUR NP 7:3 and CUR NP 6:4, respectively, in MCF-7 cell line; for MDA-MB-231 it was 43.4 and 30.5 μM. Acridine orange/EtBr and DAPI staining assays showed apoptotic features and nuclear anomalies in the treated cells. This was further confirmed by western blot analysis that showed overexpression of caspase 9 indicating curcumin role in apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81701-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884397PMC
February 2021

Work-Time Compositions of Physical Behaviors and Trajectories of Sick Leave Due to Musculoskeletal Pain.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Feb 5;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

National Research Centre for the Working Environment, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

We aimed to investigate the association between work-time compositions of physical behavior and sick leave trajectories due to musculoskeletal pain over one year. We conducted a secondary analysis using the data of 981 workers in a Danish prospective cohort (DPHACTO 2012-2014). At baseline, we assessed physical behaviors (sitting, standing, light physical activity (LIPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) at work and during leisure, using accelerometers. Over 1 year follow-up, workers reported sick-leave days due to musculoskeletal pain at 4-week intervals. Four distinct trajectories of sick leave were previously identified in this cohort ("no sick leave", "few days-increasing trajectory", "some days-decreasing trajectory", "some days-increasing trajectory"), and used as an outcome in multinomial regression models with work-time compositions as predictors, adjusted for compositions of behavior during leisure, age, sex, body mass index, and smoking habits. More time spent sitting relative to the other behaviors was negatively associated with the trajectory of few days-increasing sick leave ( = 0.004), while time in LIPA was positively associated with the trajectory of some days-increasing sick leave ( = 0.009). Standing and MVPA were not significantly associated with sick leave trajectories. In conclusion, work-time compositions with more sitting relative to the other behaviors had lower risk for an increasing trajectory of sick leave due to pain, while compositions with more LIPA had higher risk. This may have implications for prevention of pain-related sick leave in blue-collar workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915038PMC
February 2021

Adolescent sexual behaviour and its determinants: A hospital-based study.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Nov 30;9(11):5511-5515. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, Delhi, India.

Aim: To know the prevalence of sexual activity, their sexual behaviour and attitude towards sex among unmarried adolescent females.

Materials And Methods: It was a hospital-based prospective observational study. The study duration was 1 year. The study participants were unmarried girls between the age group of 10-19 years who gave written informed consent. In the case of a minor, consent was obtained from parents also. Pre-designed, pre-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used to evaluate the sexual behaviour.

Results: Out of the 320 adolescents presented to the OPD, only 165 consented to participate in the study. Prevalence of sexual activity was 16.9% (28/165) in the study. Eight (8/165) adolescent girls have not attained menarche and all were not having any knowledge of sex. Three girls were the victims of sexual exploitation. Around 64% of these girls were sexually active with their classmates. All the sexually active females were having intercourse through the vaginal route, however non-vaginal route was also practiced by 6 girls. Home (11, 39%) was the preferred place followed by the hotel (10, 35.7%) for sexual activity.

Conclusion: Prevalence of sexual activity is low among Indians as compared to the western world but it may be a tip of iceberg as it is a hospital-based study. This is the first study that assessed the route of intercourse, frequency of sexual activity, and place preferred by these adolescents to evaluate the sexual health behaviour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1115_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842475PMC
November 2020

Bioactivity reinforced surface patch bound collagen-pectin hydrogel.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 27;174:240-253. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi, India.

In this report, we discuss the design of a novel collagen/pectin (CP) hybrid composite hydrogel (CPBG) containing in-situ mineralized bioactive glass (BG) particles to simulate an integrative 3D cell environment. Systematic analysis of the CP sol revealed collagen and pectin molecules interacted regardless of both possessing similar net negative charge through the mechanism of surface patch binding interaction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed this associative interaction which resulted in the formation of a hybrid crosslinked network with the BG nanoparticles acting as pseudo crosslink junctions. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results confirmed uniform mineralization of BG particles, and their synergetic interaction with the network. The in-vitro bioactivity tests on CPBG indicated the formation of bone-like hydroxyapatite (Ca(PO)(OH)) microcrystals on its surface after interaction with simulated body fluid. This hydrogel was loaded with a model antifungal drug amphotericin-B (AmB) and tested against Candida albicans. The AmB release kinetics from the hydrogel followed the Fickian mechanism and showed direct proportionality to gel swelling behavior. Rheological analysis revealed the viscoelastic compatibility of CPBG for the mechanical load bearing applications. Cell viability tests indicated appreciable compatibility of the hydrogel against U2OS and HaCaT cell lines. FDA/PI on the hydrogel portrayed preferential U2OS cell adhesion on hydrophobic hydroxyapatite layer compared to hydrophilic surfaces, thereby promising the regeneration of both soft and hard tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.166DOI Listing
March 2021

