Publications by authors named "Nicolas Gendron"

42 Publications

Lupus anticoagulant single positivity at acute phase is not associated with venous thromboembolism or in-hospital mortality in COVID-19.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Université de Paris, Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM, F-75006 Paris, France, Respiratory Medicine Department and Biosurgical Research Lab (Carpentier Foundation), Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris-Centre (APHP-CUP), F-75015, Paris, France.

Introduction: Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) clinical relevance in COVID-19 is controversial. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of conventional and non-conventional APA in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: This study was a multi-centric, prospective observational French cohort of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 suspicion.

Results: 249 patients were hospitalized for suspected COVID-19, including 154 with confirmed COVID-19 and 95 not confirmed. We found a significant increase in lupus anticoagulant (LA) positivity among COVID-19 positive patients (60.9% versus 23.7% in non-COVID19 patients, p<0.001), while prevalence of conventional (anti-cardiolipin and anti-beta-2-GP1, IgG and IgM isotypes) and non-conventional APA (IgA, anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin and anti-prothrombin IgG and IgM) were low in both groups. COVID-19 patients with LA positivity had higher levels of fibrinogen (6.0 IQR 5.0-7.0 versus 5.3 g/L IQR 4.3-6.4, p=0.028) and C-reactive protein (CRP, 115.5 IQR 66.0-204.8 versus 91.8 mg/L IQR 27.0-155.1, p=0.019). Univariate analysis did not show any association between LA positivity and higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE, OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.44-2.43, p=0.95) or in-hospital mortality (OR 1.80, 95% CI 0.70-5.05, p=0.24). Unadjusted and adjusted (to CRP, age and sex) Kaplan-Meier survival curves according to LA positivity confirmed the absence of association with VTE or in-hospital mortality (unadjusted: p=0.64 and p=0.26, respectively; adjusted: hazard ratio = 1.13 95% CI 0.48-2.60 and 1.80 95% CI 0.67-5.01).

Conclusions: COVID-19 patients have an increased prevalence of LA positivity associated with biological inflammation markers. However, positive LA at admission is not associated with VTE risk and/or in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41777DOI Listing
April 2021

D-dimer at hospital admission for COVID-19 are associated with in-hospital mortality, independent of venous thromboembolism: Insights from a French multicenter cohort study.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Université de Paris, PARCC, INSERM, 75015 Paris, France.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with coagulation disorders, in particular high concentrations of D-dimer, and increased frequency of venous thromboembolism.

Aim: To explore the association between D-dimer at admission and in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalised for COVID-19, with or without symptomatic venous thromboembolism.

Methods: From 26 February to 20 April 2020, D-dimer concentration at admission and outcomes (in-hospital mortality and venous thromboembolism) of patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in medical wards were retrospectively analysed in a multicenter study in 24 French hospitals.

Results: Among 2878 patients enrolled in the study, 1154 (40.1%) patients had D-dimer measurement at admission. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL as the best cut-off value for in-hospital mortality (area under the curve 64.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 60-69), with a sensitivity of 71.1% (95% CI 62-78) and a specificity of 55.6% (95% CI 52-58), which did not differ in the subgroup of patients with venous thromboembolism during hospitalisation. Among 545 (47.2%) patients with D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL at admission, 86 (15.8%) deaths occurred during hospitalisation. After adjustment, in Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models, D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL at admission was also associated with a worse prognosis, with an odds ratio of 3.07 (95% CI 2.05-4.69; P<0.001) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.11 (95% CI 1.31-3.4; P<0.01).

Conclusions: D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL is a relevant predictive factor for in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in a medical ward, regardless of the occurrence of venous thromboembolism during hospitalisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2021.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7942155PMC
March 2021

Placental growth factor level in plasma predicts COVID-19 severity and in-hospital mortality.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Université de Paris, PARCC, INSERM, F-75015, Paris, France.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease associated with vascular inflammation and endothelial injury.

Objectives: Correlate circulating angiogenic markers VEGF-A, PlGF and FGF-2 to in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 adult patients.

Methods: Consecutive ambulatory and hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection were enrolled. VEGF-A, PlGF and FGF-2 were measured in each patient ≤48 h following admission.

Results: Study enrolled 237 patients with suspected COVID-19: 208 patients had a positive diagnostic for COVID-19 of whom 23 were mild outpatients and 185 patients hospitalized after admission. Levels of VEGF-A, PlGF and FGF-2 significantly increase with the severity of the disease (p<0.001). Using a logistic regression model we found a significant association between the increase of FGF-2 or PlGF and mortality (OR 1.11, 95% CI [1.07-1.16], p<0.001 for FGF-2 and OR 1.07 95% CI [1.04-1.10], p<0.001 for PlGF) while no association were found for VEGF-A levels. ROC curve analysis was performed and we identified PlGF above 30 pg/mL as the best predictor of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Survival analysis for PlGF confirmed its interest for in-hospital mortality prediction, by using a Kaplan-Meier survival curves (p=0.001) and a Cox proportional hazard model adjusted to age, body mass index, D-dimer and CRP (3.23 95% CI [1.29-8.11], p=0.001).

