Publications by authors named "Nicolette S den Hollander"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

TRIDENT-2: National Implementation of Genome-wide Non-invasive Prenatal Testing as a First-Tier Screening Test in the Netherlands.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 12 7;105(6):1091-1101. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1105AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The Netherlands launched a nationwide implementation study on non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as a first-tier test offered to all pregnant women. This started on April 1, 2017 as the TRIDENT-2 study, licensed by the Dutch Ministry of Health. In the first year, NIPT was performed in 73,239 pregnancies (42% of all pregnancies), 7,239 (4%) chose first-trimester combined testing, and 54% did not participate. The number of trisomies 21 (239, 0.33%), 18 (49, 0.07%), and 13 (55, 0.08%) found in this study is comparable to earlier studies, but the Positive Predictive Values (PPV)-96% for trisomy 21, 98% for trisomy 18, and 53% for trisomy 13-were higher than expected. Findings other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 were reported on request of the pregnant women; 78% of women chose to have these reported. The number of additional findings was 207 (0.36%); these included other trisomies (101, 0.18%, PPV 6%, many of the remaining 94% of cases are likely confined placental mosaics and possibly clinically significant), structural chromosomal aberrations (95, 0.16%, PPV 32%,) and complex abnormal profiles indicative of maternal malignancies (11, 0.02%, PPV 64%). The implementation of genome-wide NIPT is under debate because the benefits of detecting other fetal chromosomal aberrations must be balanced against the risks of discordant positives, parental anxiety, and a potential increase in (invasive) diagnostic procedures. Our first-year data, including clinical data and laboratory follow-up data, will fuel this debate. Furthermore, we describe how NIPT can successfully be embedded into a national screening program with a single chain for prenatal care including counseling, testing, and follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6904791PMC
December 2019

From diagnostic yield to clinical impact: a pilot study on the implementation of prenatal exome sequencing in routine care.

Genet Med 2019 10 28;21(10):2303-2310. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Exome sequencing (ES) is an efficient tool to diagnose genetic disorders postnatally. Recent studies show that it may have a considerable diagnostic yield in fetuses with structural anomalies on ultrasound. We report on the clinical impact of the implementation of prenatal ES (pES) for ongoing pregnancies in routine care.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the impact of pES on pregnancy outcome and pre- or perinatal management in the first 22 patients counseled for pES because of one or more structural anomalies on fetal ultrasound.

Results: In two cases, a diagnosis was made by chromosomal microarray analysis after ES counseling. The remaining 20 cases were divided in three groups: (1) pES to aid parental decision making (n = 12), (2) pES in the context of late pregnancy termination requests (n = 5), and (3) pES to guide pre- or perinatal management (n = 3). pES had a clinical impact in 75% (9/12), 40% (2/5), and 100% (3/3) respectively, showing an overall clinical impact of pES of 70% (14/20).

Conclusion: We show that clinical implementation of pES is feasible and affects parental decision making or pre- and perinatal management supporting further implementation of ES in the prenatal setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0499-9DOI Listing
October 2019

Correction: The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Genet Med 2019 Sep;21(9):2160-2161

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, Groningen, The Netherlands.

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Pleuntje J. van der Sluijs, which was incorrectly given as Eline (P. J.) van der Sluijs. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0368-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752317PMC
September 2019

The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Genet Med 2019 06 8;21(6):1295-1307. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting.

Methods: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey.

Results: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified.

Conclusion: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0330-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752273PMC
June 2019

Putting genome-wide sequencing in neonates into perspective.

Genet Med 2019 05 5;21(5):1074-1082. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Several studies have reported diagnostic yields up to 57% for rapid exome or genome sequencing (rES/GS) as a single test in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients, but the additional yield of rES/GS compared with other available diagnostic options still remains unquantified in this population.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all genetic NICU consultations in a 2-year period.

Results: In 132 retrospectively evaluated NICU consultations 27 of 32 diagnoses (84.4%) were made using standard genetic workup. Most diagnoses (65.6%) were made within 16 days. Diagnostic ES yield was 5/29 (17.2%). Genetic diagnoses had a direct effect on clinical management in 90.6% (29/32) of patients.