Should leisure-time sedentary behavior be replaced with sleep or physical activity for prevention of diabetes?

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

The aim was to examine the effects of replacing self-reported leisure-time sedentary behavior with sleep, light-to-moderate physical activity, or vigorous physical activity on incident diabetes among Danish adults using isotemporal substitution modeling. Participants ≥25 years from the Danish Capital Region Health Survey 2007 (N = 69 800, response rate 52.3%), 2010 (N = 95 150, response rate 52.3%), and 2013 (N = 95 150, response rate 43.5%) were included. Information on daily sleep duration, leisure-time sedentary behavior, and movement behaviors was collected by questionnaire. Information on incident diabetes was obtained from National registers. Analyses included Cox proportional hazards regression models and isotemporal substitution analyses, with time (in years) from baseline to incident diabetes or censoring December 31, 2017. Potential confounders, sex, age, BMI, ethnicity, education, smoking, inflammatory joint disease, perceived stress, physical and mental component scale and work status, were included. Out of N = 87 339 in the final study sample, n = 3007 had incident diabetes during a mean follow-up time of 7.4 years. Adults with incident diabetes included more men, higher mean age, and higher BMI, compared to respondents without incident diabetes. Theoretically substituting 30 minutes of leisure-time sedentary behavior with light-to-moderate PA (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94; 0.98) or with vigorous PA (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72; 0.94) decreased the risk of incident diabetes. We found no change in incident diabetes risk of substituting sedentary time with sleep (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.97; 1.02). Substituting 30 minutes per day of leisure-time sedentary behavior with light-to-moderate or vigorous PA may significantly reduce the risk of incident diabetes among adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13924DOI Listing
January 2021

Assessment of cervical lymph node metastasis based on total RNA from saliva and tumor tissue in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma: An observational study.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2020 May-Aug;24(2):230-236. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Vasantdada Patil Dental College and Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.

Background: In case of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) most patients die within first 2 years due to metastasis. To overcome the limitations and drawbacks of the present available methods of assessment of lymph nodes metastasis, the search for alternative method is needed.

Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of salivary and tumor tissue RNA for assessment of lymph node metastasis in patients with OSCC.

Methodology: Patients histologically diagnosed with OSCC were included as participants. The unstimulated saliva and tumor tissue were collected and stored at deep freeze before surgical therapy. The pretreatment lymph node metastasis assessment was done by radioimaging investigation. The posttreatment histopathological status of cervical lymph nodes was noted. The RNA was isolated and quantified from stored saliva sample and tumor tissue. The collected data were statistically analyzed for specificity and sensitivity and significance.

Results: The area under curve for salivary RNA level is 0.647 and for tumor tissue RNA level is 0.628 with moderate predictability at 95% confidence interval. It was observed that the sensitivity was 63.50% and 71.40% and specificity was 62.70% and 58.80% for saliva and tumor tissue respectively with diagnostic accuracy of 63%-65%. The Kappa statistics showed moderate degree of agreement with high statistical significance ( ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion: Saliva and tumor tissue RNA can be a good marker for pretreatment assessment of lymph node metastasis in patients with OSCC. Although the diagnostic accuracy which range from 63% to 65%, further characterization and study of specific mRNA, siRNA and miRNA may come out with high diagnostic accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_58_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802875PMC
September 2020

Cost-Effectiveness of Temozolamide for Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme in India.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Jan;7:108-117

Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has poor outcomes following surgery and radiation. Adjuvant temozolamide along with radiation therapy has been shown to improve survival. In this paper, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of concomitant temozolamide with radiation and maintenance temozolamide for 6 months of treatment for GBM in India.

