Publications by authors named "Nicole Jaeger"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Surgical Revascularization: Insights From the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12;144(14):1104-1116. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO (M.R.N., N.G., W.H.C., T.B., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H., M.P.B.).

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease requiring lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [Acetylsalicylic Acid] Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) demonstrated that rivaroxaban significantly reduced this risk. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described in patients who underwent surgical LER.

Methods: The VOYAGER PAD trial randomized patients with peripheral artery disease after surgical and endovascular LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or matching placebo plus aspirin and followed for a median of 28 months. The primary end point was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major vascular amputation, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding was a secondary safety outcome. All efficacy and safety outcomes were adjudicated by a blinded independent committee.

Results: Of the 6564 randomized, 2185 (33%) underwent surgical LER and 4379 (67%) endovascular. Compared with placebo, rivaroxaban reduced the primary end point consistently regardless of LER method (-interaction, 0.43). After surgical LER, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 199 (18.4%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 242 (22.0%) patients in the placebo group with a cumulative incidence at 3 years of 19.7% and 23.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]; =0.026). In the overall trial, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding were increased with rivaroxaban. There was no heterogeneity for Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding (-interaction, 0.17) or International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding (-interaction, 0.73) on the basis of the LER approach. After surgical LER, the principal safety outcome occurred in 11 (1.0%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 13 (1.2%) patients in the placebo group; 3-year cumulative incidence was 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.39-1.95]; =0.75) Among surgical patients, the composite of fatal bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (=0.95) and postprocedural bleeding requiring intervention (=0.93) was not significantly increased.

Conclusions: The efficacy of rivaroxaban is associated with a benefit in patients who underwent surgical LER. Although bleeding was increased with rivaroxaban plus aspirin, the incidence was low, with no significant increase in fatal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, or postprocedural bleeds requiring intervention. Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02504216.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054835DOI Listing
October 2021

Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Peripheral Artery Disease Lower Extremity Revascularization: Impact of Concomitant Clopidogrel on Efficacy and Safety.

Circulation 2020 12 3;142(23):2219-2230. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Germany (R.B.).

Background: The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for Peripheral Artery Disease) demonstrated superiority of rivaroxaban plus aspirin versus aspirin to reduce major cardiac and ischemic limb events after lower extremity revascularization. Clopidogrel is commonly used as a short-term adjunct to aspirin after endovascular revascularization. Whether clopidogrel modifies the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD was a phase 3, international, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with symptomatic PAD undergoing lower extremity revascularization randomized to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus 100 mg aspirin daily or rivaroxaban placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety end point was TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) major bleeding, with International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding a secondary safety outcome. Clopidogrel use was allowed at the discretion of the investigator for up to 6 months after the qualifying revascularization.

Results: Of the randomized patients, 3313 (50.6%) received clopidogrel for a median duration of 29.0 days. Over 3 years, the hazard ratio for the primary outcome of rivaroxaban versus placebo was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71-1.01) with clopidogrel and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01) without clopidogrel without statistical heterogeneity ( for interaction=0.92). Rivaroxaban resulted in an early apparent reduction in acute limb ischemia within 30 days (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.14-1.46] with clopidogrel; hazard ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.22-1.01] without clopidogrel; for interaction=0.93). Compared with aspirin, rivaroxaban increased TIMI major bleeding similarly regardless of clopidogrel use ( for interaction=0.71). With clopidogrel use >30 days, rivaroxaban was associated with more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding within 365 days (hazard ratio, 3.20 [95% CI, 1.44-7.13]) compared with shorter durations of clopidogrel ( for trend=0.06).

Conclusions: In the VOYAGER PAD trial, rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced the risk of adverse cardiovascular and limb events with an early benefit for acute limb ischemia regardless of clopidogrel use. The safety of rivaroxaban was consistent regardless of clopidogrel use but with a trend for more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding with clopidogrel use >30 days than with a shorter duration. These data support the addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin after lower extremity revascularization regardless of concomitant clopidogrel, with a short course (≤30 days) associated with less bleeding. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02504216.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050465DOI Listing
December 2020

Rivaroxaban in Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization.

