Publications by authors named "Nicolas Wentzensen"

416 Publications

Epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus infection and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 29 900 men according to HIV status, sexuality, and age: a collaborative pooled analysis of 64 studies.

Lancet HIV 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Robust age-specific estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in men can inform anal cancer prevention efforts. We aimed to evaluate the age-specific prevalence of anal HPV, HSIL, and their combination, in men, stratified by HIV status and sexuality.

Methods: We did a systematic review for studies on anal HPV infection in men and a pooled analysis of individual-level data from eligible studies across four groups: HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive men who have sex with women (MSW), and HIV-negative MSW. Studies were required to inform on type-specific HPV infection (at least HPV16), detected by use of a PCR-based test from anal swabs, HIV status, sexuality (MSM, including those who have sex with men only or also with women, or MSW), and age. Authors of eligible studies with a sample size of 200 participants or more were invited to share deidentified individual-level data on the above four variables. Authors of studies including 40 or more HIV-positive MSW or 40 or more men from Africa (irrespective of HIV status and sexuality) were also invited to share these data. Pooled estimates of anal high-risk HPV (HR-HPV, including HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68), and HSIL or worse (HSIL+), were compared by use of adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) from generalised linear models.

Findings: The systematic review identified 93 eligible studies, of which 64 contributed data on 29 900 men to the pooled analysis. Among HIV-negative MSW anal HPV16 prevalence was 1·8% (91 of 5190) and HR-HPV prevalence was 6·9% (345 of 5003); among HIV-positive MSW the prevalences were 8·7% (59 of 682) and 26·9% (179 of 666); among HIV-negative MSM they were 13·7% (1455 of 10 617) and 41·2% (3798 of 9215), and among HIV-positive MSM 28·5% (3819 of 13 411) and 74·3% (8765 of 11 803). In HIV-positive MSM, HPV16 prevalence was 5·6% (two of 36) among those age 15-18 years and 28·8% (141 of 490) among those age 23-24 years (p=0·0091); prevalence was 31·7% (1057 of 3337) among those age 25-34 years and 22·8% (451 of 1979) among those age 55 and older (p<0·0001). HPV16 prevalence in HIV-negative MSM was 6·7% (15 of 223) among those age 15-18 and 13·9% (166 of 1192) among those age 23-24 years (p=0·0076); the prevalence plateaued thereafter (p=0·72). Similar age-specific patterns were observed for HR-HPV. No significant differences for HPV16 or HR-HPV were found by age for either HIV-positive or HIV-negative MSW. HSIL+ detection ranged from 7·5% (12 of 160) to 54·5% (61 of 112) in HIV-positive MSM; after adjustment for heterogeneity, HIV was a significant predictor of HSIL+ (aPR 1·54, 95% CI 1·36-1·73), HPV16-positive HSIL+ (1·66, 1·36-2·03), and HSIL+ in HPV16-positive MSM (1·19, 1·04-1·37). Among HPV16-positive MSM, HSIL+ prevalence increased with age.

Interpretation: High anal HPV prevalence among young HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM highlights the benefits of gender-neutral HPV vaccination before sexual activity over catch-up vaccination. HIV-positive MSM are a priority for anal cancer screening research and initiatives targeting HPV16-positive HSIL+.

Funding: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(21)00108-9DOI Listing
July 2021

STRIDES - STudying Risk to Improve DisparitiES in Cervical Cancer in Mississippi - Design and baseline results of a Statewide Cohort Study.

Prev Med 2021 Jul 19:106740. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Cancer Institute, Clinical Genetics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, Rockville, MD, United States of America. Electronic address:

Cervical cancer rates in Mississippi are disproportionately high, particularly among Black individuals; yet, research in this population is lacking. We designed a statewide, racially diverse cohort of individuals undergoing cervical screening in Mississippi. Here, we report the baseline findings from this study. We included individuals aged 21 years and older undergoing cervical screening with cytology or cytology-human papillomavirus (HPV) co-testing at the Mississippi State Health Department (MSDH) and the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) (December 2017-May 2020). We collected discarded cytology specimens for future biomarker testing. Demographics and clinical results were abstracted from electronic medical records and evaluated using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. A total of 24,796 individuals were included, with a median age of 34.8 years. The distribution of race in our cohort was 60.2% Black, 26.4% White, 7.5% other, and 5.9% missing. Approximately 15% had abnormal cytology and, among those who underwent co-testing at MSDH (n = 6377), HPV positivity was 17.4% and did not vary significantly by race. Among HPV positives, Black individuals were significantly less likely to be HPV16/18 positive and more likely to be positive for other high-risk 12 HPV types compared to White individuals (20.5% vs. 27.9%, and 79.5% and 72.1%, respectively, p = 0.011). Our statewide cohort represents one of the largest racially diverse studies of cervical screening in the U.S. We show a high burden of abnormal cytology and HPV positivity, with significant racial differences in HPV genotype prevalence. Future studies will evaluate cervical precancer risk, HPV genotyping, and novel biomarkers in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106740DOI Listing
July 2021