Materials And Methods: We used a Markov model to evaluate the lifetime costs and consequences of treating GBM with radiation alone versus radiation with adjuvant temozolamide. The model was calibrated using the published evidence from European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-NCIC trial on progression-free survival and overall survival to estimate the life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted LYs (QALYs). Cost of treatment and management of complications were estimated using the data from the National Health System Cost Database and Indian studies. Future cost and consequences were discounted at 3%. Incremental cost per QALY gained with temozolamide was estimated to assess cost effectiveness.

Results: Temozolamide resulted in an increase of 0.59 (0.53-0.66) LY and 0.33 (0.29-0.40) QALY per person at an incremental cost of ₹75,120 in Indian national rupee (INR) (59,337-93,960). Overall, the use of temozolamide incurs an incremental cost of ₹212,020 INR (138,127-401,466) per QALY gained, which has a 4.7% probability to be cost-effective at 1-time per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) threshold. In case the current price of temozolamide could be decreased by 90%, the probability of its use for GBM being cost-effective increases to 80%.

Conclusion: Temozolamide is not cost-effective for treatment of patients with GBM in India. This evidence should be used while framing guidelines for treatment and price regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/GO.20.00288DOI Listing
January 2021

Thigh-worn accelerometry for measuring movement and posture across the 24-hour cycle: a scoping review and expert statement.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2020 24;6(1):e000874. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

School of Public Health, The University of Sydney Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: The Prospective Physical Activity Sitting and Sleep consortium (ProPASS) is an international collaboration platform committed to harmonise thigh-worn accelerometry data. The aim of this paper is to (1) outline observational thigh-worn accelerometry studies and (2) summarise key strategic directions arising from the inaugural ProPASS meeting.

Methods: (1) We performed a systematic scoping review for observational studies of thigh-worn triaxial accelerometers in free-living adults (n≥100, 24 hours monitoring protocols). (2)Attendees of the inaugural ProPASS meeting were sent a survey focused on areas related to developing ProPASS: important terminology (Q1); accelerometry constructs (Q2); advantages and distinct contribution of the consortium (Q3); data pooling and harmonisation (Q4); data access and sharing (Q5 and Q6).

Results: (1) Eighty eligible articles were identified (22 primary studies; n~17 685). The accelerometers used most often were the ActivPAL3 and ActiGraph GT3X. The most commonly collected health outcomes were cardiometabolic and musculoskeletal. (2) None of the survey questions elicited the predefined 60% agreement. Survey responses recommended that ProPASS: use the term physical behaviour or movement behaviour rather than 'physical activity' for the data we are collecting (Q1); make only minor changes to ProPASS's accelerometry construct (Q2); prioritise developing standardised protocols/tools (Q4); facilitate flexible methods of data sharing and access (Q5 and Q6).

Conclusions: Thigh-worn accelerometry is an emerging method of capturing movement and posture across the 24 hours cycle. In 2020, the literature is limited to 22 primary studies from high-income western countries. This work identified ProPASS's strategic directions-indicating areas where ProPASS can most benefit the field of research: use of clear terminology, refinement of the measured construct, standardised protocols/tools and flexible data sharing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768971PMC
December 2020

Evaluation of the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity of Bakuchiol using RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines and in animal models stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Feb 16;91:107264. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Academy of Science and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi, India; Mutagenicity Laboratory, CSIR- Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, India; Laboratory Animal Facility, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, India. Electronic address:

Bakuchiol (BAK) has been reported to have a diverse pharmacological property as an antibiotic, anti-cancer, anti-hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-convulsant agent. This study aimed to elucidate the immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory mechanism of bakuchiol using lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and various animal models. The present study has shown that BAK significantly suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a dose-dependent manner and its oral administration significantly decreased delayed hypersensitivity responses as compared to control group. The assessment of immunomodulatory activity was carried out by the testing Hemagglutinating antibody (HA) titer, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and phagocytic index by carbon clearance test. On the other hand, it showed significant decrease in circulating antibody titer and carbon clearance assay in a concentration-dependent manner. BAK has significantly potentiated the cellular immunity as well as humoral immunity by facilitating the footpad thickness responses in sheep RBCs in sensitized mice by significantly decreasing circulating antibody titer. Molecular studies revealed that BAK inhibited the activation of upstream mediator nuclear factor-κB by suppressing the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65. The responses were statistically significant as compared with the control (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107264DOI Listing
February 2021

Diosgenin Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles with Potential Anticancer Efficacy.