Conclusion: Angiogenic factor PlGF is a relevant predictive factor for in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. More than a biomarker, we hypothesize that PlGF blocking strategies could be a new interesting therapeutic approach in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15339DOI Listing
April 2021

Appropriate Use of Idarucizumab for Dabigatran Reversal According to the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis and French Working Group on Perioperative Hemostasis: A French Retrospective Study.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Université de Paris, Innovative Therapies in Hemostasis, INSERM; Hematology Department and Biosurgical Research Lab, (Carpentier Foundation) Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Centre-Université de Paris (APHP-CUP), 75015, Paris, France; F-CRIN INNOVTE, Saint-Étienne, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2021.02.029DOI Listing
February 2021

Do Endothelial Colony-forming Cells Come From Bone Marrow or Vessels/VSELs?

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Innovative Therapies in Hemostasis, Université de Paris, INSERM, F-75006, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-021-10140-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Anticoagulation Before Hospitalization Is a Potential Protective Factor for COVID-19: Insight From a French Multicenter Cohort Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 04 8;10(8):e018624. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

PARCC INSERM Université de Paris France.

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease associated with thrombotic outcomes with coagulation and endothelial disorders. Based on that, several anticoagulation guidelines have been proposed. We aimed to determine whether anticoagulation therapy modifies the risk of developing severe COVID-19. Methods and Results Patients with COVID-19 initially admitted in medical wards of 24 French hospitals were included prospectively from February 26 to April 20, 2020. We used a Poisson regression model, Cox proportional hazard model, and matched propensity score to assess the effect of anticoagulation on outcomes (intensive care unit admission or in-hospital mortality). The study enrolled 2878 patients with COVID-19, among whom 382 (13.2%) were treated with oral anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization. After adjustment, anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization was associated with a better prognosis with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55-0.88). Analyses performed using propensity score matching confirmed that anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization was associated with a better prognosis, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.29-0.63) for intensive care unit admission and adjusted hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.98) for composite criteria intensive care unit admission or death. In contrast, therapeutic or prophylactic low- or high-dose anticoagulation started during hospitalization were not associated with any of the outcomes. Conclusions Anticoagulation therapy used before hospitalization in medical wards was associated with a better prognosis in contrast with anticoagulation initiated during hospitalization. Anticoagulation therapy introduced in early disease could better prevent COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and endotheliopathy, and lead to a better prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018624DOI Listing
April 2021

Circulating Von Willebrand factor and high molecular weight multimers as markers of endothelial injury predict COVID-19 in-hospital mortality.

Angiogenesis 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Université de Paris, Institut Cochin, INSERM, 75014 Paris, France, Hematology Department Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris. Centre-Université de Paris (APHP-CUP), Cochin Hospital, 75014, Paris, France.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease associated with endotheliitis and microthrombosis.

Objectives: To correlate endothelial dysfunction to in-hospital mortality in a bi-centric cohort of COVID-19 adult patients.

Methods: Consecutive ambulatory and hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled. A panel of endothelial biomarkers and von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers were measured in each patient ≤ 48 h following admission.

Results: Study enrolled 208 COVID-19 patients of whom 23 were mild outpatients and 189 patients hospitalized after admission. Most of endothelial biomarkers tested were found increased in the 89 critical patients transferred to intensive care unit. However, only von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) scaled according to clinical severity, with levels significantly higher in critical patients (median 507%, IQR 428-596) compared to non-critical patients (288%, 230-350, p < 0.0001) or COVID-19 outpatients (144%, 133-198, p = 0.007). Moreover, VWF high molecular weight multimers (HMWM) were significantly higher in critical patients (median ratio 1.18, IQR 0.86-1.09) compared to non-critical patients (0.96, 1.04-1.39, p < 0.001). Among all endothelial biomarkers measured, ROC curve analysis identified a VWF:Ag cut-off of 423% as the best predictor for in-hospital mortality. The accuracy of VWF:Ag was further confirmed in a Kaplan-Meier estimator analysis and a Cox proportional Hazard model adjusted on age, BMI, C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels.

Conclusion: VWF:Ag is a relevant predictive factor for in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. More than a biomarker, we hypothesize that VWF, including excess of HMWM forms, drives microthrombosis in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10456-020-09762-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809553PMC
January 2021

Dabigatran Level Before Reversal Can Predict Hemostatic Effectiveness of Idarucizumab in a Real-World Setting.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 16;7:599626. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Université de Paris, Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM, Paris, France.

Idarucizumab has been included in guidelines for the management of bleeding or surgical procedure in dabigatran-treated patients without need for biological monitoring. The aim of the study was to assess the prognostic value of dabigatran plasma level before reversal to test the hemostatic efficacy of idarucizumab. The secondary objectives were (i) to analyze plasma dabigatran level according to the risk of rebound and (ii) to evaluate the incidence of post-reversal non-favorable clinical outcomes (including thromboembolism, bleeding, antithrombotic, and death) and antithrombotic resumption. This was an observational multicentric cohort study, which included all French patients who required idarucizumab for dabigatran reversal. Between May 2016 and April 2019, 87 patients from 21 French centers were enrolled. Patients received idarucizumab for overt bleeding ( = 61), urgent procedures ( = 24), or overdose without bleeding ( = 2). Among patients with major bleeding ( = 57), treatment with idarucizumab was considered effective in 44 (77.2%) of them. Patients who did not achieve effective hemostasis after reversal had a significantly higher mean level of plasma dabigatran at baseline (524.5 ± 386 vs. 252.8 ng/mL ± 235, = 0.033). Furthermore, patients who did not achieve effective hemostasis after reversal had less favorable outcomes during follow-up (46.2 vs. 81.8%, = 0.027). ROC curve identified a cutoff of 264 ng/mL for dabigatran level at admission to be predictive of ineffective hemostasis. No plasma dabigatran rebound was observed after reversal in patients with dabigatran plasma level < 264 ng/mL at baseline. This retrospective study shows that dabigatran level before reversal could predict hemostatic effectiveness and dabigatran plasma rebound after idarucizumab injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.599626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772865PMC
December 2020