Multi-site clinical validation of Isothermal Amplification based SARS-COV-2 detection assays using different sampling strategies.

medRxiv 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Background: Isothermal amplification-based tests were developed as rapid, low-cost, and simple alternatives to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for SARS-COV-2 detection.

Methods: Clinical performance of two isothermal amplification-based tests (Atila Biosystems iAMP COVID-19 detection test and OptiGene COVID-19 Direct Plus RT-LAMP test) was compared to clinical RT-PCR assays using different sampling strategies. A total of 1378 participants were tested across four study sites.

Results: Compared to standard of care RT-PCR testing, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the Atila iAMP test for detection of SARS-CoV-2 were 76.2% and 94.9%, respectively, and increased to 88.8% and 89.5%, respectively, after exclusion of an outlier study site. Sensitivity varied based on the anatomic collected site. Sensitivity for nasopharyngeal was 65.4% (range across study sites:52.8%-79.8%), mid-turbinate 88.2%, saliva 55.1% (range across study sites:42.9%-77.8%) and anterior nares 66.7% (range across study sites:63.6%-76.5%). The specificity for these anatomic collection sites ranged from 96.7% to 100%. Sensitivity improved in symptomatic patients (overall 82.7%) and those with a higher viral load (overall 92.4% for ct≤25). Sensitivity and specificity of the OptiGene Direct Plus RT-LAMP test, conducted at a single study-site, were 25.5% and 100%, respectively.

Conclusions: The Atila iAMP COVID test with mid-turbinate sampling is a rapid, low-cost assay for detecting SARS-COV-2, especially in symptomatic patients and those with a high viral load, and could be used to reduce the risk of SARS-COV-2 transmission in clinical settings. Variation of performance between study sites highlights the need for site-specific clinical validation of these assays before clinical adoption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.07.01.21259879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282105PMC
July 2021

Impact of COVID-19 on cervical cancer screening: Challenges and opportunities to improving resilience and reduce disparities.

Prev Med 2021 10 30;151:106596. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has a major impact on a wide range of health outcomes. Disruptions of elective health services related to cervical screening, management of abnormal screening test results, and treatment of precancers, may lead to increases in cervical cancer incidence and exacerbate existing health disparities. Modeling studies suggest that a short delay of cervical screening in subjects with previously negative HPV results has minor effects on cancer outcomes, while delay of management and treatment can lead to larger increases in cervical cancer. Several approaches can mitigate the effects of disruption of cervical screening and management. HPV-based screening has higher accuracy compared to cytology, and a negative HPV result provides longer reassurance against cervical cancer; further, HPV testing can be conducted from self-collected specimens. Self-collection expands the reach of screening to underserved populations who currently do not participate in screening. Self-collection and can also provide alternative screening approaches during the pandemic because testing can be supported by telehealth and specimens collected in the home, substantially reducing patient-provider contact and risk of COVID-19 exposure, and also expanding the reach of catch-up services to address backlogs of screening tests that accumulated during the pandemic. Risk-based management allows prioritizing management of patients at highest risk of cervical cancer while extending screening intervals for those at lowest risk. The pandemic provides important lessons for how to make cervical screening more resilient to disruptions and how to reduce cervical cancer disparities that may be exacerbated due to disruptions of health services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241689PMC
October 2021

Genetic and Epigenetic Variations of HPV52 in Cervical Precancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 16;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