Biomolecules 2020 12 16;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer 305817, India.

This study aims to determine the anticancer efficacy of diosgenin encapsulated poly-glycerol malate co-dodecanedioate (PGMD) nanoparticles. Diosgenin loaded PGMD nanoparticles (variants 7:3 and 6:4) were synthesized by the nanoprecipitation method. The synthesis of PGMD nanoparticles was systematically optimized employing the Box-Behnken design and taking into account the influence of various independent variables such as concentrations of each PGMD, diosgenin and PF-68 on the responses such as size and PDI of the particles. Mathematical modeling was done using the Quadratic second order modeling method and response surface analysis was undertaken to elucidate the factor-response relationship. The obtained size of PGMD 7:3 and PGMD 6:4 nanoparticles were 133.6 nm and 121.4 nm, respectively, as measured through dynamic light scattering (DLS). The entrapment efficiency was in the range of 77-83%. The in vitro drug release studies showed diffusion and dissolution controlled drug release pattern following Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model. Furthermore, in vitro morphological and cytotoxic studies were performed to evaluate the toxicity of synthesized drug loaded nanoparticles in model cell lines. The IC after 48 h was observed to be 27.14 µM, 15.15 µM and 13.91 µM for free diosgenin, PGMD 7:3 and PGMD 6:4 nanoparticles, respectively, when administered in A549 lung carcinoma cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10121679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765552PMC
December 2020

Near-Infrared-II Semiconducting Polymer Dots for Deep-tissue Fluorescence Imaging.

Chem Asian J 2021 Feb 28;16(3):175-184. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 30010, Hsinchu City, Taiwan.

Fluorescence imaging, particularly in the NIR-II region (1000-1700 nm), has become an unprecedented tool for deep-tissue in vivo imaging. Among the fluorescent nanoprobes, semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (Pdots) appear to be a promising agent because of their tunable optical and photophysical properties, ultrahigh brightness, minimal autofluorescence, narrow-size distribution, and low cytotoxicity. This review elucidates the recent advances in Pdots for deep-tissue fluorescence imaging and the facing future translation to clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202001348DOI Listing
February 2021

The Relation between Domain-Specific Physical Behaviour and Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Cross-Sectional Compositional Data Analysis on the Physical Activity Health Paradox Using Accelerometer-Assessed Data.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 29;17(21). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

In contrast to leisure time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA) does not have similar beneficial health effects. These differential health effects might be explained by dissimilar effects of LTPA and OPA on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). This study investigated cross-sectional associations between different physical behaviours during both work and leisure time and CRF by using a Compositional Data Analysis approach. Physical behaviours were assessed by two accelerometers among 309 workers with various manual jobs. During work time, more sedentary behaviour (SB) was associated with higher CRF when compared relatively to time spent on other work behaviours, while more SB during leisure time was associated with lower CRF when compared to other leisure time behaviours. Reallocating more time to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from the other behaviours within leisure time was positively associated with CRF, which was not the case for MVPA during work. The results of our study are in line with the physical activity health paradox and we call for further study on the interaction between LTPA and OPA by implementing device-worn measures in a longitudinal design. Our results highlight the need for recommendations to take into account the different effects of OPA and LTPA on CRF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662405PMC
October 2020