Conclusions: Our study shows that exome sequencing has a place in NICU diagnostics, but given the associated costs and the high yield of alternative diagnostic strategies, we recommend to first perform clinical genetic consultation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0293-0DOI Listing
May 2019

mosaicism in apparently unaffected parents is associated with autism spectrum disorder and neurocognitive dysfunction.

Mol Autism 2018 25;9. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Genetic mosaicism is only detected occasionally when there are no obvious health or developmental issues. Most cases concern healthy parents in whom mosaicism is identified upon targeted testing of a genetic defect that was initially detected in their children. A germline genetic defect affecting the euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 () gene causes Kleefstra syndrome, which is associated with the typical triad of distinct facial appearance, (childhood) hypotonia, and intellectual disability. A high degree of psychopathology is associated with this syndrome. A few parents with a mosaic mutation have been detected upon testing after a child was diagnosed with a germline defect. At first glance, carriers of a mosaic mutation appeared to function normally. However, recent studies have shown that de novo, postzygotic mutations in important developmental genes significantly contribute to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, we hypothesized that mosaicism could cause neuropsychiatric defects. To investigate this, we performed a detailed investigation of cognitive neuropsychiatric parameters in parents identified with mosaicism.

Methods: Three adults (two males, one female) with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of mosaicism were examined by means of a battery of tests and observational instruments covering both neurocognitive and psychiatric features. The battery included the following instruments: the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the mini Psychiatric Assessment Schedules for Adults with Developmental Disabilities (mini PAS-ADD), the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). These measures were compared with our previously reported data from Kleefstra syndrome patients with confirmed (germline) defects.

Results: All three subjects achieved maximum total scores on the VABS, indicative of adequate (adaptive) functioning. In all, scores above cutoff were found on the ADOS for ASD and on the mini PAS-ADD for major depressive disorder (lifetime). Finally, results on the CANTAB showed impaired cognitive flexibility in all subjects.

Conclusion: Individuals with mosaicism seem to have increased vulnerability for developing severe psychopathology, especially ASD and mood disorders. Although at first glance they appear to be well-adapted in their daily functioning, they may experience significant psychiatric symptoms and show reduced cognitive flexibility in comparison to the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-018-0193-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5784506PMC
October 2018

Recurrent duplications of 17q12 associated with variable phenotypes.

Am J Med Genet A 2015 Dec 30;167A(12):3038-45. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

The ability to identify the clinical nature of the recurrent duplication of chromosome 17q12 has been limited by its rarity and the diverse range of phenotypes associated with this genomic change. In order to further define the clinical features of affected patients, detailed clinical information was collected in the largest series to date (30 patients and 2 of their siblings) through a multi-institutional collaborative effort. The majority of patients presented with developmental delays varying from mild to severe. Though dysmorphic features were commonly reported, patients do not have consistent and recognizable features. Cardiac, ophthalmologic, growth, behavioral, and other abnormalities were each present in a subset of patients. The newly associated features potentially resulting from 17q12 duplication include height and weight above the 95th percentile, cataracts, microphthalmia, coloboma, astigmatism, tracheomalacia, cutaneous mosaicism, pectus excavatum, scoliosis, hypermobility, hypospadias, diverticulum of Kommerell, pyloric stenosis, and pseudohypoparathryoidism. The majority of duplications were inherited with some carrier parents reporting learning disabilities or microcephaly. We identified additional, potentially contributory copy number changes in a subset of patients, including one patient each with 16p11.2 deletion and 15q13.3 deletion. Our data further define and expand the clinical spectrum associated with duplications of 17q12 and provide support for the role of genomic modifiers contributing to phenotypic variability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37351DOI Listing
December 2015

A Novel Targeted Approach for Noninvasive Detection of Paternally Inherited Mutations in Maternal Plasma.