N Engl J Med 2020 05 28;382(21):1994-2004. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

From Colorado Prevention Center (CPC) Clinical Research (M.P.B., M.R.N., W.H.C., L.D., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H.), the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (M.P.B., C.N.H., W.R.H.), the Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery (M.R.N.), and the Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology (W.H.C.), University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, and the Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health (J.M.K.) - all in Aurora; the Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt, and Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University of Mainz, Mainz (R.M.B.), the Department of Vascular Medicine, Vascular Surgery-Angiology-Endovascular Therapy, University of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (E.S.D.), and Bayer, Wuppertal (A.F.P., E.M.) - all in Germany; the Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada (S.S.A.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, NC (M.R.P.); the Vascular and Interventional Radiology Department, Careggi University Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy (F.F.); Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine (I.G.); B-A-Z County University Teaching Hospital, Miskolc, Hungary (L.M.); University of Latvia, Pauls Stradins University Hospital, Riga (D.K.K.); ECLA (Estudios Clínicos Latino América), ICR (Instituto Cardiovascular de Rosario), Rosario, Argentina (R.D.); the Division of Angiology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria (M.B.); and Janssen Research and Development, Raritan (L.P.H.), and Thrombosis Group Head, Clinical Development, Bayer U.S., Whippany (S.D.B.) - both in New Jersey.

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease who have undergone lower-extremity revascularization are at high risk for major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in this context are uncertain.

Methods: In a double-blind trial, patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone revascularization were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding, defined according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) classification; major bleeding as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was a secondary safety outcome.

Results: A total of 6564 patients underwent randomization; 3286 were assigned to the rivaroxaban group, and 3278 were assigned to the placebo group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 508 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 584 in the placebo group; the Kaplan-Meier estimates of the incidence at 3 years were 17.3% and 19.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.96; P = 0.009). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 62 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 44 patients in the placebo group (2.65% and 1.87%; hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.97 to 2.10; P = 0.07). ISTH major bleeding occurred in 140 patients in the rivaroxaban group, as compared with 100 patients in the placebo group (5.94% and 4.06%; hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.84; P = 0.007).

Conclusions: In patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone lower-extremity revascularization, rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin was associated with a significantly lower incidence of the composite outcome of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes than aspirin alone. The incidence of TIMI major bleeding did not differ significantly between the groups. The incidence of ISTH major bleeding was significantly higher with rivaroxaban and aspirin than with aspirin alone. (Funded by Bayer and Janssen Pharmaceuticals; VOYAGER PAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02504216.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2000052DOI Listing
May 2020

Sources and sinks of chloromethane in a salt marsh ecosystem: constraints from concentration and stable isotope measurements of laboratory incubation experiments.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2020 Mar 21;22(3):627-641. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Institute of Earth Sciences, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234-236, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Chloromethane (CHCl) is the most abundant long-lived chlorinated organic compound in the atmosphere and contributes significantly to natural stratospheric ozone depletion. Salt marsh ecosystems including halophyte plants are a known source of atmospheric CHCl but estimates of their total global source strength are highly uncertain and knowledge of the major production and consumption processes in the atmosphere-halophyte-soil system is yet incomplete. In this study we investigated the halophyte plant, Salicornia europaea, and soil samples from a coastal salt marsh site in Sardinia/Italy for their potential to emit and consume CHCl and using flux measurements, stable isotope techniques and Arrhenius plots differentiated between biotic and abiotic processes. Our laboratory approach clearly shows that at least 6 different production and consumption processes are active in controlling atmospheric CHCl fluxes of a salt marsh ecosystem. CHCl release by dried plant and soil material was substantially higher than that from the fresh material at temperatures ranging from 20 to 70 °C. Results of Arrhenius plots helped to distinguish between biotic and abiotic formation processes in plants and soils. Biotic CHCl consumption rates were highest at 30 °C for plants and 50 °C for soils, and microbial uptake was higher in soils with higher organic matter content. Stable isotope techniques helped to distinguish between formation and degradation processes and also provided a deeper insight into potential methyl moiety donor compounds, such as S-adenosyl-l-methionine, S-methylmethionine and pectin, that might be involved in the abiotic and biotic CHCl production processes. Our results clearly indicate that cycling of CHCl in salt marsh ecosystems is a result of several biotic and abiotic processes occurring simultaneously in the atmosphere-plant-soil system. Important precursor compounds for biotic and abiotic CHCl formation might be methionine derivatives and pectin. All formation and degradation processes are temperature dependent and thus environmental changes might affect the strength of each source and sink within salt marsh ecosystems and thus considerably alter total fluxes of CHCl from salt marsh ecosystems to the atmosphere.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9em00540dDOI Listing
March 2020