The goal of this study was to identify human papillomavirus (HPV) type 52 genetic and epigenetic changes associated with high-grade cervical precancer and cancer. Patients were selected from the HPV Persistence and Progression (PaP) cohort, a cervical cancer screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). We performed a nested case-control study of 89 HPV52-positive women, including 50 cases with predominantly cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and 39 controls without evidence of abnormalities. We conducted methylation analyses using Illumina sequencing and viral whole genome Sanger sequencing. Of the 24 CpG sites examined, increased methylation at CpG site 5615 in HPV52 L1 region was the most significantly associated with CIN3, with a difference in median methylation of 17.9% (odds ratio (OR) = 4.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.9-11.8) and an area under the curve of 0.73 (AUC; 95% CI = 0.62-0.83). Complete genomic sequencing of HPV52 isolates revealed associations between SNPs present in sublineage C2 and a higher risk of CIN3, with ORs ranging from 2.8 to 3.3. This study identified genetic and epigenetic HPV52 variants associated with high risk for cervical precancer, improving the potential for early diagnosis of cervical neoplasia caused by HPV52.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234014PMC
June 2021

Joint IARC/NCI International Cancer Seminar Series Report: expert consensus on future directions for ovarian carcinoma research.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Jun;42(6):785-793

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Recently, ovarian cancer research has evolved considerably because of the emerging recognition that rather than a single disease, ovarian carcinomas comprise several different histotypes that vary by etiologic origin, risk factors, molecular profiles, therapeutic approaches and clinical outcome. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, as well as important clinical advances, it remains the eighth most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and the most fatal gynecologic cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the United States National Cancer Institute jointly convened an expert panel on ovarian carcinoma to develop consensus research priorities based on evolving scientific discoveries. Expertise ranged from etiology, prevention, early detection, pathology, model systems, molecular characterization and treatment/clinical management. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge and highlights expert consensus on future directions to continue advancing etiologic, epidemiologic and prognostic research on ovarian carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgab043DOI Listing
June 2021

2020 list of human papillomavirus assays suitable for primary cervical cancer screening.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Only clinically validated HPV assays can be accepted in cervical cancer screening.

Objectives: To update the list of high-risk HPV assays that fulfil the 2009 international validation criteria (Meijer-2009).

Data Sources: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, references from selected studies; published in January 2014 to August 2020.

Study Eligibility Criteria: HPV test validation studies and primary screening studies, involving testing with an index HPV test and a comparator HPV test with reporting of disease outcome (occurrence of histologically confirmed cervical precancer; CIN2+).

Participants: Women participating in cervical cancer screening.

Interventions: Testing with an index and a comparator HPV test of clinician-collected cervical specimens and assessment of disease outcome (
Methods: Assessment of relative clinical accuracy (including non-inferiority statistics index vs comparator assay) and test reproducibility in individual studies; random effects meta-analyses of the relative clinical sensitivity and specificity of index vs comparator tests.

Results: Seven hrHPV DNA tests consistently fulfilled all validation criteria in multiple studies using predefined test positivity cut-offs (Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV, Anyplex II HPV HR Detection, BD Onclarity HPV Assay, Cobas 4800 HPV Test, HPV-Risk Assay, PapilloCheck HPV-Screening Test and Xpert HPV). Another assay (Alinity m HR HPV Assay) was fully validated in one validation study. The newer Cobas 6800 HPV Test, was validated in two studies against Cobas 4800. Other tests partially fulfilled the international validation criteria (Cervista HPV HR Test, EUROArray HPV, Hybribio's 14 High-Risk HPV, LMNX Genotyping Kit GP HPV, MALDI-TOF, RIATOL qPCR and a number of other in-house developed assays) since the non-inferior accuracy was reached after a posteriori cut-off optimization, inconsistent accuracy findings in different studies, and/or insufficient reproducibility assessment. The APTIMA HPV Assay targeting E6/E7 mRNA of hrHPV was fully validated in one formal validation study and showed slightly lower pooled sensitivity but higher specificity than the standard comparator tests in seven screening studies. However, the current international validation criteria relate to DNA assays. The additional requirement for longitudinal performance data required for non-DNA based HPV assays was not assessed in this review.

Conclusions: Eleven hrHPV DNA assays fulfil all requirements for use in cervical cancer screening using clinician-collected specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2021.04.031DOI Listing
May 2021

Quantifying procedural pain associated with office gynecologic tract sampling methods.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Jul 3;162(1):128-133. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objective: Emerging technologies may enable detection of endometrial cancer with methods that are less invasive than standard biopsy methods. This study compares patient pain scores among 3 office gynecologic tract sampling methods and explores their potential determinants.

Methods: A prospective study including 3 sampling methods (tampon, Tao brush (TB), endometrial biopsy (EB)) was conducted between December 2015 and August 2017 and included women ≥45 years of age presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, or thickened endometrial stripe. Patients rated pain after each sampling procedure using a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS).