J Mol Diagn 2015 Sep 7;17(5):590-6. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

The challenge in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for monogenic disorders lies in the detection of low levels of fetal variants in the excess of maternal cell-free plasma DNA. Next-generation sequencing, which is the main method used for noninvasive prenatal testing and diagnosis, can overcome this challenge. However, this method may not be accessible to all genetic laboratories. Moreover, shotgun next-generation sequencing as, for instance, currently applied for noninvasive fetal trisomy screening may not be suitable for the detection of inherited mutations. We have developed a sensitive, mutation-specific, and fast alternative for next-generation sequencing-mediated noninvasive prenatal diagnosis using a PCR-based method. For this proof-of-principle study, noninvasive fetal paternally inherited mutation detection was performed using cell-free DNA from maternal plasma. Preferential amplification of the paternally inherited allele was accomplished through a personalized approach using a blocking probe against maternal sequences in a high-resolution melting curve analysis-based assay. Enhanced detection of the fetal paternally inherited mutation was obtained for both an autosomal dominant and a recessive monogenic disorder by blocking the amplification of maternal sequences in maternal plasma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2015.05.006DOI Listing
September 2015

Clinical and molecular characterization of an infant with a tandem duplication and deletion of 19p13.

Am J Med Genet A 2015 Aug 21;167A(8):1884-9. Epub 2015 Apr 21.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Copy number variations (CNVs) on the short arm of chromosome 19 are relatively rare. We present a patient with a tandem de novo 3.9 Mb duplication of 19p13.12p13.2 and an adjacent 288 kb deletion of 19p13.12. The CNVs were detected by genome wide SNP-array and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mate-pair sequencing revealed two breakpoint junctions leading to a germline tandem inverted duplication and an adjacent deletion. The patient had a major congenital heart defect and refractory edema leading to metabolic and endocrinological disturbances. Further complications occurred due to refractory chylothorax, severe inflammatory response syndrome, and repeating sepsis. After 2 months, the child died due to intractable respiratory failure. The phenotype of this patient was compared with reported patients with overlapping deletions or duplications. We conclude that the congenital heart defect, respiratory insufficiency, and abnormal neurologic examination are most likely due the contiguous gene deletion/duplication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37076DOI Listing
August 2015

Phenotype and genotype in 103 patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2015 May 16;58(5):279-92. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Genetic Health Service NZ, Wellington, New Zealand.

Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, and subdivided in TRPS I, caused by mutations in TRPS1, and TRPS II, caused by a contiguous gene deletion affecting (amongst others) TRPS1 and EXT1. We performed a collaborative international study to delineate phenotype, natural history, variability, and genotype-phenotype correlations in more detail. We gathered information on 103 cytogenetically or molecularly confirmed affected individuals. TRPS I was present in 85 individuals (22 missense mutations, 62 other mutations), TRPS II in 14, and in 5 it remained uncertain whether TRPS1 was partially or completely deleted. Main features defining the facial phenotype include fine and sparse hair, thick and broad eyebrows, especially the medial portion, a broad nasal ridge and tip, underdeveloped nasal alae, and a broad columella. The facial manifestations in patients with TRPS I and TRPS II do not show a significant difference. In the limbs the main findings are short hands and feet, hypermobility, and a tendency for isolated metacarpals and metatarsals to be shortened. Nails of fingers and toes are typically thin and dystrophic. The radiological hallmark are the cone-shaped epiphyses and in TRPS II multiple exostoses. Osteopenia is common in both, as is reduced linear growth, both prenatally and postnatally. Variability for all findings, also within a single family, can be marked. Morbidity mostly concerns joint problems, manifesting in increased or decreased mobility, pain and in a minority an increased fracture rate. The hips can be markedly affected at a (very) young age. Intellectual disability is uncommon in TRPS I and, if present, usually mild. In TRPS II intellectual disability is present in most but not all, and again typically mild to moderate in severity. Missense mutations are located exclusively in exon 6 and 7 of TRPS1. Other mutations are located anywhere in exons 4-7. Whole gene deletions are common but have variable breakpoints. Most of the phenotype in patients with TRPS II is explained by the deletion of TRPS1 and EXT1, but haploinsufficiency of RAD21 is also likely to contribute. Genotype-phenotype studies showed that mutations located in exon 6 may have somewhat more pronounced facial characteristics and more marked shortening of hands and feet compared to mutations located elsewhere in TRPS1, but numbers are too small to allow firm conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2015.03.002DOI Listing
May 2015

Mutations in SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex gene ARID1B cause Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Nat Genet 2012 Mar 18;44(4):379-80. Epub 2012 Mar 18.