Predictive Factor for COVID-19 Worsening: Insights for High-Sensitivity Troponin and D-Dimer and Correlation With Right Ventricular Afterload.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 12;7:586307. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with cardiovascular complications and coagulation disorders. To explore clinical and biological parameters of COVID-19 patients with hospitalization criteria that could predict referral to intensive care unit (ICU). Analyzing the clinical and biological profiles of COVID-19 patients at admission. Among 99 consecutive patients that fulfilled criteria for hospitalization, 48 were hospitalized in the medicine department, 21 were first admitted to the medicine ward department and referred later to ICU, and 30 were directly admitted to ICU from the emergency department. At admission, patients requiring ICU were more likely to have lymphopenia, decreased SpO, a D-dimer level above 1,000 ng/mL, and a higher high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (Hs-cTnI) level. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified Hs-cTnI above 9.75 pg/mL as the best predictive criteria for ICU referral [area under the curve (AUC), 86.4; 95% CI, 76.6-96.2]. This cutoff for Hs-cTnI was confirmed in univariate [odds ratio (OR), 22.8; 95% CI, 6.0-116.2] and multivariate analysis after adjustment for D-dimer level (adjusted OR, 20.85; 95% CI, 4.76-128.4). Transthoracic echocardiography parameters subsequently measured in 72 patients showed an increased right ventricular (RV) afterload correlated with Hs-cTnI ( = 0.42, = 0.010) and D-dimer ( = 0.18, = 0.047). Hs-cTnI appears to be the best relevant predictive factor for referring COVID-19 patients to ICU. This result associated with the correlation of D-dimer with RV dilatation probably reflects a myocardial injury due to an increased RV wall tension. This reinforces the hypothesis of a COVID-19-associated microvascular thrombosis inducing a higher RV afterload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.586307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689153PMC
November 2020

Multidimensional Proteomic Approach of Endothelial Progenitors Demonstrate Expression of KDR Restricted to CD19 Cells.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 04 17;17(2):639-651. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM, Université de Paris, F-75006, Paris, France.

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in vasculogenesis and cardiovascular diseases. However, the phenotype of circulating EPCs remains elusive but they are more often described as CD34KDR. The aim of the study was to extensively characterize circulating potential vasculogenic stem cell candidates in two populations of patients with cardiovascular disease by powerful multidimensional single cell complementary cytometric approaches (mass, imaging and flow). We identified cellular candidates in one patient before and after bioprosthetic total artificial heart implantation and results were confirmed in healthy peripheral and cord blood by mass cytometry. We also quantified cellular candidates in 10 patients with different COVID-19 severity. Both C-TAH implantation and COVID-19 at critical stage induce a redistribution of circulating CD34 and CD19 sub-populations in peripheral blood. After C-TAH implantation, circulating CD34 progenitor cells expressed c-Kit stem marker while specific subsets CD34CD133CD45c-KitKDR were mobilized. KDR was only expressed by CD19 B-lymphocytes and CD14 monocytes subpopulations in circulation. We confirmed by mass cytometry this KDR expression on CD19 in healthy peripheral and cord blood, also with a VE-cadherin expression, confirming absence of endothelial lineage marker on CD34 subtypes. In COVID-19, a significant mobilization of CD34c-KitKDR cells was observed between moderate and critical COVID-19 patients regardless CD133 or CD45 expression. In order to better evaluate EPC phenotype, we performed imaging flow cytometry measurements of immature CD34KDR cells in cord blood and showed that, after elimination of non-circular events, those cells were all CD19. During COVID-19, a significant mobilization of CD19KDR per million of CD45 cells was observed between moderate and critical COVID-19 patients regardless of CD34 expression. CD34c-Kit cells are mobilized in both cardiovascular disease described here. KDR cells in peripheral blood are CD19 positive cells and are not classic vasculogenic stem and/or progenitor cells. A better evaluation of c-Kit and KDR expressing cells will lead to the redefinition of circulating endothelial progenitors.Graphical abstract Central illustration figure. Multidimensional proteomic approach of endothelial progenitors demonstrate expression of KDR restricted to CD19 cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in cardiovascular diseases, however their phenotype remains elusive. We elucidated here EPCs phenotype by a deep characterization by multidimensional single cell complementary cytometric approaches after Bioprosthetic total artificial heart implantation and during COVID-19. We showed a redistribution of circulating CD34 and CD19 sub-populations in both situations. None of the immature cell population expresses KDR. Mobilized CD34 expressed c-Kit. Imaging flow cytometry demonstrated that CD34KDR cells, after elimination of non-circular events, are all CD19. Our results suggest a new definition of circulating EPCs and emphasize involvement of CD19 cells in cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10062-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670993PMC
April 2021

Prevalence and characteristics of pulmonary embolism in 1042 COVID-19 patients with respiratory symptoms: A nested case-control study.

Thromb Res 2021 01 7;197:94-99. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Université de Paris, France; Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint-Joseph, F-75014 Paris, France; Department of Vascular Medicine, France; INSERM CRESS UMR 1153, F-75005 Paris, France.