Prediction of Malignant Breast Cancer Cases using Ensemble Machine Learning: A Case Study of Pesticides Prone Area.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2020 Oct 22;PP. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Female breast cancer is one of the leading types of cancers worldwide. This paper presents a case study of Malwa Belt in India that has witnessed the proliferation in the overall mortality rate due to breast cancer. The paper researches mortality aspect of disease and its association with the various risk parameters including demographic characteristics, percentage of pesticides residue present in the water and soil, life style of the women in the affected area, water intake, and the amount of pesticide exposure to the patient. The levels of organochlorine pesticides like DDT and its metabolites and isomers of HCH in blood, tumor and surrounding adipose are estimated. Additionally, an extent of exposure of the subjects to environmental pollutants like heavy metals (Lead, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Selenium, and Chromium etc.) are also examined. For the obtained experimental data, an efficient ensemble machine learning based framework called Bagoost is proposed to predict the risk of breast cancer in Malwa women.The performance of the proposed machine learning model results in an accuracy of 98.21%, when empirically tested using K fold cross validation over the real time data of malignant and benign cases and is established to be efficacious than the existing approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2020.3033214DOI Listing
October 2020

Zero problems with compositional data of physical behaviors: a comparison of three zero replacement methods.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2020 10 6;17(1):126. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersø parkalle 105, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Researchers applying compositional data analysis to time-use data (e.g., time spent in physical behaviors) often face the problem of zeros, that is, recordings of zero time spent in any of the studied behaviors. Zeros hinder the application of compositional data analysis because the analysis is based on log-ratios. One way to overcome this challenge is to replace the zeros with sensible small values. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three existing replacement methods used within physical behavior time-use epidemiology: simple replacement, multiplicative replacement, and log-ratio expectation-maximization (lrEM) algorithm. Moreover, we assessed the consequence of choosing replacement values higher than the lowest observed value for a given behavior.

Method: Using a complete dataset based on accelerometer data from 1310 Danish adults as reference, multiple datasets were simulated across six scenarios of zeros (5-30% zeros in 5% increments). Moreover, four examples were produced based on real data, in which, 10 and 20% zeros were imposed and replaced using a replacement value of 0.5 min, 65% of the observation threshold, or an estimated value below the observation threshold. For the simulation study and the examples, the zeros were replaced using the three replacement methods and the degree of distortion introduced was assessed by comparison with the complete dataset.

Results: The lrEM method outperformed the other replacement methods as it had the smallest influence on the structure of relative variation of the datasets. Both the simple and multiplicative replacements introduced higher distortion, particularly in scenarios with more than 10% zeros; although the latter, like the lrEM, does preserve the ratios between behaviors with no zeros. The examples revealed that replacing zeros with a value higher than the observation threshold severely affected the structure of relative variation.

Conclusions: Given our findings, we encourage the use of replacement methods that preserve the relative structure of physical behavior data, as achieved by the multiplicative and lrEM replacements, and to avoid simple replacement. Moreover, we do not recommend replacing zeros with values higher than the lowest observed value for a behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01029-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542467PMC
October 2020

A Study on Impact of BPA in the Adipose Tissue Dysfunction (Adiposopathy) in Asian Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Subjects.

Indian J Clin Biochem 2020 Oct 3;35(4):451-457. Epub 2019 Aug 3.

Department of Endocrinology, SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302004 India.

A surge to increase the production via usage of chemicals at both industrial and agricultural arena has forced humans to be routinely and imprudently exposed to a wide variety of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The overall aim of the study was to evaluate possible relation that might exist between bisphenol-A (BPA) and the adipose tissue hormones, and further impact on adiposopathy. In the present study, the role of BPA, an "endocrine disruptor" with respect to adiposopathy was evaluated in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. For the study, 150 healthy control subjects and 150 newly diagnosed diabetes patients were recruited. Fasting venous blood samples was analyzed for several biochemical parameters such as serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1, free fatty acid. Concentrations of BPA were also measured both in control and diabetic subjects. Serum BPA concentration was found to be significantly higher in diabetic subjects in comparison to the control subjects. Levels of BPA were found to be positively correlated with BMI and WC in diabetic subjects. Also, it was found to be positively correlated with leptin and negatively correlated with adiponectin in diabetic subjects. Therefore, the current study suggested more deleterious effect of BPA on diabetes and its pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12291-019-00843-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7502640PMC
October 2020

Epidemiological profile of retinoblastoma in North India: Implications for primary care and family physicians.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Jun 30;9(6):2843-2848. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Background: Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy among children. Despite being curable in early stages, majority of the cases in India present in late stages, when outcomes are very poor.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological profile, clinical characteristics, and treatment practices among retinoblastoma patients in north India.