Center for Human and Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

We identified de novo truncating mutations in ARID1B in three individuals with Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) by exome sequencing. Array-based copy-number variation (CNV) analysis in 2,000 individuals with intellectual disability revealed deletions encompassing ARID1B in 3 subjects with phenotypes partially overlapping that of CSS. Taken together with published data, these results indicate that haploinsufficiency of the ARID1B gene, which encodes an epigenetic modifier of chromatin structure, is an important cause of CSS and is potentially a common cause of intellectual disability and speech impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2217DOI Listing
March 2012

Lethal/severe osteogenesis imperfecta in a large family: a novel homozygous LEPRE1 mutation and bone histological findings.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2011 May-Jun;14(3):228-34. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

We report a large consanguineous Turkish family in which multiple individuals are affected with autosomal recessive lethal or severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) due to a novel homozygous LEPRE1 mutation. In one affected individual histological studies of bone tissue were performed, which may indicate that the histology of LEPRE1 -associated OI is indistinguishable from COL1A1/2 -, CRTAP -, and PPIB -related OI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2350/10-03-0806-CR.1DOI Listing
October 2011

Genotype-phenotype correlations in L1 syndrome: a guide for genetic counselling and mutation analysis.

J Med Genet 2010 Mar 20;47(3):169-75. Epub 2009 Oct 20.

Department of Genetics, University Medical Centre Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To develop a comprehensive mutation analysis system with a high rate of detection, to develop a tool to predict the chance of detecting a mutation in the L1CAM gene, and to look for genotype-phenotype correlations in the X-linked recessive disorder, L1 syndrome.

Methods: DNA from 367 referred patients was analysed for mutations in the coding sequences of the gene. A subgroup of 100 patients was also investigated for mutations in regulatory sequences and for large duplications. Clinical data for 106 patients were collected and used for statistical analysis.

Results: 68 different mutations were detected in 73 patients. In patients with three or more clinical characteristics of L1 syndrome, the mutation detection rate was 66% compared with 16% in patients with fewer characteristics. The detection rate was 51% in families with more than one affected relative, and 18% in families with one affected male. A combination of these two factors resulted in an 85% detection rate (OR 10.4, 95% CI 3.6 to 30.1). The type of mutation affects the severity of L1 syndrome. Children with a truncating mutation were more likely to die before the age of 3 than those with a missense mutation (52% vs 8%; p=0.02).

Conclusions: We developed a comprehensive mutation detection system with a detection rate of almost 20% in unselected patients and up to 85% in a selected group. Using the patients' clinical characteristics and family history, clinicians can accurately predict the chance of finding a mutation. A genotype-phenotype correlation was confirmed. The occurrence of (maternal) germline mosaicism was proven.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2009.071688DOI Listing
March 2010

CRTAP mutations in lethal and severe osteogenesis imperfecta: the importance of combining biochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

Eur J Hum Genet 2009 Dec 24;17(12):1560-9. Epub 2009 Jun 24.

Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Cen, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Autosomal recessive lethal and severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by the deficiency of cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) and prolyl-3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1) because of CRTAP and LEPRE1 mutations. We analyzed five families in which 10 individuals had a clinical diagnosis of lethal and severe OI with an overmodification of collagen type I on biochemical testing and without a mutation in the collagen type I genes. CRTAP mutations not described earlier were identified in the affected individuals. Although it seems that one important feature of autosomal recessive OI due to CRTAP mutations is the higher consistency of radiological features with OI type II-B/III, differentiation between autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive OI on the basis of clinical, radiological and biochemical investigations proves difficult in the affected individuals reported here. These observations confirm that once a clinical diagnosis of OI has been made in an affected individual, biochemical testing for overmodification of collagen type I should always be combined with molecular genetic analysis of the collagen type I genes. If no mutations in the collagen type I genes are found, additional molecular genetic analysis of the CRTAP and LEPRE1 genes should follow. This approach will allow proper identification of the genetic cause of lethal or severe OI, which is important in providing prenatal diagnosis, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and estimating recurrence risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2009.75DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987020PMC
December 2009

A new diagnostic workflow for patients with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital abnormalities: test arrays first.