Results: Of 428 enrolled, 190 (44.39%) patients underwent all 3 sampling methods and reported a VAS score for each. Nearly half were postmenopausal (n = 93, 48.9%); the majority were parous (172, 90.5%) of which 87.8% had at least one vaginal delivery. Among the 190 patients, the median (IQR) pain score was significantly lower for sampling via tampon (0 [0,2]) compared to TB (28 [12, 52]) or EB (32 [15, 60]) (both p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Among women who underwent tampon sampling, age and pain scores showed a weak positive correlation (Spearman rank correlation, r = 0.14; p = 0.006); EB sampling was associated with a weak inverse correlation between parity and pain scores (r = -0.14; p = 0.016).

Conclusion: Gynecologic tract sampling using a tampon had significantly lower pain than both EB and TB. Pain with tampon sampling was positively correlated with age and pain with EB sampling was inversely correlated with parity. Pain scores for TB and EB were not significantly related to age, menopausal status, or BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.04.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222179PMC
July 2021

Associations between Genetically Predicted Circulating Protein Concentrations and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Population Sciences in the Pacific Program, Cancer Epidemiology Division, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA.

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the leading female reproductive tract malignancy in developed countries. Currently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 17 risk loci for EC. To identify novel EC-associated proteins, we used previously reported protein quantitative trait loci for 1434 plasma proteins as instruments to evaluate associations between genetically predicted circulating protein concentrations and EC risk. We studied 12,906 cases and 108,979 controls of European descent included in the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium, the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium, and the UK Biobank. We observed associations between genetically predicted concentrations of nine proteins and EC risk at a false discovery rate of <0.05 (-values range from 1.14 × 10 to 3.04 × 10). Except for vascular cell adhesion protein 1, all other identified proteins were independent from known EC risk variants identified in EC GWAS. The respective odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) per one standard deviation increase in genetically predicted circulating protein concentrations were 1.21 (1.13, 1.30) for DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 4, 1.27 (1.14, 1.42) for desmoglein-2, 1.14 (1.07, 1.22) for MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B, 1.05 (1.02, 1.08) for histo-blood group ABO system transferase, 0.77 (0.68, 0.89) for intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase, 0.82 (0.74, 0.91) for carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15, 1.07 (1.03, 1.11) for D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase, and 1.07 (1.03, 1.10) for CD209 antigen. In conclusion, we identified nine potential EC-associated proteins. If validated by additional studies, our findings may contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of endometrial tumor development and identifying women at high risk of EC along with other EC risk factors and biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123478PMC
April 2021

Cervical Cancer Screening-Past, Present, and Future.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 03;30(3):432-434

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, Bethesda, Maryland.

Cervical cancer screening has undergone a transformation in recent decades. Historically, programs were based on cervical cytology (i.e., "Pap smear"), which had to be repeated often because of its limited sensitivity and reproducibility. In more recent years, the discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the necessary cause of virtually all cervical cancers has led to the introduction of HPV testing into clinical practice, first as a triage test for minor cytologic abnormalities, then in conjunction with cervical cytology (cotesting), and most recently, as a standalone screening test. Multiple randomized trials have shown that HPV-based screening has higher sensitivity compared with cytology, providing great reassurance against cervical precancer and cancer for women testing HPV-negative for many years. Analyses have also been conducted in support of the recent U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines that show that primary HPV screening achieves the greatest balance of benefits and harms compared with other strategies. An added benefit of primary HPV testing is the ability to conduct it from self-collected samples, which is critical for extending coverage among hard-to-reach individuals and could provide a safe and effective alternative to in-person screening visits during the COVID-19 pandemic..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1628DOI Listing
March 2021

Hidden mover-stayer model for disease progression accounting for misclassified and partially observed diagnostic tests: Application to the natural history of human papillomavirus and cervical precancer.

Stat Med 2021 07 12;40(15):3460-3476. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer and Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been proposed to model the natural history of diseases while accounting for misclassification in state identification. We introduce a discrete time HMM for human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical precancer/cancer where the hidden and observed state spaces are defined by all possible combinations of HPV, cytology, and colposcopy results. Because the population of women undergoing cervical cancer screening is heterogeneous with respect to sexual behavior, and therefore risk of HPV acquisition and subsequent precancers, we use a mover-stayer mixture model that assumes a proportion of the population will stay in the healthy state and are not subject to disease progression. As each state is a combination of three distinct tests that characterize the cervix, partially observed data arise when at least one but not every test is observed. The standard forward-backward algorithm, used for evaluating the E-step within the E-M algorithm for maximum-likelihood estimation of HMMs, cannot incorporate time points with partially observed data. We propose a new forward-backward algorithm that considers all possible fully observed states that could have occurred across a participant's follow-up visits. We apply our method to data from a large management trial for women with low-grade cervical abnormalities. Our simulation study found that our method has relatively little bias and out preforms simpler methods that resulted in larger bias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8977DOI Listing
July 2021

Treatment approaches for women with positive cervical screening results in low-and middle-income countries.

