Publications by authors named "Nicolas Pujol"

60 Publications

Partial arthroscopic trapeziectomy and stabilisation by ligamentoplasty: Outcomes in patients younger than 60years.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Jun 8:102983. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique, centre hospitalier de Versailles, 78150 Le Chesnay, France.

Background: Thumb carpometacarpal joint (TCMJ) osteoarthritis is the fourth leading cause of referral to elective hand surgery. None of the available techniques has proved superior over the others. Some techniques carry unacceptable risks for younger patients, such as loss of strength and shortening of the thumb column after total trapeziectomy, or wear and loosening after total arthroplasty. Our objective was to assess outcomes after partial arthroscopic trapeziectomy (PAT) combined with suspensionplasty using the abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon in patients younger than 60years of age.

Hypothesis: PAT combined with suspensionplasty using the APL tendon in patients younger than 60years would restore strength in the medium-term without further surgery.

Material And Methods: We retrospectively included consecutive patients operated between 2007 and 2017, in a single centre, and aged less than 60years. All patients had isolated TCMJ osteoarthritis stage 1 to 3 according to Eaton and Glickel classification that remained symptomatic despite optimal conservative treatment. We collected pain intensity, range of motion, strength, the Nelson Hospital Score (NHS), and the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) score. Radiographs were reviewed.

Results: We included 27 patients, of whom 6 had surgery on both thumbs, yielding 33 thumbs for the analysis. Mean follow-up was 64.7months (range: 10.6-136.5months). Pain intensity, grip strength, and key-pinch strength were significantly improved (p<0.001), with no difference between men and women. No differences were found for the Kapandji score (p=0.2) or TCMJ hyperextension (p=0.06). At last follow-up, the mean NHS was 83.2±19.4 and the mean PRWE was 15.4±17.9. Mean sick leave duration was 5.4weeks (range: 1-24weeks). Only 2 patients, both in manual jobs, were unable to return to work. The radiographs at last follow-up showed the development of moderate TCMJ narrowing in 14 patients and evidence of scapho-trapezio-trapezoid (STT) osteoarthritis in 10 patients. No patient experienced complex regional pain syndrome or injury to the sensory branch of the radial nerve. A single patient required further surgery for persistent pain.

Discussion: Patients younger than 60years who are treated with this minimally invasive technique are likely to experience sustained improvements in both strength and pain intensity. Total trapeziectomy and pyrocarbon implant has also been evaluated in younger patients, who experienced pain relief and strength gains but had lower levels of satisfaction and developed complications inherent in the implants. The short time off work and low morbidity make our technique a procedure of choice in younger patients. To build on this study, a comparison of PAT and arthroplasty would be of interest.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2021.102983DOI Listing
June 2021

Incidence and Risk Factors for Residual High-Grade Pivot Shift After ACL Reconstruction With or Without a Lateral Extra-articular Tenodesis.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 May 7;9(5):23259671211003590. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Movement and Locomotion, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, St Marguerite Hospital, Marseille, France.

Background: Residual rotatory knee laxity at midterm follow-up after isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) versus ACLR with lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) remains an issue.

Purpose/hypothesis: To evaluate the outcomes of ACLR with or without additional LET at a minimum 2-year follow-up in patients with preoperative high-grade pivot shift (PS). Our hypothesis was that the addition of LET would decrease the risk of secondary meniscal injury and the presence of residual high-grade PS at follow-up.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: A retrospective analysis performed at 3 sports medicine centers identified 266 study patients; all had a high-grade PS (grade 2 or 3) preoperatively and underwent isolated ACLR with or without LET. Four different ACLR techniques were used: single-strand quadrupled semitendinosus (ST4) ACLR without LET (ST4 group; n = 55), ST4 with anatomic LET (ST4+LET group; n = 77), bone-patellar tendon and modified Lemaire LET (BTB+LET group; n = 43), and quadriceps tendon and modified Lemaire LET (QT+LET group; n = 91). At follow-up, we evaluated for the presence of high-grade (grade ≥2) PS. Preoperative meniscal tears and their treatment were recorded.

Results: Overall, 185 (69.5%) patients had at least 1 meniscal tear at index surgery. The mean follow-up period was 44.3 months; 47 (17.7%) patients had a new meniscal tear and 64 (24%) patients had a high-grade PS at follow-up. Compared with meniscal repair, significant predictors for high-grade PS at follow-up were meniscectomy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.65 [95% CI, 1.19-5.63]; = .02) and nonrepair of preoperative meniscal tear (OR = 3.26 [95% CI, 1.27-9.43]; = .007). The appearance of a new symptomatic meniscal tear was the strongest significant predictor of high-grade PS at follow-up (OR = 4.31 [95% CI, 2.31-8.06]; < .001). No significant correlation was observed between the addition of LET and the presence of high-grade PS at follow-up.

Conclusion: In the current study, 1 in 4 patients with high-grade PS before ACLR with or without LET was at risk of residual rotatory knee laxity at mean 44-month follow-up, regardless of the technique used. Repairing a pre-existing meniscal lesion was more effective than performing LET to decrease the presence of a high-grade PS at follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211003590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113945PMC
May 2021

Does intermeniscal ligament tenodesis affect meniscal allograft extrusion? Retrospective comparative study at a minimum follow-up of 2 years.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 04 20;107(2):102815. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Service de chirurgie orthopédique, centre hospitalier de Versailles, 177, rue de Versailles, 78150 Le Chesnay, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) is indicated for the treatment of post-meniscectomy syndrome in young patients who do not have severe cartilage loss. While its clinical effectiveness is well established in the short- and mid-term, it does not appear to stop the progression of osteoarthritis. Meniscal extrusion often occurs early on and is irreversible. The aim of this study was to evaluate results of arthroscopic MAT combined with reconstruction of the intermeniscal ligament (IML).

Hypothesis: Concurrent reconstruction of the IML decreases the incidence of early allograft extrusion when compared to conventional soft-tissue techniques.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective single-centre comparative study of 55 patients operated between 2011 and 2018. The 34 patients who met the inclusion criteria were divided into two subgroups: the IML group (MAT with IML repair, n=14) and the non-IML group (MAT without IML repair, n=20). Clinical outcomes consisted of the KOOS at the last follow-up visit and the surgical revision rate. MRI was performed at a minimum of 12 months (mean 34±25 months) to determine absolute and relative meniscal extrusion, sagittal anterior and posterior extrusion, and cartilage coverage in the frontal and sagittal planes.

Results: The KOOS score was not significantly different between the two groups. There were no reoperations in the IML group, but there were four in the non-IML group (13%) (p=0.13). Meniscal extrusion of the allograft occurred in 43% of patients (6/14) in the IML group versus 85% (17/20) in the non-IML group (p<0.03). Absolute meniscal extrusion was 2.9mm ([2.2-3.6] SD=1.2) in the ILM group versus 5.4 mm ([4.1-6.7] SD=2.9) (p=0.004) in the non-ILM group.