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with cardiovascular complications and coagulation disorders. Previous studies reported pulmonary embolism (PE) in severe COVID-19 patients. Aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of symptomatic PE in COVID-19 patients and to identify the clinical, radiological or biological characteristics associated with PE.

Patients/methods: We conducted a retrospective nested case-control study in 2 French hospitals. Controls were matched in a 1:2 ratio on the basis of age, sex and center. PE patients with COVID-19 were compared to patients in whom PE was ruled out (CTPA controls) and in whom PE has not been investigated (CT controls).

Results: PE was suspected in 269 patients among 1042 COVID-19 patients, and confirmed in 59 patients (5.6%). Half of PE was diagnosed at COVID-19 diagnosis. PE patients did not differ from CT and CTPA controls for thrombosis risk factors. PE patients more often required invasive ventilation compared to CTPA controls (odds ratio (OR) 2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-5.84) and to CT controls (OR 8.07; 95% CI 2.70-23.82). PE patients exhibited more extensive parenchymal lesions (>50%) than CT controls (OR 3.90; 95% CI 1.54-9.94). D-dimer levels were 5.1 (95% CI 1.90-13.76) times higher in PE patients than CTPA controls.

Conclusions: Our results suggest a PE prevalence in COVID-19 patients close to 5% in the whole population and to 20% of the clinically suspected population. PE seems to be associated with more extensive lung damage and to require more frequently invasive ventilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648521PMC
January 2021

Interleukin-8 Receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 Are Not Expressed by Endothelial Colony-forming Cells.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Apr 13;17(2):628-638. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM, Université de Paris, F-75006 , Paris, France.

Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are human vasculogenic cells described as potential cell therapy product and good candidates for being a vascular liquid biopsy. Since interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a main actor in senescence, its ability to interact with ECFCs has been explored. However, expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2, the two cellular receptors for IL-8, by ECFCs remain controversial as several teams published contradictory reports. Using complementary technical approaches, we have investigated the presence of these receptors on ECFCs isolated from cord blood. First, CXCR1 and CXCR2 were not detected on several clones of cord blood- endothelial colony-forming cell using different antibodies available, in contrast to well-known positive cells. We then compared the RT-PCR primers used in different papers to search for the presence of CXCR1 and CXCR2 mRNA and found that several primer pairs used could lead to non-specific DNA amplification. Last, we confirmed those results by RNA sequencing. CXCR1 and CXCR2 were not detected in ECFCs in contrary to human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (h-iECs). In conclusion, using three different approaches, we confirmed that CXCR1 and CXCR2 were not expressed at mRNA or protein level by ECFCs. Thus, IL-8 secretion by ECFCs, its effects in angiogenesis and their involvement in senescent process need to be reanalyzed according to this absence of CXCR-1 and - 2 in ECFCs.Graphical Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10081-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Human Aortic Valve Interstitial Cells Display Proangiogenic Properties During Calcific Aortic Valve Disease.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 01 5;41(1):415-429. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Université de Paris, Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM, France (N.G., A.B., E.R., S.I., S.L., A. Cras, N.N., J.R., P.G., D.M.S.).

Objective: The study's aim was to analyze the capacity of human valve interstitial cells (VICs) to participate in aortic valve angiogenesis. Approach and Results: VICs were isolated from human aortic valves obtained after surgery for calcific aortic valve disease and from normal aortic valves unsuitable for grafting (control VICs). We examined VIC in vitro and in vivo potential to differentiate in endothelial and perivascular lineages. VIC paracrine effect was also examined on human endothelial colony-forming cells. A pathological VIC (VIC) mesenchymal-like phenotype was confirmed by CD90/CD73/CD44 expression and multipotent-like differentiation ability. When VIC were cocultured with endothelial colony-forming cells, they formed microvessels by differentiating into perivascular cells both in vivo and in vitro. VIC and control VIC conditioned media were compared using serial ELISA regarding quantification of endothelial and angiogenic factors. Higher expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-A was observed at the protein level in VIC-conditioned media and confirmed at the mRNA level in VIC compared with control VIC. Conditioned media from VIC induced in vitro a significant increase in endothelial colony-forming cell proliferation, migration, and sprouting compared with conditioned media from control VIC. These effects were inhibited by blocking VEGF-A with blocking antibody or siRNA approach, confirming VIC involvement in angiogenesis by a VEGF-A dependent mechanism.

Conclusions: We provide here the first proof of an angiogenic potential of human VICs isolated from patients with calcific aortic valve disease. These results point to a novel function of VIC in valve vascularization during calcific aortic valve disease, with a perivascular differentiation ability and a VEGF-A paracrine effect. Targeting perivascular differentiation and VEGF-A to slow calcific aortic valve disease progression warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.314287DOI Listing
January 2021

Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells from Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients Have a High Procoagulant Potential.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Apr 24;17(2):694-699. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Université de Paris, Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM, 75006 Paris, AP-HP, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, F-75006 Paris, France, Service d'Hématologie et Laboratoire de Recherches Biochirugicales (Fondation Carpentier), 75015, Paris, France.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severe, progressive and irreversible lung disease constantly associated with a major vascular remodeling process. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are human vasculogenic cells proposed as a cell therapy product or liquid biopsy in vascular disorders. Since the link between IPF and thrombosis has been largely proposed, the aim of our study was to explore hypercoagulability states in ECFCs from patients with IPF. We performed Thrombin generation assay (TGA) in cord blood (CB)-ECFCs, peripheral blood (PB)-ECFCs and IPF-ECFCs. Endogenous thrombin potential and peak were higher in IPF-ECFCs compared to CB-ECFCs and PB-ECFCs. As thrombin generation in ECFCs was increased, we evaluated anticoagulant proteins expressed on ECFCs membrane and identified thrombomodulin and EPCR. We found a significant decrease of both anticoagulant proteins at membrane using flow cytometry. This study is the first to examine ECFC thrombin generation in IPF. This new finding strongly argues for a role of ECFC in IPF pathophysiology and thrombotic related disorders in IPF. Graphical Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10043-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Autoregulation of Pulsatile Bioprosthetic Total Artificial Heart is Involved in Endothelial Homeostasis Preservation.