Prev Med 2021 03 4;144:106439. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

IARC, Lyon, France.

The primary goal of cervical screening is to identify women with cervical precancers who need treatment to prevent invasive cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening programs in high-resource settings rely on a multi-step process to reassure the majority of women of low cancer risk and treat the small number of women at high risk of precancer and cancer. The requirement of major resource investment for training and capacity building of multi-step cervical cancer screening programs prevents their introduction in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Screen-and-treat programs have been evaluated and introduced in some countries that use mainly ablative treatment as primary treatment options. Ablative treatment with cryotherapy and thermal ablation has a favorable tradeoff of benefits and harms and can be introduced more widely than excisional treatment in LMICs. While most women below 40 are eligible for ablative procedures, fewer than 50% are eligible by age 50 and ablative treatment is not appropriate over age 50. Excisional treatment is required for women ineligible for ablative treatment. Since screening programs in LMICs necessarily detect invasive cancers, cancer treatment and palliative care needs to be considered as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106439DOI Listing
March 2021

Smoking Modifies Pancreatic Cancer Risk Loci on 2q21.3.

Cancer Res 2021 Jun 11;81(11):3134-3143. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine whether there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and < 5 × 10 was considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region that included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 [per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95% CI, 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.40, = 3.08 × 10). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs1818613 ( = 0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings. SIGNIFICANCE: This large genome-wide interaction study identifies a susceptibility locus on 2q21.3 that significantly modified PDAC risk by smoking status, providing insight into smoking-associated PDAC, with implications for prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178175PMC
June 2021

Summary of Current Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management of Abnormal Test Results: 2016-2020.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 01;30(1):5-13

Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Cervical cancer can be prevented through routine screening and follow-up of abnormal results. Several guidelines have been published in the last 4 years from various medical societies and organizations. These guidelines aim to personalize screening and management, reducing unnecessary testing in low-risk patients and managing high-risk patients with more intensive follow-up. However, the resulting complexity can lead to confusion among providers. The CDC, NCI, and obstetrician-gynecologists involved in guideline development summarized current screening and management guidelines. For screening, guidelines for average-risk and high-risk populations are summarized and presented. For management, differences between the 2012 and 2019 consensus guidelines for managing abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors are summarized. Current screening guidelines for average-risk individuals have minor differences, but are evolving toward an HPV-based strategy. For management, HPV testing is preferred to cytology because it is a more sensitive test for cancer precursor detection and also allows for precise risk stratification. Current risk-based screening and management strategies can improve care by reducing unnecessary tests and procedures in low-risk patients and focusing resources on high-risk patients. Knowledge of screening and management guidelines is important to improve adherence and avoid both over- and under-use of screening and colposcopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2020.8918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020523PMC
January 2021

The relationship of human papillomavirus and cytology co-testing results with endometrial and ovarian cancer diagnoses.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Apr 14;161(1):297-303. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Regional Laboratory, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA.

Background: To investigate whether routine cervical screening using human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology co-testing effectively identifies women with endometrial (EC) or ovarian (OvC) cancer.

Methods: In 2003, Kaiser Permanente Northern California implemented triennial co-testing in women aged ≥30 years. Index screening results (n = 2,385,729) were linked to subsequent EC (n = 3434) and OvC (n = 1113) diagnoses from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2017. EC were categorized as type 1 or 2, and, selectively, EC and OvC diagnoses were stratified on whether symptoms were present at the time of the co-test. Fractions and absolute risks of EC or OvC of each co-testing result were calculated.

Results: Most EC (82.18%) and OvC (88.68%) were preceded by a negative HPV and negative cytology co-test. More EC were preceded by atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or more severe (ASC-US+) cytology and negative HPV test (n = 290) (8.44% of EC) compared to a negative cytology and a positive HPV test (n = 31) (0.89% of EC) (p < 0.001). The absolute risk of any EC diagnosis following ASC-US+ and negative HPV test was 0.48%. Atypical glandular cells (AGC) cytology and a negative HPV result preceded 6.92% of any EC diagnosis, with an absolute risk of 4.02%, but preceded only 1.13% of type 2 EC cases, with an absolute risk of 0.24%, in asymptomatic women. AGC cytology and a negative HPV result preceded 1.44% of OvC, with an absolute risk of 0.28%.