Materials And Methods: Data on all patients with retinoblastoma, over a 10-year-time period from 2009 to 2018, who were treated in a tertiary care hospital in north India, were assessed. Data were analyzed to describe the demographic characteristics, clinical features in terms of stage at presentation, and management practices in terms of diagnostic investigations and treatment. The statistical significance for difference in percentages was assessed using Fischer's exact test at a 5% significance level.

Results: A total of 25 retinoblastoma patients were enlisted, of whom one was excluded as it was adult onset retinoblastoma. The median age at presentation was 3 years, with a male to female ratio of 1:1.4. Bilateral presentation was seen in 16.6% cases. Majority (66.6%) of the patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging of brain and orbit as a part of the diagnostic workup. Intraocular disease was seen in 58.3% patients, whereas 41.6% patients had extraocular disease. Local therapy with vision preservation could be used only in 8.3% patients, whereas 87.5% patients were referred for enucleation. Chemotherapy with combination of vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin was used extensively both, in neoadjuvant setting (83.3%) and in the adjuvant setting.

Conclusion: Despite availability of treatment for eye preservation, its utility is limited due to the advanced stage at presentation. Awareness about the disease and its symptoms for early diagnosis, especially with the Mid-Level Health Provider at Health and Wellness Centers, is likely to improve early reporting and treatment and meeting the Vision 2020 goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_265_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491789PMC
June 2020

Single nucleotide polymorphisms and serologic levels of hypoxia-inducible factor1 α and vascular endothelial growth factor are associated with increased risk of oral submucous fibrosis in gutka users among a North Indian population.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2020 Nov 7;130(5):557-564. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Scientist III, Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: Tissue hypoxia in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) induces hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), causing angiogenesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may predict susceptibility to environmental carcinogens and to development of OSMF, as well as its severity and malignant transformation. This study aimed to determine the serologic levels and frequencies of SNPs of HIF-1 α and VEGF in OSMF.

Study Design: In this prospective pilot study, the frequencies of SNPs of HIF-1 α (C1772 T, G1790 A); VEGF-A 936 C/T; and VEGF-C (rs7664413, rs1485766) in patients with OSMF or oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and in healthy controls were determined by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (n = 100 each), and serologic levels were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (n = 50 each), in a North Indian population.

Results: Heterozygous forms of HIF-1 α C1772 T (CT: odds ratio [OR] 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.24-11.16; P < .001); HIF-1 α G1790 A (GA: OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.62-5.16; P < .001); and VEGF-C rs1485766 (AC: OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.19-3.99; P < .05) were associated with OSMF. The mean serologic levels of HIF-1 α, VEGF-A, and VEGF-C were significantly raised in patients with OSMF compared with healthy controls (P < .001).

Conclusions: The SNPs of HIF-1 α, VEGF-A, and VEGF-C and their serologic levels can act as prognostic biomarkers and aid in the development of specialized anti-HIF-1 α or anti-VEGF drugs for the management and prevention of OSCC in patients with OSMF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2020.08.003DOI Listing
November 2020

Poly-(Lactic-co-Glycolic) Acid Nanoparticles for Synergistic Delivery of Epirubicin and Paclitaxel to Human Lung Cancer Cells.

Molecules 2020 Sep 16;25(18). Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer 305817, India.

Combination therapy using chemically distinct drugs has appeared as one of the promising strategies to improve anticancer treatment efficiency. In the present investigation, poly-(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles electrostatically conjugated with polyethylenimine (PEI)-based co-delivery system for epirubicin and paclitaxel (PLGA-PEI-EPI-PTX NPs) has been developed. The PLGA-PEI-EPI-PTX NPs exhibited a monodispersed size distribution with an average size of 240.93 ± 12.70 nm as measured through DLS and 70.8-145 nm using AFM. The zeta potential of 41.95 ± 0.65 mV from -17.45 ± 2.15 mV further confirmed the colloidal stability and PEI modification on PLGA nanoparticles. Encapsulation and loading efficiency along with in vitro release of drug for nanoparticles were done spectrophotometrically. The FTIR analysis of PLGA-PEI-EPI-PTX NPs revealed the involvement of amide moiety between polymer PLGA and PEI. The effect of nanoparticles on the cell migration was also corroborated through wound healing assay. The MTT assay demonstrated that PLGA-PEI-EPI-PTX NPs exhibited considerable anticancer potential as compared to the naïve drugs. Further, p53 protein expression analysed through western blot showed enhanced expression. This study suggests that combination therapy using PLGA-PEI-EPI-PTX NPs represent a potential approach and could offer clinical benefits in the future for lung cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7570462PMC
September 2020