Thromb Haemost 2020 Sep 20;120(9):1313-1322. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.

Pulsatile Carmat bioprosthetic total artificial heart (C-TAH) is designed to be implanted in patients with biventricular end-stage heart failure. Since flow variation might contribute to endothelial dysfunction, we explored circulating endothelial biomarkers after C-TAH implantation in seven patients and compared the manual and autoregulated mode. Markers of endothelial dysfunction and regeneration were compared before and during a 6- to 9-month follow-up after implantation. The follow-up was divided into three periods (< 3, 3-6, and > 6 months) and used to estimate the temporal trends during the study period. A linear mixed model was used to analyze repeated measures and association between tested parameters according to the mode of C-TAH and the time. Relevance of soluble endoglin (sEndoglin) level increase has been tested on differentiation and migration potential of human vasculogenic progenitor cells (endothelial colony forming cells [ECFCs]). Normal sEndoglin and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) levels were found in patients after implantation with autoregulated C-TAH, whereas they significantly increased in the manual mode, as compared with pretransplant values ( = 0.005 and 0.001, respectively). In the autoregulated mode, a significant increase in the mobilization of cytokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 was found ( = 0.03). After adjustment on the mode of C-TAH, creatinine or C-reactive protein level, sEndoglin, and sEPCR, were found significantly associated with plasma total protein levels. Moreover, a significant decrease in pseudotubes formation and migration ability was observed in vitro in ECFCs receiving sEndoglin activation. Our combined analysis of endothelial biomarkers confirms the favorable impact of blood flow variation achieved with autoregulation in patients implanted with the bioprosthetic total artificial heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1713751DOI Listing
September 2020

Curative anticoagulation prevents endothelial lesion in COVID-19 patients.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 09 30;18(9):2391-2399. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with cardiovascular complications and coagulation disorders.

Objectives: To explore the coagulopathy and endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: The study analyzed clinical and biological profiles of patients with suspected COVID-19 infection at admission, including hemostasis tests and quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CECs).

Results: Among 96 consecutive COVID-19-suspected patients fulfilling criteria for hospitalization, 66 were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19-positive patients were more likely to present with fever (P = .02), cough (P = .03), and pneumonia at computed tomography (CT) scan (P = .002) at admission. Prevalence of D-dimer >500 ng/mL was higher in COVID-19-positive patients (74.2% versus 43.3%; P = .007). No sign of disseminated intravascular coagulation were identified. Adding D-dimers >500 ng/mL to gender and pneumonia at CT scan in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis significantly increased area under the curve for COVID-19 diagnosis. COVID-19-positive patients had significantly more CECs at admission (P = .008) than COVID-19-negative ones. COVID-19-positive patients treated with curative anticoagulant prior to admission had fewer CECs (P = .02) than those without. Interestingly, patients treated with curative anticoagulation and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers had even fewer CECs (P = .007).

Conclusion: Curative anticoagulation could prevent COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and endothelial lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323356PMC
September 2020

Angiopoietin-2 as a marker of endothelial activation is a good predictor factor for intensive care unit admission of COVID-19 patients.

Angiogenesis 2020 11 27;23(4):611-620. Epub 2020 May 27.

Université de Paris, Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM, 75006, Paris, France.

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory disease has been associated with ischemic complications, coagulation disorders, and an endotheliitis.

Objectives: To explore endothelial damage and activation-related biomarkers in COVID-19 patients with criteria of hospitalization for referral to intensive care unit (ICU) and/or respiratory worsening.

Methods: Analysis of endothelial and angiogenic soluble markers in plasma from patients at admission.

Results: Study enrolled 40 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to emergency department that fulfilled criteria for hospitalization. Half of them were admitted in conventional wards without any ICU transfer during hospitalization; whereas the 20 others were directly transferred to ICU. Patients transferred in ICU were more likely to have lymphopenia, decreased SpO2 and increased D-dimer, CRP and creatinine levels. In those patients, soluble E-selectin and angiopoietin-2 were significantly increased (p value at 0.009 and 0.003, respectively). Increase in SELE gene expression (gene coding for E-selectin protein) was confirmed in an independent cohort of 32 patients using a whole blood gene expression profile analysis. In plasma, we found a strong association between angiopoetin-2 and CRP, creatinine and D-dimers (with p value at 0.001, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). ROC curve analysis identified an Angiopoietin-2 cut-off of 5000 pg/mL as the best predictor for ICU outcome (Se = 80.1%, Sp = 70%, PPV = 72.7%, NPV = 77%), further confirmed in multivariate analysis after adjustment for creatinine, CRP or D-dimers.