Discussion: Adding ILM tenodesis or reconstruction can significantly limit early extrusion of the meniscal allograft. Clinical outcomes at a mean of 34 months are not different when compared to standard procedure. These patients should be re-evaluated in the long term to determine whether the incidence of osteoarthritis is lower with ILM tenodesis.

Level Of Evidence: III; case-control study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2021.102815DOI Listing
April 2021

A systematic review comparing the results of early vs delayed ligament surgeries in single anterior cruciate ligament and multiligament knee injuries.

Knee Surg Relat Res 2021 Jan 7;33(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes and incidence of concomitant injuries in patients undergoing early vs delayed surgical treatment of single anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and multiligament knee injury (MLKI).

Methods: A literature search using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and Scopus from their inception to April 30, 2020 was conducted. Studies with levels I to IV evidence reporting the incidence of meniscus or cartilage injury according to early vs delayed surgery in single ACL injuries and MLKIs were included. In the meta-analysis, data based on the number of meniscus and cartilage injuries were extracted and pooled. Lysholm and Tegner scores were analyzed using two-sample Z-tests to calculate the non-weighted mean difference (NMD). A meta-regression analysis was also performed to determine the effect of single ACL injury and MLKI/study design.

Results: Sixteen studies on single ACL injury and 14 studies on MLKI were included in this analysis. In the analysis, there were significant decreases in Lysholm score (NMD - 5.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) - 7.37 to - 3.23]) and Tegner score (NMD - 0.25 [95% CI - 0.45 to - 0.05]) and increases in risk of meniscus tear (odds ratio [OR] 1.73 [95% CI 1.1-2.73], p = 0.01) and cartilage injury (OR 2.48 [95% CI 1.46-4.2], p = 0.0007) in the delayed surgery group regardless of single ACL injury or MLKI. The result of the meta-regression analysis indicated that single ACL injury and MLKI/study design were not significant moderators of overall heterogeneity (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that delayed ACL surgery significantly resulted in a higher risk of meniscus tear and cartilage injury and decreased Lysholm and Tegner scores compared to early ACL surgery. The Lysholm scores in the delayed MLKI surgery group were significantly decreased, but the risks of meniscus tear and cartilage injury in the delayed MLKI surgery group remained unclear.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, meta-analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43019-020-00086-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792064PMC
January 2021

Feasibility of arthroscopic decompression of the axillary nerve in the quadrilateral space: Cadaver study.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 02 14;107(1):102762. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologie, CHR de Versailles, hôpital André-Mignot, 177, rue de Versailles, 78150 Le Chesnay, France.

Introduction: Axillary nerve compression is a rare, but disabling condition. The three main causes are quadrilateral space syndrome among young athletes, compression due to an inferior glenohumeral osteophyte in early osteoarthritis and isolated teres minor atrophy secondary to triceps hypertrophy. The diagnosis is clinical, but may be reinforced by an electromyogram or corticosteroid injection. The usual surgical treatment is open nerve decompression using a posterior approach. Arthroscopy is a less invasive approach that should be useful in theory.

Hypothesis: Arthroscopic decompression of the axillary nerve is safe and less invasive than open techniques.

Material And Methods: Arthroscopic nerve decompression was performed as described by PJ Millet and TR Gaskill on 10 shoulders from 6 frozen cadavers. An open posterior approach was then made to verify the effectiveness of the nerve decompression.

Results: The axillary nerve and its branches, the circumflex artery and the triceps were always sufficiently released in the space below the joint capsule. When the joints were subsequently opened by a posterior approach, complete nerve decompression was confirmed in all cases with no iatrogenic lesions.

Discussion: The good results of this study are encouraging, but should be supplemented with a comparative study in patients of open versus arthroscopic axillary nerve release.

Conclusion: We think this arthroscopic technique is a good option for treating axillary nerve compressions. The complication risk is expected to be low.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2020.102762DOI Listing
February 2021

Functional outcome of osteochondral autograft is equivalent in stable knee and in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 04 14;107(2):102792. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Service de chirurgie orthopédique, centre hospitalier de Versailles, 177, rue de Versailles, 78150, Le Chesnay, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are associated in 10% to 20% of cases with extensive traumatic focal osteochondral damage. Ligament reconstruction may require osteochondral autograft for symptomatic osteochondral lesions. Combined ACL and chondral or osteochondral reconstruction is poorly evaluated in the literature; osteochondral reconstruction in stable knee better documented. The objective of this study was to compare functional results after osteochondral autograft transfer (OAT) for significant symptomatic femoral condyle defect, in stable or stabilised knees (concomitant ACL reconstruction). The hypothesis was that functional results are equivalent in both groups.

Material & Method: This was a single-centre retrospective comparative observational study of patients consecutively operated on between 2000 and 2018. Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups: Group 1 (OAT+ACL, n=13) and group 2 (OAT on stable knee, n=37). The following criteria were recorded at follow-up: pain (VAS), KOOS, IKDC and Lysholm scores and Hughston radiologic score, and time to return to sport. Mean follow-up was 79.7±60 months in group 1 and 86.4±62 months in group 2.

Results: Ten patients were included for analysis in group 1 and 30 in group 2. Cartilage lesion size was comparable between groups: 1.6±1.20 cm for group 1 and 2.3±1.3 cm for group 2 (ns). One complication (infection with favourable course) was observed in group 2. Sport was resumed at 8.7±2.7 vs. 8.4±3.3 months, respectively. Mean subjective scores were respectively 83.3±7.4 and 75.4±14 for Lysholm, 89.7±7.8 and 89.7±19.6 for KOOS, 78±13.7 and 72.2±12.9 for subjective IKDC, 0.5±0.5 and 0.8±0.9 for pain on VAS and 3 and 3 for radiological Hughston radiologic score, with no significant differences between groups.

Conclusion: Symptomatic focal osteochondral lesions treated by osteochondral autograft transfer gives the same outcome on stable or stabilised knee.

Level Of Evidence: IV; retrospective study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2020.102792DOI Listing
April 2021

Management of acute knee dislocation with vascular injury: the use of the external fixator. A systematic review.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2020 Nov 22. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Versailles Hospital, University of West Paris-St Quentin, Versailles-Paris, France.

Introduction: Vascular injuries after traumatic knee dislocation pose a potential limb threat for the patient. The benefits of external fixation have been described by many authors. However, the usefulness of the external fixator during acute management of knee dislocations with vascular injuries is a controversial aspect that has no consensus in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to provide data from the current literature on the utility of the external fixator and to investigate the percentage of knee dislocations with vascular injuries treated with an external fixator, the timing between external fixator and vascular repair, and the total time of external fixator.

Material And Methods: The present systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA checklist. MEDLINE (Pubmed), Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases were searched for articles from 1 January 2000 to 6 February 2019. Studies reporting outcomes of treatment of knee dislocations with vascular injuries were included. Exclusion criteria included studies investigating chronic knee dislocations, knee arthroplasties, editorials, case reports, and expert opinions. Two authors independently extracted data and appraised the quality of evidence and risk of bias using the Methodological quality and synthesis of case series and case reports.