Conclusions: Abnormal cervical screening tests, even AGC cytology, rarely precedes and poorly predict women with EC or OvC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.01.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Genital powder use and risk of uterine cancer: A pooled analysis of prospective studies.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jun 1;148(11):2692-2701. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

When powder is applied to the genital area, it has the potential to reach internal reproductive organs and promote carcinogenesis by irritating and inflaming exposed tissues. Although many studies have considered the association between genital powder use and ovarian cancer risk, the relationship between genital powder use and uterine cancer is less well-studied. We pooled data from four large, prospective cohorts (the Nurses' Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study II, the Sister Study and the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for prespecified confounders. In total, 209 185 women were included, with 37% reporting ever genital powder use. Over a mean 14.5 years of follow-up, 3272 invasive uterine cancers were diagnosed. There was no overall association between ever genital powder use and uterine cancer (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94-1.09), with little difference observed for frequent (≥1 times/week) vs never use (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95-1.16; P-for-trend = .46). Long-term use (>20 years; HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.96-1.31; P-for-trend = 0.14) was associated with a small, but not statistically significant, increase in risk, compared to never use. There were not clear differences by uterine cancer histologic subtypes or across strata of relevant covariates, including race/ethnicity, follow-up time, menopausal status and body mass index. The results of this large, pooled analysis do not support a relationship between the use of genital powder and uterine cancer, although the positive associations observed for long-term use may merit further consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106926PMC
June 2021

Cervical Screening Performance.

Am J Clin Pathol 2021 03;155(4):616-620

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics National Cancer Institute Bethesda, MD.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqaa198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962781PMC
March 2021

Infiltrating T-cell markers in cervical carcinogenesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Br J Cancer 2021 02 1;124(4):831-841. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Clinical Genetics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Background: The host adaptive immune response helps determine which cervical HPV infections persist and progress to precancer and cancer, and systematic characterisation of T-cell infiltration would help inform key steps in cervical carcinogenesis.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted of infiltrating T-cells in normal cervix, low-grade lesions, high-grade lesions, and invasive cancers including epithelial, stromal, and total tissue and the following markers: CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3, CD25, and the CD4:CD8 ratio. An additional qualitative review summarised longitudinal data on associations between infiltrating T-cells and cervical disease persistence, regression, progression, or prognosis.

Results: There were fewer CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cells in cervical lesions and more cells in cancers compared to normal epithelium. FoxP3 and CD25+ regulatory T-cell infiltration is high in persistent and precancerous lesions, and longitudinal data show improved outcomes with lower regulatory T-cell levels.

Conclusions: Successful immune evasion may reduce T-cell infiltration in HPV infected and precancerous epithelium, while invasive cancers are highly immunogenic, and regulatory T-cell infiltration increases with cervical disease progression. Understanding these factors may have prognostic value and could aid in novel treatment development and clinical guidelines, but published data are highly heterogeneous and leave important gaps to be filled by future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01184-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884592PMC
February 2021

Pregnancy outcomes and risk of endometrial cancer: A pooled analysis of individual participant data in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.

Int J Cancer 2021 May 17;148(9):2068-2078. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Orbassano, Italy.

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969437PMC
May 2021

Design and feasibility of a novel program of cervical screening in Nigeria: self-sampled HPV testing paired with visual triage.

Infect Agent Cancer 2020 14;15:60. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Rockville, USA.

Background: Accelerated global control of cervical cancer would require primary prevention with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in addition to novel screening program strategies that are simple, inexpensive, and effective. We present the feasibility and outcome of a community-based HPV self-sampled screening program.

Methods: In Ile Ife, Nigeria, 9406 women aged 30-49 years collected vaginal self-samples, which were tested for HPV in the local study laboratory using Hybrid Capture-2 (HC2) (Qiagen). HPV-positive women were referred to the colposcopy clinic. Gynecologist colposcopic impression dictated immediate management; biopsies were taken when definite acetowhitening was present to produce a histopathologic reference standard of precancer (and to determine final clinical management). Retrospective linkage to the medical records identified 442 of 9406 women living with HIV (WLWH).