Conclusion: Angiopoietin-2 is a relevant predictive factor for ICU direct admission in COVID-19 patients. This result showing an endothelial activation reinforces the hypothesis of a COVID-19-associated microvascular dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10456-020-09730-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250589PMC
November 2020

[The role of direct oral anticoagulants in the management of cancer-associated thrombosis in 2020].

Bull Cancer 2020 May 3;107(5):574-585. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Université de Paris, Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, Inserm, 75006 Paris, France; AH-HP, Hôpital européen Georges Pompidou, service d'hématologie biologique et laboratoire de recherches biochirurgicales (fondation Carpentier), 75015 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Direct oral anticoagulants, anti-IIa or anti-Xa, are widely used in the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolic disease as well as in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Direct oral anticoagulants are characterized by a rapid onset of activity, a predictable response and a relatively wide therapeutic window. Nevertheless, theoretical drug interactions exist since direct oral anticoagulants are substrates of the transport protein P-glycoprotein and/or of isoforms of cytochromes P450 pathway. Direct oral anticoagulants do not have a marketing authorization for the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis unlike low-molecular-weight heparins which remain the gold standard treatment today. However, recent studies have compared low-molecular-weight heparins to direct oral anticoagulants in the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis. Results of these studies showed a non-inferiority of direct oral anticoagulants in the prevention of recurrent thromboembolic events but at the cost of an increased hemorrhagic risk, in particular for patients with gastrointestinal and urogenital cancers. Thus, international guidelines, unlike French guidelines, integrate them in first line of the therapeutic strategy of cancer patients. We are certainly entering an era of personalized therapy for cancer-associated thrombosis, considering cancer type and also the theoretical risk of drug interactions with anti-cancer treatments or supportive care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2020.02.010DOI Listing
May 2020

Valproic Acid Decreases Endothelial Colony Forming Cells Differentiation and Induces Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition-like Process.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2020 04;16(2):357-368

Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM UMR-S1140, Université de Paris, F-75006, Paris, France.

Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor is a widely used anticonvulsant drug. VPA is also under clinical evaluation to be employed in anticancer therapy, as an antithrombotic agent or a molecule to be used in the stem cells expansion protocols. Since endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) has been identified as the human postnatal vasculogenic cells involved in thrombotic disorders and serve as a promising source of immature cell for vascular repair, objectives of the present study were to determine how VPA contributes to ECFC commitment and their angiogenic properties. We examined the effect of VPA on ECFC obtained from cord blood by evaluating colony number, proliferation, migration and their sprouting ability in vitro, as well as their in vivo vasculogenic properties. VPA inhibited endothelial differentiation potential from of cord blood derived stem cells associated with decreased proliferation and sprouting activity of cultured ECFC. VPA treatment significantly decreased the vessel-forming ability of ECFC transplanted together with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in Matrigel implants in nude mice model. Surprisingly, a microscopic evaluation revealed that VPA induces marked morphological changes from a cobblestone-like EC morphology to enlarged spindle shaped morphology of ECFC. RT-qPCR and a CD31/CD90 flow cytometry analysis confirmed a phenotypic switch of VPA-treated ECFC to mesenchymal-like phenotype. In conclusion, the pan-HDAC inhibitor VPA described for expansion of hematopoietic stem cells and very small embryonic like stem cells cannot be successfully employed for differentiation of endothelial lineage committed ECFC into functional endothelial cells. Our data also suggest that VPA based therapeutics may induce endothelial dysfunction associated with fibrosis that might induce thrombosis recurrence or venous insufficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-019-09950-yDOI Listing
April 2020

Hemocompatibility and safety of the Carmat Total Artifical Heart hybrid membrane.

Heliyon 2019 Dec 8;5(12):e02914. Epub 2019 Dec 8.

Service D'Hématologie et Laboratoire de Recherches Biochirugicales (Fondation Carpentier), AH-HP, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, F-75015, Paris, France.

The Carmat bioprosthetic total artificial heart (C-TAH) is a biventricular pump developed to minimize drawbacks of current mechanical assist devices and improve quality of life during support. This study aims to evaluate the safety of the hybrid membrane, which plays a pivotal role in this artificial heart. We investigated in particular its blood-contacting surface layer of bovine pericardial tissue, in terms of mechanical aging, risks of calcification, and impact of the hemodynamics shear stress inside the ventricles on blood components. Hybrid membranes were aged in a custom-designed endurance bench. Mechanical, physical and chemical properties were not significantly modified from 9 months up to 4 years of aging using a simulating process. Exploration of erosion areas did not show no risk of oil diffusion through the membrane. Blood contacting materials in the ventricular cavities were subcutaneously implanted in Wistar rats for 30 days as a model for calcification and demonstrated that the in-house anti-calcification pretreatment with Formaldehyde-Ethanol-Tween 80 was able to significantly reduce the calcium concentration from 132 μg/mg to 4.42 μg/mg (p < 0.001). Hemodynamic simulations with a computational model were used to reproduce shear stress in left and right ventricles and no significant stress was able to trigger hemolysis, platelet activation nor degradation of the von Willebrand factor multimers. Moreover, explanted hybrid membranes from patients included in the feasibility clinical study were analyzed confirming preclinical results with the absence of significant membrane calcification. At last, blood plasma bank analysis from the four patients implanted with C-TAH during the feasibility study showed no residual glutaraldehyde increase in plasma and confirmed hemodynamic simulation-based results with the absence of hemolysis and platelet activation associated with normal levels of plasma free hemoglobin and platelet microparticles after C-TAH implantation. These results on mechanical aging, calcification model and hemodynamic simulations predicted the safety of the hybrid membrane used in the C-TAH, and were confirmed in the feasibility study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6906674PMC
December 2019

The (Fab)ulous Destiny of Idarucizumab: Highlighting Its Interference with Urine Protein Immunofixation.