Results: Descriptive statistics were used to report the outcome of our findings. Seven studies related to the usefulness of the external fixator during acute management of knee dislocations with vascular injuries were included. The external fixator had been used in the majority of knee dislocations with vascular lesions (72%). Timing between external fixator and vascular repair was reported on four studies (57%), two studies performed external fixation before vascular repair, and two studies performed external fixation after vascular repair. Total time of external fixator was only reported on three studies, ranging from 3 weeks to 3 months. These studies reported acute management, without referring to long-term results and without comparative groups.

Conclusions: External fixator was used in the majority of knee dislocations with vascular injuries but the justification for its use remained unclear. Larger studies are needed to fully understand the merit of the external fixator in knee dislocations with vascular injuries. Joint protocols between vascular surgeons and trauma surgeons are necessary to agree on the aspects related to the management of knee dislocations with vascular injuries.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-020-03684-0DOI Listing
November 2020

The posteromedial corner of the knee: an international expert consensus statement on diagnosis, classification, treatment, and rehabilitation.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2020 Oct 26. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Sydney Orthopaedic Research Institute, Sydney, Australia.

Purpose: To establish recommendations for diagnosis, classification, treatment, and rehabilitation of posteromedial corner (PMC) knee injuries using a modified Delphi technique.

Methods: A list of statements concerning the diagnosis, classification, treatment and rehabilitation of PMC injuries was created by a working group of four individuals. Using a modified Delphi technique, a group of 35 surgeons with expertise in PMC injuries was surveyed, on three occasions, to establish consensus on the inclusion or exclusion of each statement. Experts were encouraged to propose further suggestions or modifications following each round. Pre-defined criteria were used to refine item lists after each survey. The final document included statements reaching consensus in round three.

Results: Thirty-five experts had a 100% response rate for all three rounds. A total of 53 items achieved over 75% consensus. The overall rate of consensus was 82.8%. Statements pertaining to PMC reconstruction and those regarding the treatment of combined cruciate and PMC injuries reached 100% consensus. Consensus was reached for 85.7% of the statements on anatomy of the PMC, 90% for those relating to diagnosis, 70% relating to classification, 64.3% relating to the treatment of isolated PMC injuries, and 83.3% relating to rehabilitation after PMC reconstruction.

Conclusion: A modified Delphi technique was applied to generate an expert consensus statement concerning the diagnosis, classification, treatment, and rehabilitation practices for PMC injuries of the knee with high levels of expert agreement. Though the majority of statements pertaining to anatomy, diagnosis, and rehabilitation reached consensus, there remains inconsistency as to the optimal approach to treating isolated PMC injuries. Additionally, there is a need for improved PMC injury classification.

Level Of Evidence: Level V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06336-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586411PMC
October 2020

Total Knee Arthroplasty after Previous Ipsilateral Hip Arthroplasty Showed Lower Clinical Outcomes and Higher Leg Length Discrepancy Perception.

J Knee Surg 2020 Aug 24. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, South Korea.

The purpose of this study is to compare perception of leg length discrepancy (LLD) and clinical results of total knee arthroplasties (TKA) in patients with or without previous ipsilateral hip arthroplasty. Between 2008 and 2015, navigation-assisted TKA was performed in 43 patients with previous hip arthroplasty after hip fracture. After 1:3 propensity score matching was performed, 108 patients of primary navigation-assisted TKA (group 1) and 36 patients with hip arthroplasty (group 2) were included. Knee Society (KS) scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC) scores, and patients' satisfaction including perception of LLD were evaluated. Radiographic evaluation included mechanical axis, component position, and LLD. Logistic regression analysis was performed to find the factors that affect the clinical outcomes. No significant differences in radiologic and clinical evaluations, except for KS function score, patient's satisfaction and LLD (< 0.001), were detected between the groups. LLD and its perception were significantly higher in group 2 (1.8 ± 3.4 mm in group 1 and 9.7 ± 4.1 mm in group 2,  = 0.000). Risk factors for the low KS function score were found as LLD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.403,  = 0.008) and previous hip arthroplasty itself (OR: 15.755,  = 0.002), but much higher OR was found in previous hip arthroplasty. Although the outcomes of TKA in patients with ipsilateral hip arthroplasty are comparable to those of primary TKA, LLD was high and patient's satisfaction and functional outcomes were low in patients with previous ipsilateral hip arthroplasty. Care should be taken when considering TKA in patients with previous hip arthroplasty. This is a Level III, case control study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1715447DOI Listing
August 2020

Litigation in arthroscopic surgery: a 20-year analysis of legal actions in France.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 May 29;29(5):1651-1658. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, 177, rue de Versailles, 78157, Le Chesnay, France.

Purpose: The main objective of this study was to identify the epidemiological characteristics of litigation following arthroscopic procedures, performed in private practice and public hospitals in France. The secondary objective was to establish a risk profile for medical malpractice lawsuits after arthroscopic surgery.

Methods: All court decisions related to arthroscopic surgery between 1994 and 2020 were collected and reviewed cases from the two main French legal databases (Legifrance and Doctrine). Data were retrospectively collected and included: gender, joint and defendant's specialty involved, reason behind the lawsuit, initial indication and the type of arthroscopic procedure performed. The final verdicts as well as the indemnity awarded to the plaintiff (if any) were recorded.

Results: One-hundred eighty cases met the inclusion criteria of the study and were analyzed: 58 cases were before administrative courts and 122 were before civil courts. An orthopaedic surgeon was involved alone or in solidum in 45.6% of cases (82/180), followed by anesthesiologists in 5.6% (10/180). The private surgery center or public hospital were implicated in 63.9% (115/180) of cases. The 2 most common joints involved in litigation following arthroscopic surgery were the knee (82.2%, n = 148) and the shoulder (11.1%, n = 20). The main reasons behind the lawsuit were related to postoperative infection in 78/180 cases and to a musculoskeletal complication in 45/180 cases (25%). A failure to inform was also reported in 34/180 cases (18.9%). Of the 180 cases, 122 cases (67.8%) resulted in a verdict for the plaintiff. The average indemnity award for the plaintiff was 77.984 euros [2.282-1.117.667]. A verdict for the plaintiff was significantly associated with postoperative infection or a wrong-side surgery, while technical error and musculoskeletal complications were more significantly likely to result in a verdict in favor of the defendant (p = 0.003).

Conclusion: This study evaluated and mapped lawsuits following after arthroscopic surgery in France over a period of more than 20 years. The main joint involved in lawsuits was knee. The main causes of lawsuits following arthroscopic surgery were related to postoperative infection, musculoskeletal complications and failure to inform.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06182-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Predictive factors for failure of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction via the trans-tibial technique.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2020 Oct 11;140(10):1445-1457. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, 102 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, 06973, South Korea.

Introduction: Factors for graft failure after trans-tibial (TT) ACL reconstruction, including anterolateral ligament (ALL) injury and degree of synovialization, remain unclear. This study is to evaluate the risk factors for graft failures after TT ACL reconstruction including ALL injury and synovialization.