Results: With self-sampling, it was possible to screen more than 100 women per day per clinic. Following an audio-visual presentation and in-person instructions, overall acceptability of self-sampling was very high (81.2% women preferring self-sampling over clinician collection). HPV positivity was found in 17.3% of women. Intensive follow-up contributed to 85.9% attendance at the colposcopy clinic. Of those referred, 8.2% were initially treated with thermal ablation and 5.6% with large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ). Full visibility of the squamocolumnar junction, necessary for optimal visual triage and ablation, declined from 68.5% at age 30 to 35.4% at age 49. CIN2+ and CIN3+ (CIN- Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia), including five cancers, were identified by histology in 5.9 and 3.2% of the HPV-positive women, respectively (0.9 and 0.5% of the total screening population), leading to additional treatment as indicated. The prevalences of HPV infection and CIN2+ were substantially higher (40.5 and 2.5%, respectively) among WLWH. Colposcopic impression led to over- and under-treatment compared to the histopathology reference standard.

Conclusion: A cervical cancer screening program using self-sampled HPV testing, with colposcopic immediate management of women positive for HPV, proved feasible in Nigeria. Based on the collected specimens and images, we are now evaluating the use of a combination of partial HPV typing and automated visual evaluation (AVE) of cervical images to improve the accuracy of the screening program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-020-00324-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556552PMC
October 2020

Risk of cervical precancer and cancer among uninsured and underserved women from 2009 to 2017.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 04 6;224(4):366.e1-366.e32. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA.

Background: New guidelines for managing cervical precancer among women in the United States use risk directly to guide clinical actions for individuals who are being screened. These risk-based management guidelines have previously only been based on risks from a large integrated healthcare system. We present here data representative of women of low income without continuous insurance coverage to inform the 2019 guidelines and ensure applicability.

Objective: We examined the risks of high-grade precancer after human papillomavirus and cytology tests in underserved women and assessed the applicability of the 2019 guidelines to this population.

Study Design: We examined cervical cancer screening and follow-up data among 363,546 women enrolled in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program from 2009 to 2017. We estimated the immediate (prevalent) risks of cervical intraepithelial lesion grade 3 or cancer by using prevalence-incidence mixture models. Risks were estimated for each combination of human papillomavirus and cytology result and were stratified by screening history. We compared these risks with published estimates used in new risk-based management guidelines.

Results: Women who were up-to-date with their screening, defined as being screened with cytology within the past 5 years, had immediate risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or higher similar to that of women at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, whose data were used to develop the management guidelines. However, women in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program had greater immediate risks if they were never screened or not up-to-date with their screening.

Conclusion: New cervical risk-based management guidelines are applicable for underinsured and uninsured women with a low income in the United States who are up-to-date with their screening. The increased risk observed here among women who received human papillomavirus-positive, high-grade cytology results, who were never screened, or who were not up-to-date with their cervical cancer screening, led to a recommendation in the management guidelines for immediate treatment among these women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009811PMC
April 2021

Mendelian Randomization Analysis of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Pancreatic Cancer Risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 12 23;29(12):2735-2739. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome.

Methods: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data.

Results: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

Impact: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710600PMC
December 2020

Statistical approaches using longitudinal biomarkers for disease early detection: A comparison of methodologies.

Stat Med 2020 12 16;39(29):4405-4420. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Early detection of clinical outcomes such as cancer may be predicted using longitudinal biomarker measurements. Tracking longitudinal biomarkers as a way to identify early disease onset may help to reduce mortality from diseases like ovarian cancer that are more treatable if detected early. Two disease risk prediction frameworks, the shared random effects model (SREM) and the pattern mixture model (PMM) could be used to assess longitudinal biomarkers on disease early detection. In this article, we studied the discrimination and calibration performances of SREM and PMM on disease early detection through an application to ovarian cancer, where early detection using the risk of ovarian cancer algorithm (ROCA) has been evaluated. Comparisons of the above three approaches were performed via analyses of the ovarian cancer data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Discrimination was evaluated by the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve and its area, while calibration was assessed using calibration plot and the ratio of observed to expected number of diseased subjects. The out-of-sample performances were calculated via using leave-one-out cross-validation, aiming to minimize potential model overfitting. A careful analysis of using the biomarker cancer antigen 125 for ovarian cancer early detection showed significantly improved discrimination performance of PMM as compared with SREM and ROCA, nevertheless all approaches were generally well calibrated. Robustness of all approaches was further investigated in extensive simulation studies. The improved performance of PMM relative to ROCA is in part due to the fact that the biomarker measurements were taken at a yearly interval, which is not frequent enough to reliably estimate the changepoint or the slope after changepoint in cases under ROCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8731DOI Listing
December 2020

Mendelian randomization analyses suggest a role for cholesterol in the development of endometrial cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 01 7;148(2):307-319. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757859PMC
January 2021

Expanding Our Understanding of Ovarian Cancer Risk: The Role of Incomplete Pregnancies.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar;113(3):301-308

Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cancer Prevention and Genetics Program, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated.