TH Open 2019 Jul 16;3(3):e306-e308. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Laboratoire d'Hématologie, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Idarucizumab is a humanized antigen binding fragment (Fab) of a recombinant anti-dabigatran monoclonal antibody (IgG1-kappa) that allows rapid and sustained reversal of dabigatran-induced anticoagulation in case of bleeding or urgent surgery. Herein, we report a very unusual case of dabigatran reversal by idarucizumab in a 79-year-old woman with acute kidney failure admitted to a hospital in a context of hemoptysis. Three repeated injections were necessary because of massive dabigatran overdose and high rebounds of dabigatran plasma concentration. Idarucizumab was found on urine immunofixation up to 6 days after the last injection where it reacted with anti-kappa light chain antibody, but not with anti-gamma heavy chain antibody. Physicians should be aware of the increased half-life of idarucizumab in this context of acute kidney impairment and of its interference with urine immunofixation because it could lead to false-positive results and misdiagnosis of a paraprotein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1697642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746617PMC
July 2019

Pain assessment and factors influencing pain during bone marrow aspiration: A prospective study.

PLoS One 2019 29;14(8):e0221534. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Paris, France.

Although bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is still considered a painful procedure, pain level remains poorly documented. We therefore conducted a prospective study intended to evaluate pain level in adult patients undergoing BMA at the sternal or iliac crest site to identify factors associated with pain. We enrolled a total of 448 patients who underwent 461 BMA and asked those patients to score their pain intensity after BMA using numerical pain rating scale (NPRS). The following factors: level of anxiety, quality of the information given to the patient, operator's experience, and bone texture were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. The median NPRS score was 3.5 (IQR [2.0; 5.0]) the sternal site (n = 405) was associated with an increased median NPRS score (3.5 [2.0; 5.0]) compared to the iliac crest (n = 56, 2.5 [1.0; 4.0]; p<0.0001). For those patients who underwent sternal BMA, the median NPRS score was significantly lower when using lidocaine infiltration (p = 0.0159) as compared with no anesthetic use. Additionally there was no significant effect of anesthetic cream found. After multivariate analysis, the model of NPRS score at the sternal site included patient anxiety (p<0.0001) and the use of lidocaine infiltration (0.0378). This study underlines the usefulness of a comprehensive management including pain relief and efforts to reduce anxiety including appropriate information given to the patient during BMA.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221534PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6715342PMC
March 2020

[Usefulness of free light chain measurement in monoclonal gammopathy, other haematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases].

Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 2019 08;77(4):397-406

Département d'immunologie et d'hématologie, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, AP-HP, Paris, France, Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris-Cité, Paris, France, Inserm U1149, Paris, France.

Immunoglobulin light chains are called free when they are not linked with heavy chains to form a whole immunoglobulin. Quantification of free light chains is a part of the French national authority for health guidelines for diagnostic and follow-up of light chain, oligo or non-secretory myeloma and AL amyloidosis. Most recently, the World health organisation had included free light chains quantification in prognostic criteria for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. However the literature bring to light some other potential indications of this analysis in the exploration of monoclonal gammopathy, also in lymphoid malignancies and some autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and Sjögren syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/abc.2019.1452DOI Listing
August 2019

Disseminated toxoplasmosis associated with hemophagocytic syndrome after kidney transplantation: A case report and review.

Transpl Infect Dis 2019 Oct 23;21(5):e13154. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Parasitology and mycology laboratory, Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, APHP, Paris, France.

Disseminated toxoplasmosis is infrequent after kidney transplant transmission but life-threatening because of a lack of diagnostic suspicion as well as specific chemoprophylaxis recommendations. Solid organ transplantation has resulted in few cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis presenting with associated hemophagocytic syndrome. Herein, we report, within the context of a donor/receiver mismatch, a case of a toxoplasmosis associated with hemophagocytic syndrome in a kidney transplant recipient. Molecular and serological investigations confirmed Toxoplasma gondii transmission through the kidney graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13154DOI Listing
October 2019

Human Endothelial Colony Forming Cells Express Intracellular CD133 that Modulates their Vasculogenic Properties.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2019 08;15(4):590-600

Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

Stem cells at the origin of endothelial progenitor cells and in particular endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) subtype have been largely supposed to be positive for the CD133 antigen, even though no clear correlation has been established between its expression and function in ECFCs. We postulated that CD133 in ECFCs might be expressed intracellularly, and could participate to vasculogenic properties. ECFCs extracted from cord blood were used either fresh (n = 4) or frozen (n = 4), at culture days <30, to investigate the intracellular presence of CD133 by flow cytometry and confocal analysis. Comparison with HUVEC and HAEC mature endothelial cells was carried out. Then, CD133 was silenced in ECFCs using specific siRNA (siCD133-ECFCs) or scramble siRNA (siCtrl-ECFCs). siCD133-ECFCs (n = 12), siCtrl-ECFCs (n = 12) or PBS (n = 12) were injected in a hind-limb ischemia nude mouse model and vascularization was quantified at day 14 with H&E staining and immunohistochemistry for CD31. Results of flow cytometry and confocal microscopy evidenced the positivity of CD133 in ECFCs after permeabilization compared with not permeabilized ECFCs (p < 0.001) and mature endothelial cells (p < 0.03). In the model of mouse hind-limb ischemia, silencing of CD133 in ECFCs significantly abolished post-ischemic revascularization induced by siCtrl-ECFCs; indeed, a significant reduction in cutaneous blood flows (p = 0.03), capillary density (CD31) (p = 0.01) and myofiber regeneration (p = 0.04) was observed. Also, a significant necrosis (p = 0.02) was observed in mice receiving siCD133-ECFCs compared to those treated with siCtrl-ECFCs. In conclusion, our work describes for the first time the intracellular expression of the stemness marker CD133 in ECFCs. This feature could resume the discrepancies found in the literature concerning CD133 positivity and ontogeny in endothelial progenitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-019-09881-8DOI Listing
August 2019