Materials And Methods: A total 391 patients who underwent primary TT ACL reconstruction were included. Failure was defined as greater than grade 2 laxity on the Lachman or pivot shift tests or 5 mm of anterior translation on stress radiograph. After applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 31 patients with failure were categorized as group 1 and 89 patients without failure were categorized as group 2. Chi-square test and Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed.

Results: Preoperatively, 64 patients had ALL injuries (53.3%), 58 had medial meniscal (MM) tears (48.3%), and 62 had lateral meniscal (LM) tears (51.6%). Ninety-three patients (77.5%) had acute injuries and 27 had chronic injuries as per 6-weeks duration. Significant risk factors for failure were LM tear (hazard ratio [HR], 4.018; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.677-9.629; p = 0.002), chronicity (HR, 6.812; 95% CI 2.758-16.824; p = 0.000), presence of ALL injury (HR, 3.655; 95% CI 1.442-9.265; p = 0.006), and poor synovialization (HR, 3.134; 95% CI 1.298-7.566; p = 0.011) in Cox proportional hazard analysis. If combined MM and LM tears were found, an increased risk of failure was also identified (combined tears: HR, 3.951; 95% CI 1.754-8.901; p = 0.001/preoperative high-grade laxity: HR, 4.546; 95% CI 1.875-11.02; p = 0.001).

Conclusion: Chronic ACL injuries, meniscus tear, preoperative ALL injuries, preoperative high-grade laxity and poor synovialization are significant risk factors. Therefore, these factors should be carefully assessed and properly treated in TT ACL reconstruction.

Level Of Evidence: IV, retrospective cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-020-03483-7DOI Listing
October 2020

Evaluation of the "Minimal Clinically Important Difference" (MCID) of the KOOS, KSS and SF-12 scores after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Mar 27;29(3):820-826. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Institute of Movement and Locomotion, St. Marguerite Hospital, 270 Boulevard Sainte Marguerite, BP 29, 13274, Marseille, France.

Purpose: Defining a Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) value for Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) is crucial for determining the effectiveness of a procedure and calculating the sample size for trial planning. The purpose of this study was to determine the MCID of several PROMs (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Knee Society Score (KSS) and the SF-12) in patients who underwent medial opening-wedge High-Tibial Osteotomy (owHTO) with Patient-Specific Cutting Guides (PSCGs), using anchor-based methods.

Methods: Patients undergoing isolated medial owHTO with PSCGs between January 2013 and January 2017 were enrolled in this single-center, prospective, observational study. Three outcome scores were collected pre-operatively and at the 2 years follow-up evaluation: KOOS, KSS and SF-12. The MCIDs were calculated using anchor-based method: at 2 years postoperatively: "Compared with before surgery, how would you rate operated joint now?" The responses were recorded using a five-point scale. Patients who answered "about the same" or "somewhat worse" were classified into the no change group, while those who answered "somewhat better" were classified into the minimal change group. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define the cutoff point that best discriminated between the minimal change and no change groups for each PROMs RESULTS: 196 patients were included, 75 (somewhat better) and 24 patients (about the same and somewhat worse) were, respectively, assigned to the "no change" and "minimal change" groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics and postoperative complications. At 24 months follow-up all the PROMs (KOOS, KSS and SF-12) were significantly better for the "minimal change" group compared to the "no change" group. MCID was 15.4 for KOOS pain, 15.1 for KOOS symptoms, 17 for KOOS ADL, 11.2 for KOOS sports/recreation, 16.5 for KOOS QQL, 3 for KSS symptoms, 5.6 for KSS activity, 7.2 for SF-12 physical component and 6.3 for PCS mental component.

Conclusion: This study determined the MCIDs of common used PROMs in patients undergoing owHTO.

Level Of Evidence: Prospective Cohort Study, Level II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06026-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Polyurethane Meniscal Scaffold for the Treatment of Partial Meniscal Deficiency: 5-Year Follow-up Outcomes: A European Multicentric Study.

Am J Sports Med 2020 May 8;48(6):1347-1355. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Investigation performed at the Orthopedic Department, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

Background: A biodegradable polyurethane scaffold was developed to treat patients with the challenging clinical condition of painful partial meniscal defects.

Hypothesis: The use of an acellular polyurethane scaffold in patients with symptomatic partial meniscal defects would result in both midterm pain relief and improved function.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: A total of 155 patients with symptomatic partial meniscal defects (101 medial and 54 lateral) were implanted with a polyurethane scaffold in a prospective, single-arm, multicentric study with a minimum 5-year follow-up. Clinical outcomes were measured with the visual analog scale for pain, International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee evaluation form, Lysholm knee scale, and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score at baseline and at 2- and 5-year follow-ups. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate the knee joint, meniscal implant, and meniscal extrusion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was also performed. Removal of the scaffold, conversion to a meniscal transplant, and unicompartmental/total knee arthroplasty were used as endpoints.

Results: Eighteen patients were lost to follow-up (11.6%). The patients who were included in this study showed significant clinical improvement after surgery as indicated by the different outcome measures ( = .01). However, the clinical improvement tended to stabilize between 2 and 5 years of follow-up. MRI scans of the scaffolds in 56 patients showed a smaller-sized implant in the majority of the cases when compared with the native meniscus with an irregular surface at the 5-year follow-up. During the follow-up period, 87.6% of the implants survived in this study. At 5 years of follow-up, 87.9% of the medial scaffolds were still functioning versus 86.9% of the lateral scaffolds. In total, 23 treatments had failed: 10 removed scaffolds because of breakage, 7 conversions to meniscal allograft transplantation, 4 conversions to unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, and 2 conversions to total knee arthroplasty.

Conclusion: The polyurethane meniscal implant was able to improve knee joint function and reduce pain in patients with segmental meniscal deficiency over 5 years after implantation. The MRI appearance of this scaffold was different from the original meniscal tissue at the midterm follow-up. The treatment survival rates of 87.9% of the medial scaffolds and 86.9% of the lateral scaffolds in the present study compared favorably with those published concerning meniscal allograft transplantation after total meniscectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520913528DOI Listing
May 2020

Repair of large condylar osteochondral defects of the knee by collagen scaffold. Minimum two-year outcomes.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2020 May 3;106(3):475-479. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Service de chirurgie orthopédique, hôpital André-Mignot, 177, rue de Versailles, 78150 Le Chesnay, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Collagen scaffolds are a good surgical option for covering large focal osteochondral defects in the knee. In the recent literature there is a wide range of patient profiles and chondral defect treatments (chondral and osteochondral defects, associated procedures, etc.). The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical and imaging outcomes with collagen scaffolds and to assess any correlation between medium-term clinical outcome and MRI features. The hypothesis was that there is no correlation between clinical outcome and MRI after 2 years postoperatively.

Material And Methods: A single-center retrospective observational study included all patients receiving a MaioRegen® scaffold for large painful focal osteochondral defect of the femoral condyle. There were 17 patients, with a mean age of 28±9 years. Defect locations comprised 12 medial femoral condyles, 4 lateral femoral condyles and 1 lateral tibial plateau. Mean defect area was 4.5±1.4cm. All patients were evaluated clinically and on KOOS and objective and subjective IKDC scales, with MRI at last follow-up.