Chloromethane formation and degradation in the fern phyllosphere.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Sep 18;634:1278-1287. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Institute of Earth Sciences, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236, Heidelberg, Germany; Heidelberg Center for the Environment HCE, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Chloromethane (CHCl) is the most abundant halogenated trace gas in the atmosphere. It plays an important role in natural stratospheric ozone destruction. Current estimates of the global CHCl budget are approximate. The strength of the CHCl global sink by microbial degradation in soils and plants is under discussion. Some plants, particularly ferns, have been identified as substantial emitters of CHCl. Their ability to degrade CHCl remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the potential of leaves from 3 abundant ferns (Osmunda regalis, Cyathea cooperi, Dryopteris filix-mas) to produce and degrade CHCl by measuring their production and consumption rates and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures. Investigated ferns are able to degrade CHCl at rates from 2.1 to 17 and 0.3 to 0.9μggday for C. cooperi and D. filix-mas respectively, depending on CHCl supplementation and temperature. The stable carbon isotope enrichment factor of remaining CHCl was -39±13‰, whereas negligible isotope fractionation was observed for hydrogen (-8±19‰). In contrast, O. regalis did not consume CHCl, but produced it at rates ranging from 0.6 to 128μggday, with stable isotope values of -97±8‰ for carbon and -202±10‰ for hydrogen, respectively. Even though the 3 ferns showed clearly different formation and consumption patterns, their leaf-associated bacterial diversity was not notably different. Moreover, we did not detect genes associated with the only known chloromethane utilization pathway "cmu" in the microbial phyllosphere of the investigated ferns. Our study suggests that still unknown CHCl biodegradation processes on plants play an important role in global cycling of atmospheric CHCl.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.316DOI Listing
September 2018

Chloromethane Degradation in Soils: A Combined Microbial and Two-Dimensional Stable Isotope Approach.

J Environ Qual 2018 Mar;47(2):254-262

Chloromethane (CHCl, methyl chloride) is the most abundant volatile halocarbon in the atmosphere and involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. The global CHCl budget, and especially the CHCl sink from microbial degradation in soil, still involves large uncertainties. These may potentially be resolved by a combination of stable isotope analysis and bacterial diversity studies. We determined the stable isotope fractionation of CHCl hydrogen and carbon and investigated bacterial diversity during CHCl degradation in three soils with different properties (forest, grassland, and agricultural soils) and at different temperatures and headspace mixing ratios of CHCl. The extent of chloromethane degradation decreased in the order forest > grassland > agricultural soil. Rates ranged from 0.7 to 2.5 μg g dry wt. d for forest soil, from 0.1 to 0.9 μg g dry wt. d for grassland soil, and from 0.1 to 0.4 μg g dry wt. d for agricultural soil and increased with increasing temperature and CHCl supplementation. The measured mean stable hydrogen enrichment factor of CHCl of -50 ± 13‰ was unaffected by temperature, mixing ratio, or soil type. In contrast, the stable carbon enrichment factor depended on CHCl degradation rates and ranged from -38 to -11‰. Bacterial community composition correlated with soil properties was independent from CHCl degradation or isotope enrichment. Nevertheless, increased abundance after CHCl incubation was observed in 21 bacterial operational taxonomical units (OTUs at the 97% 16S RNA sequence identity level). This suggests that some of these bacterial taxa, although not previously associated with CHCl degradation, may play a role in the microbial CHCl sink in soil.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2017.09.0358DOI Listing
March 2018

Chloromethane emissions in human breath.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Dec 30;605-606:405-410. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Institute of Earth Sciences, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234-236, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Chloromethane (CHCl), currently the most abundant chlorinated organic compound in the atmosphere at around ~550 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), is considered responsible for approximately 16% of halogen-catalyzed stratospheric ozone destruction. Although emissions of CHCl are known to occur from animals such as cattle, formation and release of CHCl from humans has not yet been reported. In this study a pre-concentration unit coupled with a gas chromatograph directly linked to a mass spectrometer was used to precisely measure concentrations of CHCl at the pptv level in exhaled breath from 31 human subjects with ages ranging from 3 to 87years. We provide analytical evidence that all subjects exhaled CHCl in the range of 2.5 to 33 parts per billion by volume, levels which significantly exceed those of inhaled air by a factor of up to 60. If the mean of these emissions was typical for the world's population, then the global source of atmospheric CHCl from humans would be around 0.66Ggyr (0.33 to 1.48Ggyr), which is less than 0.03% of the total annual global atmospheric source strength. The observed endogenous formation of a chlorinated methyl group in humans might be of interest to biochemists and medical scientists as CHCl is also known to be a potent methylating agent and thus, could be an important target compound in future medical research diagnostic programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.202DOI Listing
December 2017