Eur J Hum Genet 2009 Nov 13;17(11):1394-402. Epub 2009 May 13.

Center for Human and Clinical Genetics, Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands.

High-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technology enables extensive genotyping as well as the detection of increasingly smaller chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we assess molecular karyotyping as first-round analysis of patients with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital abnormalities (MR/MCA). We used different commercially available SNP array platforms, the Affymetrix GeneChip 262K NspI, the Genechip 238K StyI, the Illumina HumanHap 300 and HumanCNV 370 BeadChip, to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in 318 patients with unexplained MR/MCA. We found abnormalities in 22.6% of the patients, including six CNVs that overlap known microdeletion/duplication syndromes, eight CNVs that overlap recently described syndromes, 63 potentially pathogenic CNVs (in 52 patients), four large segments of homozygosity and two mosaic trisomies for an entire chromosome. This study shows that high-density SNP array analysis reveals a much higher diagnostic yield as that of conventional karyotyping. SNP arrays have the potential to detect CNVs, mosaics, uniparental disomies and loss of heterozygosity in one experiment. We, therefore, propose a novel diagnostic approach to all MR/MCA patients by first analyzing every patient with an SNP array instead of conventional karyotyping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2009.74DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2986688PMC
November 2009

Transcription factor E2-2 is an essential and specific regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell development.

Cell 2008 Oct;135(1):37-48

Department of Microbiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) represent a unique immune cell type specialized in type I interferon (IFN) secretion in response to viral nucleic acids. The molecular control of PDC lineage specification has been poorly understood. We report that basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (E protein) E2-2/Tcf4 is preferentially expressed in murine and human PDCs. Constitutive or inducible deletion of murine E2-2 blocked the development of PDCs but not of other lineages and abolished IFN response to unmethylated DNA. Moreover, E2-2 haploinsufficiency in mice and in human Pitt-Hopkins syndrome patients was associated with aberrant expression profile and impaired IFN response of the PDC. E2-2 directly activated multiple PDC-enriched genes, including transcription factors involved in PDC development (SpiB, Irf8) and function (Irf7). These results identify E2-2 as a specific transcriptional regulator of the PDC lineage in mice and humans and reveal a key function of E proteins in the innate immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2631034PMC
October 2008

Prenatal diagnosis of boomerang dysplasia.

Am J Med Genet A 2003 Oct;122A(2):148-54

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University and University Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Boomerang dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type 1 and Piepkorn dysplasia are bone dysplasias with an overlapping clinical spectrum characterized by deficient formation and ossification of specific elements of the skeleton. Typical symptoms include micromelia with diminished ossification, and a characteristic bowed and boomerang-like aspect of the long tubular bones. We report here a new case of boomerang dysplasia, which was detected prenatally in the 16th week of gestation by ultrasound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.20239DOI Listing
October 2003

Mild fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly as a prenatal sonographic marker for Kartagener syndrome.

Prenat Diagn 2003 Mar;23(3):239-42

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Westzeedijk 112, 3016 AH Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also referred to as immotile-cilia syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, is a group of genetic disorders caused by defective cilia leading to chronic sinupulmonary infection, situs inversus and reduced fertility. Some PCD patients also have cerebral ventriculomegaly or hydrocephalus. We report here two fetuses and one newborn with mild cerebral ventriculomegaly and a suspected and/or confirmed diagnosis of PCD. These cases demonstrate that mild fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly can be a prenatal sonographic marker of PCD, certainly in fetuses with situs inversus or a history of a previous sib with PCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.551DOI Listing
March 2003
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