Results: At a mean follow-up of 46±17 months, mean subjective IKDC was 67.8±23; KOOS scores were: symptoms, 78±22; pain, 78±23; function, 85±20; sports, 66±27; and activities of daily living, 59±25. MRI MOCART score revealed incomplete scaffold healing in 21.4% of cases, with variable signal intensity within regenerated tissue. Functional scores did not correlate with reconstruction aspect on MRI.

Discussion/conclusion: 3D collagen scaffolds yield good medium-term clinical outcomes in large osteochondral defects of the knee. There is, however, a discrepancy between MRI features of the recipient site and objective and subjective clinical scores. These scaffolds may be a good option for treating large focal osteochondral defects in knees of young patients, but MRI does not provide satisfactory medium-term assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2019.12.014DOI Listing
May 2020

Large variability exists in the management of posterolateral corner injuries in the global surgical community.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2020 Jul 1;28(7):2116-2123. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Purpose: The management of posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries has significantly evolved over the past 2 decades. The purpose of this study was to determine the current worldview of key concepts on the diagnosis, treatment strategy, and rehabilitation for patients presenting with PLC injuries.

Methods: A 12-question multiple-choice online survey was designed to address key questions in the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of PLC injuries. The survey was distributed to the most important international sports medicine societies worldwide. Clinical agreement was defined as > 80% of agreement in responses and general agreement was defined as > 60% of agreement in responses.

Results: 975 surgeons completed the survey with 49% from Europe, 21% from North America, 12% from Latin America, 12% from Asia, and smaller percentages from Africa and Oceania. Less than 14% of respondents manage more than ten PCL injuries yearly. Clinical agreement of > 80% was only evident in the use of MRI in the diagnosis of PLC injury. Responses for surgical treatment were split between isometric fibular-based reconstruction techniques and anatomically based fibular and tibial-based reconstructions. A general agreement of > 60% was present for the use of a post-operative brace in the early rehabilitation.

Conclusion: In the global surgical community, there remains a significant variability in the diagnosis, treatment, and postoperative management of PLC injuries. The number of PLC injuries treated yearly by most surgeons remains low. As global clinical consensus for PLC remains elusive, societies will need to play an important role in the dissemination of evidence-based practices for PLC injuries.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-05922-9DOI Listing
July 2020

Meniscal Allograft Transplantation With Soft-Tissue Fixation Including the Anterior Intermeniscal Ligament.

Arthrosc Tech 2020 Jan 24;9(1):e137-e142. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

Meniscal allograft transplantation has been introduced as a treatment for symptomatic meniscus-deficient patients to improve clinical outcomes. We describe an arthroscopic technique for meniscal allograft with soft-tissue fixation including the anterior intermeniscal ligament (AIML): arthroscopic double soft-tissue fixation technique. The AIML and anterior and posterior roots are detached and sutured using running locked Krackow stitches. After preparation of the meniscal bed, the meniscus is passed into the knee and the posterior meniscal horn is fixed with sutures through bone tunnels. The body of the meniscus is fixed with all-inside sutures. Then, the anterior meniscal suture is fixed on the anatomic point of the anterior root with an anchor. The AIML suture is fixed with an anchor to the bare area of the proximal tibia, anterior to the anterior cruciate ligament insertion. This reliable and reproducible technique is less complex than bone plug methods; it is less invasive but still provides stable and secure graft fixation. It will help surgeons to improve clinical results and to limit early secondary extrusion of the graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2019.09.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993485PMC
January 2020

Very long-term osteoarthritis rate after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 182 cases with 22-year' follow-up.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2020 05 1;106(3):459-463. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

56, rue Boissonade, 75014 Paris, France.

Background: Few data are available on the 20-year outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of knee osteoarthritis at least 20 years after ACL reconstruction.

Hypothesis: Factors associated with progression to knee osteoarthritis include meniscal lesions, level of physical activity, injury-to-surgery time, body mass index, residual laxity, tunnel position and cartilage injury.

Material And Methods: One hundred and eighty two patients were included in a multicentre retrospective study conducted in the setting of a SoFCOT symposium. Females contributed two-thirds of the study population. ACL reconstruction was performed arthroscopically in 82% of cases, and a bone-patellar tendon-bone transplant was used in 92.8% of cases. Mean age at surgery was 26±7years. Clinical outcomes were assessed based on the objective and subjective IKDC scores and on the KOOS. Radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis was classified according to the IKDC. Factors evaluated for their ability to predict progression to osteoarthritis included age, sex, body mass index, level of physical activity, injury-to-surgery time, meniscectomy, cartilage injury, tunnel position and residual laxity.

Results: At last follow-up, the objective IKDC score was A (normal) for 48%, B for 35%, and C or D for 17% of the knees. The mean subjective IKDC score was 82.7±13.1. Moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis was present in 29% of cases. The following risk factors for osteoarthritis were identified: medial or lateral meniscectomy, residual laxity, age >30years at surgery, and engaging in a pivoting sport. Meniscectomy was a major contributor to the development of osteoarthritis (17% of knees without vs. 46% with meniscectomy). Finally, the ACL re-tear rate was 13%.

Conclusion: ACL reconstruction provides satisfactory knee stability. The risk of subsequent osteoarthritis depends chiefly on the status of the menisci. Residual laxity is also associated with the development of osteoarthritis.

Level Of Evidence: IV, retrospective cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2019.09.034DOI Listing
May 2020

The use of an asymmetrical tibial tray in TKA optimises tibial rotation when fitted to the posterior tibial plateau border.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2020 Dec 31;28(12):3821-3826. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Service d'Orthopédie Traumatologie, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Hôpital André-Mignot, 78150, Le Chesnay, France.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of positioning an asymmetrical tibial tray relative to the posterior tibial edge and to analyse the relationship between the posterior fit and tibial rotation after computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It was hypothesised that an asymmetrical tray would adjust to the posterior border of the tibial plateau with proper tibial rotation.

Methods: Ninety-three consecutive knees underwent total knee arthroplasty using a Persona fixed-bearing system (63 varus deformities and 30 valgus deformities) and a 3-month follow-up CT scan. An independent examiner measured different variables: the femoral angle between the clinical epicondylar axis and the posterior condylar line of the femoral component, the tibial angle between the posterior borders of the tibial tray and the tibial plateau, and the tibial rotation with respect to the femoral component. These measurements were also compared between varus and valgus subgroups.

Results: For the varus and valgus subgroups, the mean postoperative femoral angle was 2.1º ± 1.2º and 2.5º ± 1.0º, respectively (n.s.). The mean posterior fitting angle of the tibial tray was 0.1º ± 2.4º and 1.4º ± 3.2º for the varus and valgus subgroups, respectively, with a significant difference between groups (p = 0.03). The tibial rotations with respect to the femoral component for the varus and valgus groups were 0.9º ± 3.3º and 2.2º ± 3.1º of external rotation, respectively (n.s.).