Mineralocorticoid versus glucocorticoid receptor occupancy mediating aldosterone-stimulated sodium transport in a novel renal cell line.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2005 Apr 2;16(4):878-91. Epub 2005 Mar 2.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Aldosterone controls sodium balance by regulating an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium transport along the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron, which expresses both mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Mineralocorticoid specificity is ensured by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, which metabolizes cortisol or corticosterone into inactive metabolites that are unable to bind MR and/or GR. The fractional occupancy of MR and GR by aldosterone mediating the sodium transport response in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron cannot be studied in vivo. For answering this question, a novel mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (mCCD(cl1)), which expresses significant levels of MR and GR and a robust aldosterone sodium transport response, was used. Aldosterone elicited a biphasic response: Low doses (K(1/2) = approximately 0.5 nM) induced a transient and early increase of sodium transport (peaking at 3 h), whereas high doses (K(1/2) = approximately 90 nM) entailed an approximately threefold larger, long-lasting response. At 3 h, the corticosterone dose-response curve was shifted to the right compared with that of aldosterone by more than two log concentrations, an effect that was fully reverted in the presence of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 inhibitor carbenoxolone. Low doses of dexamethasone (0.1 to 1 nM) failed to induce an early response, but high doses elicited a long-lasting response (K(1/2) = approximately 8 nM), similar to that observed for high aldosterone concentrations. Equilibrium binding assays showed that both aldosterone and corticosterone bind to a high-affinity, low-capacity site, whereas dexamethasone binds to one site. Within the physiologic range of aldosterone concentrations, sodium transport is predicted to be controlled by MR occupancy during circadian cycles and by MR and GR occupancy during salt restriction or acute stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2004121110DOI Listing
April 2005

Synergistic activation of ENaC by three membrane-bound channel-activating serine proteases (mCAP1, mCAP2, and mCAP3) and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (Sgk1) in Xenopus Oocytes.

J Gen Physiol 2002 Aug;120(2):191-201

Institut de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie, Université de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Sodium balance is maintained by the precise regulation of the activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the kidney. We have recently reported an extracellular activation of ENaC-mediated sodium transport (I(Na)) by a GPI-anchored serine protease (mouse channel-activating protein, mCAP1) that was isolated from a cortical collecting duct cell line derived from mouse kidney. In the present study, we have identified two additional membrane-bound serine proteases (mCAP2 and mCAP3) that are expressed in the same cell line. We show that each of these proteases is able to increase I(Na) 6-10-fold in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. I(Na) and the number (N) of channels expressed at the cell surface (measured by binding of a FLAG monoclonal I(125)-radioiodinated antibody) were measured in the same oocyte. Using this assay, we show that mCAP1 increases I(Na) 10-fold (P < 0.001) but N remained unchanged (P = 0.9), indicating that mCAP1 regulates ENaC activity by increasing its average open probability of the whole cell (wcP(o)). The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (Sgk1) involved in the aldosterone-dependent signaling cascade enhances I(Na) by 2.5-fold (P < 0.001) and N by 1.6-fold (P < 0.001), indicating a dual effect on N and wcP(o). Compared with Sgk1 alone, coexpression of Sgk1 with mCAP1 leads to a ninefold increase in I(Na) (P < 0.001) and 1.3-fold in N (P < 0.02). Similar results were observed for mCAP2 and mCAP3. The synergism between CAPs and Sgk1 on I(Na) was always more than additive, indicating a true potentiation. The synergistic effect of the two activation pathways allows a large dynamic range for ENaC-mediated sodium regulation crucial for a tight control of sodium homeostasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2234457PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.20028598DOI Listing
August 2002

Activation of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel by the serine protease mCAP1 expressed in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2000 May;11(5):828-834

Institut de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie, Université de Lausanne, Switzerland.

This study examines whether serine proteases can activate the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (ENaC) in mammalian kidney epithelial cells. The transepithelial sodium transport assessed by amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current appears to be sensitive to aprotinin, a protease inhibitor in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (mpkCCD(c14)). This result indicated that serine proteases may be implicated in the regulation of ENaC-mediated sodium transport. Using degenerated oligonucleotides to a previously isolated serine protease from Xenopus, xCAP1 (channel activating protease), a novel full-length serine protease (mCAP1), has been isolated and characterized. RNA analysis showed a broad pattern of expression in tissues (kidney, lung, colon, and salivary glands) expressing ENaC. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments also showed that mCAP1 was abundantly expressed in proximal tubule cells and was also expressed in intact and cultured collecting duct cells. Coexpression of the Xenopus, rat, or human alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits in Xenopus oocytes also showed that mCAP1 induces a significant increase in ENaC-mediated current accompanied by a decrease of channel molecules at the cell surface. It is proposed that this novel mouse channel activating protease may act as a regulator of ENaC within the kidney.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.V115828DOI Listing
May 2000
-->