Methods: A pooled analysis of 10 470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16 942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race and ethnicity, age, and education level and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses.

Results: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (2-sided Ptrend < .001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer.

Conclusions: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936053PMC
March 2021

The Orderly Incorporation of Continuing Technologic Advances Into Cervical Cancer Screening.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar;113(3):231-233

Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Clinical Genetics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936058PMC
March 2021

Ovarian Cancer Risk Factor Associations by Primary Anatomic Site: The Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 10 30;29(10):2010-2018. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites.

Methods: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests.

Results: Most associations did not vary by tumor site ( ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy ( = 0.04), tubal ligation ( = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer ( = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases.

Conclusions: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site.

Impact: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541500PMC
October 2020

Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the relationship between statin use and risk of ovarian cancer.

Cancer Causes Control 2020 Oct 20;31(10):869-879. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA.

Purpose: The link between lipid-stabilizing medications and epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis is incompletely understood. Statins may reduce ovarian cancer risk, but results are inconclusive.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting associations between statin use and ovarian cancer risk in PubMed. Summary risk ratios (RRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Subgroup analyses by cancer histotype, statin class (lipo- or hydrophilic) and duration of statin use were conducted. Use of individual statins in populations was assessed to determine population-specific differences in statin types.

Results: Nine studies with 435,237 total women were included (1 randomized controlled trial (RCT); 4 prospective; 4 case-control). Statin use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.74-1.03) and risk was significantly reduced in populations with low pravastatin use (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.99). Risk estimates varied by statin class (3 studies; lipophilic: RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.69-1.12; hydrophilic: RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.72-1.57) and cancer histotype (3 studies; serous: RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.69-1.30; clear cell: RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.74-1.86). Long-term use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.54-1.10) that further reduced when pravastatin use was low (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-1.01). Between-study heterogeneity was high overall and in subgroups (I > 60%).

Conclusion: Statins may be associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, but the effect likely differs by individual statin, duration of use and cancer histotype. Additional well-powered studies are needed to elucidate important subgroup effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-020-01327-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484024PMC
October 2020

Trends in hysterectomy-corrected uterine cancer mortality rates during 2002 to 2015: mortality of nonendometrioid cancer on the rise?

Int J Cancer 2021 02 17;148(3):584-592. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Corpus uteri cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in most developed countries. The disease is typically diagnosed at an early stage, is of endometrioid histologic subtype, and has a fairly good prognosis. Here, we describe hysterectomy-corrected mortality rates of corpus uteri cancer, overall and stratified by age, stage and histologic subtype. Using data from nationwide Danish registries, we calculated uncorrected and hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized mortality rates of corpus uteri cancer among women ≥35 years during 2002 to 2015. Individual-level hysterectomy status was obtained from national registries; hysterectomy-corrected mortality rates were calculated by subtracting posthysterectomy person-years from the denominator, unless hysterectomy was performed due to corpus uteri cancer. Correction for hysterectomy resulted in a 25.5% higher mortality rate (12.3/100000 person-years vs 9.8/100000 person-years). Mortality rates were highest in women aged 70+, irrespective of year of death, histologic subtype and stage. A significant decline was observed in overall hysterectomy-corrected mortality rates from 2002 to 2015, particularly among women aged 70+. Mortality rates of endometrioid cancer declined significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -2.32, 95% CI -3.9, -0.7, P = .01), whereas rates of nonendometrioid cancer increased (APC: 5.90, 95% CI: 3.0, 8.9, P < .001). With respect to stage, mortality rates increased significantly over time for FIGOI-IIa (APC: 6.18 [95% CI: 1.9, 10.7] P = .01) but remained unchanged for FIGO IIb-IV. In conclusion, increasing mortality rates of nonendometrioid cancer paralleled the previously observed rise in incidence rates of this histologic subtype. Given the poor prognosis of nonendometrioid cancer, more studies are needed to clarify the underlying reason for these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33219DOI Listing
February 2021
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