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that fitting an asymmetrical tibial tray to the posterior border of the tibial plateau could optimise tibial rotation. The posterior border was considered to be a reliable and easily identifiable landmark for proper tibial rotation and coverage during a primary TKA.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-05858-0DOI Listing
December 2020

Functional and anatomical outcomes of single-stage arthroscopic bimeniscal replacement.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2019 11 12;105(7):1383-1387. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique, centre hospitalier de Versailles, 78150 Le Chesnay, France. Electronic address:

Background: Meniscal replacement by an allograft or scaffold has been proven effective in patients with post-meniscectomy pain syndrome. Replacement of both menisci is a rarely performed procedure about which little is known. The primary objective of this work was to assess the functional outcomes of arthroscopic bimeniscal replacement. The secondary objectives were to evaluate meniscal healing and the time-course of cartilage lesions.

Hypothesis: Single-stage arthroscopic bimeniscal replacement provides good functional and anatomical outcomes, similar to those seen after replacement of a single meniscus, in adults with post-meniscectomy pain syndrome.

Material And Methods: Five patients received regular follow-up after single-stage arthroscopic bimeniscal replacement by an allograft and/or substitute, with or without concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 24-68 months). Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the knee obtained before surgery and at last follow-up were evaluated. The following parameters were recorded: KOOS and IKDC score, knee osteoarthritis, knee alignment, condition of the cartilage, healing of the meniscal replacement material, meniscal extrusion, and other complications.

Results: Allografts were used to replace both menisci in 3 patients, whereas 2 patients received a lateral allograft and a medial scaffold. The median subjective IKDC score was 83.9 (range, 55.1-94.3) and the median objective IKDC score was B (range, A-C). The median global KOOS was 85.7 (range, 65.7-92.3). Extrusion occurred for one medial and two lateral menisci.

Conclusion: Bimeniscal replacement by an allograft and/or substitute provides good short-term functional and anatomical outcomes. Nevertheless, this procedure is warranted only in highly selected patients.

Level Of Evidence: IV, retrospective study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2019.08.010DOI Listing
November 2019

Multiligament knee injuries treated by one-stage reconstruction using allograft: Postoperative laxity assessment using stress radiography and clinical outcomes.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2020 Sep 4;106(5):937-944. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Orthopedic Department, centre hospitalier de Versailles, Versailles-Saint Quentin University, 177, rue de Versailles, 78157 Le Chesnay, France. Electronic address:

Background: Surgical treatment of multiligament knee injuries (MLKIs) leads to better outcomes but there are controversies about optimal surgical strategies. Debates remain about timing of surgery: acute, staged or delayed and about graft choice: autograft, allograft or a combination of both. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study aiming to evaluate postoperative laxity using stress radiographs and clinical outcomes after one-stage reconstructions of injured ligaments using non-irradiated, fresh-frozen allografts.

Hypothesis: MLKIs treated by one-stage reconstructions using non-irradiated, fresh-frozen allograft may lead to satisfactorily postoperative laxity and clinical outcomes.

Methods: Between November 2013 and July 2015, 23 patients with MLKIs underwent one-stage reconstruction using allograft. Knee injuries were defined according Schenk classification of Knee Dislocation (KD). Patients were evaluated using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale, and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form at a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Postoperative anterior, posterior, varus, and valgus laxities were assessed using stress radiographs and expressed as side-to-side differences (SSD) in millimeters.

Results: Three of 23 patients were lost to follow-up. There were 6 KD-I, 12 KD-III, and 2 KD-IV lesions, 12 lateral-side and 10 medial-side lesions, and 13 acute and 7 chronic cases. Three patients had associated neurovascular injuries. Mean follow-up was at 29.4±6.1 months. Mean valgus SSD was 0.2mm±1.4mm (range, -2.1-2.2mm), mean varus SSD was 1.4mm±2.5mm (range, -1.7-6.0mm), mean posterior SSD was 7.2mm±3.9mm (range, 1.2-16.0mm), mean anterior SSD was 3.6mm±5.1mm (range, -4.8-16.8mm). Overall IKDC ratings were: 4 grade A, 3B, 7C, and 6D. Three patients complained of postoperative instability, with an IKDC rating of D. The mean subjective IKDC score was 67.2±19.6, the mean Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale was 77.3±16.5, and the mean KOOS results were 78.5±16.6 for pain, 67.7±17.4 for symptoms, 86.5±14.2 for daily activities, 56±25.4 for sports, and 47.2±28.6 for quality of life. Nineteen of 20 patients returned to sport-6 to the same level. One patient underwent an arthroscopic arthrolysis due to postoperative arthrofibrosis.

Conclusions: Using non-irradiated allografts for one-stage reconstructions of all the injured ligaments in MLKIs is effective and safe. Anteroposterior stability was difficult to restore, but patients returned to their daily activities and sometimes to their sports activity at the same preinjury level.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2019.08.001DOI Listing
September 2020

Analysis of the trends in arthroscopic meniscectomy and meniscus repair procedures in France from 2005 to 2017.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2019 06 23;105(4):677-682. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sainte-Marguerite Hospital, AP-HM, institut du mouvement et de l'appareil locomoteur, 13009 Marseille, France; CNRS, IMS UMR 7287, Aix-Marseille University, 13009 Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: In 2008, the French National Authority for Health (HAS) recommended that "conservative" treatments be adopted for meniscal lesions. This recommendation and the lack of superiority of meniscectomy over non-operative treatment for meniscus degeneration have modified the treatment pathway. However, the impact of these findings on French clinical practice is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the change over time in the number of alternative surgical procedures (meniscectomy and meniscus repair) and regional variation in France using data from the French agency for information on hospital care (ATIH).

Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the number of meniscectomy procedures will decrease, and the number of repair procedures will increase over time at various healthcare facilities.

Patients And Methods: Between 2005 and 2017, the number of hospitalizations in the Medicine-Surgery-Obstetrics wards for meniscectomy (NFFC003 and NFCC004) or meniscus repair (NFEC001 and NFEC002) was evaluated overall and then based on whether the stay occurred in public or private sector hospitals in France. Data were extracted from the ATIH database and the findings were (1) related to French demographics during the period in question; (2) separated into public or private sector hospitals; (3) distributed into various regions in France and; (4) stratified by patient age.

Results: Between 2005 and 2017, 1,564,461 meniscectomy and 63,142 meniscus repair procedures were done in France. Over this period in the entire country, the meniscectomy rate gradually decreased from 19.80/10,000 inhabitants in 2005 to 15.77/10,000 inhabitants in 2017 (21.4% reduction) (p<0.0001) while the meniscus repair rate increased from 0.42/10,000 inhabitants in 2005 to 1.36/10,000 inhabitants in 2017 (320% increase) (p<0.0001). The largest meniscectomy reduction effort occurred in private sector hospitals, going from 15.79 to 12.01/10,000 inhabitants in 12 years; the decrease was smaller in public hospitals (going from 4.01 to 3.77/10,000 inhabitants) (p<0.0001 in both cases). The change in the procedure ratio between private and public hospitals was asymmetric, with the meniscus repair/meniscectomy ratio clearly increasing more in public hospitals (4% to 12.6%) between 2005 and 2017 than in private hospitals (1.6% to 6.6%) (p<0.0001). We found large regional differences: regions in Eastern France had higher meniscectomy rates, while regions in Western France had higher meniscus repair rates. When the analysis of procedures between 2008 and 2017 was stratified by age, a similar increase in repair procedures was found in all age brackets. Conversely, the reduction in meniscectomy was most apparent before 40 years of age, and the number of meniscectomy procedures was stable after 60 years of age.