Draft Genome Sequence of sp. Strain ATCC 49442 (Formerly Micrococcus luteus), a Pyridine-Degrading Bacterium.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Sep 17;9(38). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois, USA

We present here the draft genome sequence of a pyridine-degrading bacterium, ATCC 49442, which was reclassified as sp. strain ATCC 49442 based on its draft genome sequence. Its genome length is 4.98 Mbp, with 64.81% GC content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00299-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498421PMC
September 2020

Critical illness-associated cerebral microbleeds in severe COVID-19 infection.

Clin Imaging 2020 Dec 29;68:239-241. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States of America.

Neurologic complications of COVID-19 infection have been recently described and include dizziness, headache, loss of taste and smell, stroke, and encephalopathy. Brain MRI in these patients have revealed various findings including ischemia, hemorrhage, inflammation, and demyelination. In this article, we report a case of critical illness-associated cerebral microbleeds identified on MRI in a patient with severe COVID-19 infection and discuss the potential etiologies of these neuroimaging findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.08.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832150PMC
December 2020

Cost effectiveness of strategies for cervical cancer prevention in India.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(9):e0238291. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

The establishment of link between high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and occurrence of cervical cancer has resulted in development of various HPV related control strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer. The objective of the present study was to assess the cost effectiveness of various screening strategies for cervical cancer and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination in India. A Markov model based on societal perspective was designed to estimate the lifetime costs and consequences of screening (with either visual inspect with acetic acid (VIA), Papanicolaou test or HPV DNA test at various time intervals) in a hypothetical cohort of 30-65 years age women or vaccination among adolescent girls. Diagnostic accuracy of the screening strategies, efficacy of HPV vaccination and data on transition probabilities was based on the results of the existing meta-analyses. Primary data was collected for assessing per person cost of screening, cost of treating cervical cancer and quality of life. We found that introduction of different screening strategies leads to reduction in lifetime occurrence of cervical cancer cases caused by HPV 16/18 from 20% to 61%, and cervical cancer deaths from 28% to 70%, as compared to no screening. Among various screening strategies, screening with both VIA 5 yearly and VIA 10 yearly came out to be cost effective at 1-time per capita GDP, with VIA every 5 years providing greater health benefits as compared to VIA 10 years. Hence, screening with VIA 5 years at an incremental cost of US$ 829 (INR 54,881) per QALY gained is the recommended strategy for India. Further, with regards to HPV vaccination, it leads to 60% reduction in cancer cases and mortality caused by HPV 16/18 as compared to no vaccination. Moreover, when this vaccinated cohort of adolescent girls is also screened later in their life (with VIA every 10 years and VIA 5 years), it leads to 69%-76% reduction in cancer cases and 71%-81% reduction in cancer deaths. As compared to no vaccination and no screening, both HPV vaccination alone and vaccination plus screening (with VIA every 5 yearly and VIA 10 yearly) appears to be cost effective with ICERs in the range of US$ 86 (INR 5,693) to US$ 476 (INR 31,511) per QALY gained. In the long run, when the cohort of adolescent girls, who were immunized for HPV, reach the age of 30 years, the screening frequency using VIA should be determined based on the coverage of HPV vaccination in that cohort.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238291PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7462298PMC
October 2020

Draft Genome Sequence of 2-Methylpyridine-, 2-Ethylpyridine-, and 2-Hydroxypyridine-Degrading sp. Strain ATCC 49987.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Aug 20;9(34). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois, USA

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of sp. strain ATCC 49987, consisting of three contigs with a total length of 4.4 Mbp. Based on the genome sequence, we suggest reclassification of sp. strain ATCC 49987 as sp. strain ATCC 49987.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00748-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7441240PMC
August 2020