Interleukin-8 release by endothelial colony-forming cells isolated from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients might contribute to their pathogenicity.

Angiogenesis 2019 05 3;22(2):325-339. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Hematology Department, AP-HP, European Georges Pompidou Hospital, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris, France.

Introduction: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease characterized by obliteration of alveolar architecture, resulting in declining lung function and ultimately death. Pathogenic mechanisms involve a concomitant accumulation of scar tissue together with myofibroblasts activation and a strong abnormal vascular remodeling. Endothelial progenitor cells (ECFC subtype) have been investigated in several human lung diseases as a potential actor in IPF. We previously demonstrated that ECFCs are down-regulated in IPF in contrast to healthy controls. We postulated here that ECFCs might behave as a liquid biopsy in IPF patients and that they exert modified vasculogenic properties.

Methods And Results: ECFCs isolated from controls and IPF patients expressed markers of the endothelial lineage and did not differ concerning adhesion, migration, and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. However, senescent and apoptotic states were increased in ECFCs from IPF patients as shown by galactosidase staining, p16 expression, and annexin-V staining. Furthermore, conditioned medium of IPF-ECFCs had increased level of interleukin-8 that induced migration of neutrophils in vitro and in vivo. In addition, an infiltration by neutrophils was shown in IPF lung biopsies and we found in a prospective clinical study that a high level of neutrophils in peripheral blood of IPF patients was associated to a poor prognosis.

Conclusion: To conclude, our study shows that IPF patients have a senescent ECFC phenotype associated with an increased IL-8 secretion potential that might contribute to lung neutrophils invasion during IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10456-018-09659-5DOI Listing
May 2019

How to Manage Thrombocytopenia with ECLS: A Proposal of Clinical Reasoning Tools.

J Extra Corpor Technol 2018 12;50(4):256-259

Département d'Anesthésie-Réanimation, AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris, France.

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is increasingly used as a rescue therapy in patients with refractory cardiac/respiratory failure for temporary support or bridge to decision-making in both adult and pediatric patients. Complications such as bleeding and thrombosis remain major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients treated with ECLS. Hemostatic complications related to ECLS are multifactorial in patients with multiple organ dysfunctions and are incompletely characterized. Persisting thrombocytopenia and/or platelet dysfunction is the most frequent one. Herein, we report the case of a patient who developed severe thrombocytopenia after 5 days of ECLS associated with thrombi deposition in the circuit and oxygenator. After ECLS circuit and membrane change, we observed an increase and normalization in platelet count in 3 days. We propose a case-based reasoning to manage thrombocytopenia with ECLS.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296451PMC
December 2018

Usefulness of initial plasma dabigatran concentration to predict rebound after reversal.

Haematologica 2018 05 22;103(5):e226-e229. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

AP-HP, European Hospital Georges Pompidou, Hematology Department, Paris, France

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.183400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927968PMC
May 2018

The heart regulates the endocrine response to heart failure: cardiac contribution to circulating neprilysin.

Eur Heart J 2018 05;39(20):1794-1798

Inserm UMR-S 942, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France.

Aims: Heart failure (HF) is accompanied by major neuroendocrine changes including the activation of the natriuretic peptide (NP) pathway. Using the unique model of patients undergoing implantation of the CARMAT total artificial heart and investigating regional differences in soluble neprilysin (sNEP) in patients with reduced or preserved systolic function, we studied the regulation of the NP pathway in HF.

Methods And Results: Venous blood samples from two patients undergoing replacement of the failing ventricles with a total artificial heart were collected before implantation and weekly thereafter until post-operative week 6. The ventricular removal was associated with an immediate drop in circulating NPs, a nearly total disappearance of circulating glycosylated proBNP and furin activity and a marked decrease in sNEP. From post-operative week 1 onwards, NP concentrations remained overall unchanged. In contrast, partial recoveries in glycosylated proBNP, furin activity, and sNEP were observed. Furthermore, while in patients with preserved systolic function (n = 6), sNEP concentrations in the coronary sinus and systemic vessels were similar (all P > 0.05), in patients with reduced left-ventricular systolic function, sNEP concentration, and activity were ∼three-fold higher in coronary sinus compared to systemic vessels (n = 21, all P < 0.0001), while the trans-pulmonary gradient was neutral (n = 5, P = 1.0).

Conclusion: The heart plays a pivotal role as a regulator of the endocrine response in systolic dysfunction, not only by directly releasing NPs but also by contributing to circulating sNEP, which in turn determines the bioavailability of other numerous vasoactive peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927890PMC
May 2018