Conclusion: These findings suggest there has been a significant shift in the surgical management of meniscal injuries towards more conservative treatments. But the large variations between regions in France is evidence of a continued disparity in clinical practices.

Level Of Evidence: IV, retrospective study without control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2019.01.024DOI Listing
June 2019

Save the meniscus again!

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2019 Feb 10;27(2):341-342. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Orthopaedic Department, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, 177, rue de Versailles, 78157, Le Chesnay, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-018-5325-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Posterolateral corner of the knee: an expert consensus statement on diagnosis, classification, treatment, and rehabilitation.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2019 Aug 26;27(8):2520-2529. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital de la Sta Creu i Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: To develop a statement on the diagnosis, classification, treatment, and rehabilitation concepts of posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries of the knee using a modified Delphi technique.

Methods: A working group of three individuals generated a list of statements relating to the diagnosis, classification, treatment, and rehabilitation of PLC injuries to form the basis of an initial survey for rating by an international group of experts. The PLC expert group (composed of 27 experts throughout the world) was surveyed on three occasions to establish consensus on the inclusion/exclusion of each item. In addition to rating agreement, experts were invited to propose further items for inclusion or to suggest modifications of existing items at each round. Pre-defined criteria were used to refine item lists after each survey. Statements reaching consensus in round three were included within the final consensus document.

Results: Twenty-seven experts (100% response rate) completed three rounds of surveys. After three rounds, 29 items achieved consensus with over 75% agreement and less than 5% disagreement. Consensus was reached in 92% of the statements relating to diagnosis of PLC injuries, 100% relating to classification, 70% relating to treatment and in 88% of items relating to rehabilitation statements, with an overall consensus of 81%.

Conclusions: This study has established a consensus statement relating to the diagnosis, classification, treatment, and rehabilitation of PLC injuries. Further research is needed to develop updated classification systems, and better understand the role of non-invasive and minimally invasive approaches along with standardized rehabilitation protocols.

Level Of Evidence: Consensus of expert opinion, Level V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-018-5260-4DOI Listing
August 2019

Meniscal repair associated with a partial meniscectomy for treating complex horizontal cleavage tears in young patients may lead to excellent long-term outcomes.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2019 Feb 22;27(2):343-348. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Orthopaedic Department, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, 177, rue de Versailles, 78157, Le Chesnay, France.

Introduction: While open repair of horizontal meniscal tears in young active patients has shown good results at mid- and long-term follow-up, complex horizontal tears (cleavage associated with meniscal flaps) are often treated by arthroscopic subtotal meniscectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes after arthroscopic removal of meniscal flaps associated with an open meniscal repair for treating complex lesions in young active patients. The hypothesis was that this salvage procedure would be efficient in such rare cases.

Methods: Fourteen patients underwent an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy associated with an open meniscal repair to treat a painful complex horizontal meniscal cleavage between 2005 and 2010. There were two females and 12 males with a median age of 28.4 years (range 15-48 years). Patients were assessed by KOOS and IKDC scores, return to sport and the need for a secondary meniscectomy.

Results: Thirty patients were evaluated at a median follow-up of 8.5 years (range 7-12 years). One patient required revision of a partial meniscectomy and one other a meniscal replacement (15% failure rate). All other patients showed improvement with regard to their symptoms and returned to sports, ten (91%) of them at the same level. The mean IKDC subjective score was 86.1 (± 10.9). The mean KOOS scores were: pain 91.4 (± 7.5), symptoms 91.4 (± 10.2), daily activity 97.1 (± 4), sports 84.4 (± 20.7) and quality of life 84 (± 14.2). For six patients, scores at median follow-up of 2.6 years were available and compared to newly obtained data. IKDC score at 8.6 years follow-up was not significantly different. KOOS scores for daily activity and sports were maintained.

Conclusions: Even in the presence of a complex lesion, horizontal cleavage can be repaired in young patients with good subjective and objective outcomes and a low rate of long-term failure as with other meniscal lesions in young active patients.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-018-5219-5DOI Listing
February 2019

MRI study of the ligamentization of ACL grafts in children with open growth plates.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2018 12 10;104(8S):S161-S167. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

15 rue Ampère, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, France.

Introduction: There is little published information on the ligamentization of pediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) grafts. The aims of our study were to compare the MRI appearance of ACL grafts performed in a population with open growth plates to normal ACLs in adolescents and to determine whether the MRI signal in the grafts at 6 months could predict a retear. We hypothesized that ligamentization was a slow, gradual process.

Material And Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study of 100 ACL grafts (quadriceps tendon, hamstring tendon, fascia lata) in children 7 to 16 years of age. Of these, 65 intact grafts underwent one or more MRI examinations between 6 months and 2 years postoperative. MRI images were also analyzed in 7 patients who suffered a retear and in the intact ACL of 20 adolescents (15 to 18 years of age). The other 28 patients did not undergo an MRI during the postoperative phase. For each MRI, the signal-to-noise quotient (SNQ) was calculated in three different areas in the ACL (proximal, middle, distal) along with the Howell intra-articular and intra-tibial grades from I to IV. The Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Student's t-test were used to compare groups. The Lin concordance correlation coefficients were calculated for inter-rater consistency.

Results: There was a difference in the SNQ between the three zones of a normal ACL. Most were Howell grade III (55% Howell III, 25% Howell II and 20% Howell I). For intact grafts, the SNQ improved significantly between 6 and 12 months and between 6 and 24 months. There was no difference in the SNQ between the three zones independent of the postoperative time point. The intra-articular Howell grade improved significantly between 6 and 24 months and between 12 and 24 months. The intra-tibial Howell grade improved significantly between 12 and 24 months. There were no significant differences between patients with intact grafts and those who suffered a retear. There were no differences between the various types of grafts used.

Conclusion: Normal ACLs in adolescents have inhomogeneous SNQ and Howell grades. The SNQ and Howell grades in ACL grafts are more homogeneous and continue to improve out to 2 years, but do not reach that of a normal ACL. The signal and appearance of an ACL graft and normal ACL are very different, and the MRI signal at 6 months postoperative is not predictive of retear.

Level Of Evidence: III, prospective study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2018.09.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Sectioning of the Anterior Intermeniscal Ligament Changes Knee Loading Mechanics.

Arthroscopy 2018 10 19;34(10):2837-2843. Epub 2018 May 19.

Service d'orthopédie et de traumatologie, centre hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

Purpose: The purpose of this cadaver research project was to describe the biomechanical consequences of anterior intermeniscal ligament (AIML) resection on menisci function under load conditions in full extension and 60° of flexion.

Methods: Ten unpaired fresh frozen cadaveric knees were dissected leaving the knee joint intact with its capsular and ligamentous attachments. The femur and tibia were sectioned 15 cm from the joint line and mounted onto the loading platform. A linear motion x-y table allows the tibial part of the joint to freely translate in the anterior-posterior direction. K-scan sensors were used to define contact area, contact pressure, and position of pressure center of application (PCOA). Two series of analysis were planned: before and after AIML resection, mechanical testing was performed with specimens in full extension (1,400 N load) and in 60° of flexion (700 N load) to approximate heel strike and foot impulsion during the gait.

Results: Sectioning of the AIML produced mechanical variations below the 2 menisci when specimens were at full extension and loaded to 1,400 N: increasing the mean contact pressure (delta 0.4 ± 0.2 MPa, +15% variation P = .008) and maximum contact pressure (delta 1.50 ± 0.8 MPa, 15% variation P < .0001) and decreasing of tibiofemoral contact area (delta 71 ± 51 mm, -15% variation P < .0001) and PCOA (delta 2.1 ± 0.8 mm). At 60° flexion, significant differences regarding lateral meniscus mechanical parameters were observed before and after AIML resection: mean contact pressure increasing (delta 0.06 ± 0.1 MPa, +21% variation P = .001), maximal contact-pressure increasing (delta 0.17 ± 0.9 MPa, +28% variation P = .001), mean contact area decreasing (delta 1.84 ± 8 mm, 4% variation P = .3), and PCOA displacement to the joint center (mean displacement 0.6 ± 0.5 mm).

Conclusions: The section of the intermeniscal ligament leads to substantial changes in knee biomechanics, increasing femorotibial contact pressures, decreasing contact areas, and finally moving force center of application, which becomes more central inside the joint.

Clinical Relevance: AIML resection performed ex vivo in this study, might potentially be deleterious in vivo. Clinical studies focusing on preserving or even repairing the AIML are needed to evaluate those ex vivo elements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2018.03.007DOI Listing
October 2018

The Role of Healthcare Chaplains in Resuscitation: A Rapid Literature Review.

J Relig Health 2018 Jun;57(3):1183-1195

Laval University, Quebec, Canada.

Spirituality is becoming of increasing importance in the international healthcare context. While patients' spirituality or faith is often overlooked, there is a growing awareness that understanding, addressing and supporting patients' spiritual and faith needs can influence healthcare outcomes. This review aims to illuminate this role and highlight healthcare chaplains' potential in relation to the provision of pastoral support for families during and after patient resuscitation, and the dearth of interdisciplinary education in this field. A rapid structured review was undertaken using four databases-PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ATLA. Primary research studies published during the 10-year period 2007-2017 written in English addressing the chaplain's role or perceived role in resuscitation were included. An initial search using key terms yielded 18 relevant citations. This reduced to 11 once duplicates were removed. Ultimately five relevant primary research studies were included in the final analysis. This review found few studies that directly explored the topic. Certainly many view the chaplain as a key member of the resuscitation team, although this role has not been fully explored. Chaplains likely have a key role in supporting families during decisions about 'not for resuscitation' and in supporting families during and after resuscitation procedures. Chaplains are key personnel, already employed in many healthcare organisations, who are in a pivotal position to contribute to future developments of spiritual and pastoral care provision and support. Their role at the end of life, despite well described and supported, has received little empirical support. There is an emerging role for chaplains in healthcare ethics, supporting end-of-life decisions and supporting family witnessed resuscitation where relevant. Their role needs to be more clearly understood by medical staff, and chaplain's input into undergraduate medical education programmes is becoming vital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-018-0604-4DOI Listing
June 2018

Prospective comparative study of knee laxity with four different methods in anterior cruciate ligament tears.

Int Orthop 2018 08 2;42(8):1845-1851. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, 78150, Le Chesnay, France.

Background And Purpose: Anterior knee laxity can be evaluated using different devices, the most commonly used being the Telos®, KT1000®, Rolimeter®, and GNRB®. However, the laxity values obtained with these devices have never been compared to one another. As such, the outcomes of studies using these different knee laxity measurement devices may not be comparable. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the side-to-side laxity difference in patients with one ACL-injured knee, using each of these devices, and to compare the values obtained from each. We hypothesized that the measurements of laxity would vary depending on the device used.

Methods: This was a prospective study. All patients with an ACL injury, in which surgical reconstruction was planned, underwent pre-operative knee laxity measurements using four different devices. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of the results was compared between the four devices.

Results: The study enrolled 52 patients. With regard to the values of the side-to-side differences, the KT1000® and the GNRB® obtained the most similar values (CCC = 0.51, 95% CI 0.37-0.63). The two devices with the lowest correlation were the Telos® and the Rolimeter® (CCC = 0.04, 95% CI - 0.14-0.23). The comparability was considered average for the KT1000® and GNRB® and poor for the other devices.

Conclusions: The knee laxity devices used in regular practice are not comparable to one another. As a result, caution must be taken when comparing results from studies using these different devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-018-3791-4DOI Listing
August 2018

Torsional Appearance of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Explaining "Ribbon" and Double-Bundle Concepts: A Cadaver-based Study.

Arthroscopy 2017 Sep;33(9):1703-1709

Service d'Orthopédie Traumatologie, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Hôpital André Mignot, Le Chesnay, France.

Purpose: To investigate the effect of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) torsion in 90° knee flexion on the morphological appearance of the ACL.

Methods: Sixty knees from fresh frozen anatomical specimens were dissected. Eighteen knees were excluded according to selection criteria (torn ACL, mucoid degeneration of the ACL, arthritic lesions of the notch, or knees harboring synovial inflammatory pathologies). After the removal of the synovial membrane, the morphology of the ligamentous fibers of the ACL and the twist were analyzed. Twisting of the ACL was measured using a goniometer in 90° knee flexion and defined by the angle of external rotation of the femur on the axis of the tibia required to visualize a flat ACL. The orientation of tibial and femoral footprint was described in a coronal plane for the tibia and a sagittal plane for the femur.

Results: In the 42 knees that were finally included, the ACL was always displayed as a single ribbon-like structure. The torsion of the fibers was on average 83.6° (± 9.4°) in 90° knee flexion. The twisting could be explained by the different orientations of the femoral (vertical in a sagittal plane) and tibial (horizontal in a coronal plane) footprints. An intraligamentous proximal cleavage area was encountered in 11 cases (i.e., 26%).

Conclusions: The ACL is a twisted structure with 83.6° of external torsion of fibers in 90° knee flexion. It is the torsion in the fibers, due to the relative position of bone insertions, which gives the ACL the appearance of being double bundle.

Clinical Relevance: The concept of the torsional flat structure of the native ACL may be of importance during ACL reconstruction, both in terms of graft choice (flat rather than cylindrical) and of technical positioning (torsion).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2017.03.019DOI Listing
September 2017

Knee, ankle, shoulder: Management of periarticular and ligament lesions

Rev Prat 2017 Sep;67(7):e346

Service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique, hôpital André-Mignot, Centre hospitalier de Versailles, 78150 Le Chesnay.

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September 2017
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