Publications by authors named "Nicola Rifino"

11 Publications

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SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute ischemic stroke in Lombardy, Italy.

J Neurol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit, Carlo Poma Hospital, ASST Mantova, Mantova, Italy.

Objective: To characterize patients with acute ischemic stroke related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess the classification performance of clinical and laboratory parameters in predicting in-hospital outcome of these patients.

Methods: In the setting of the STROKOVID study including patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to the ten hub hospitals in Lombardy, Italy, between March 8 and April 30, 2020, we compared clinical features of patients with confirmed infection and non-infected patients by logistic regression models and survival analysis. Then, we trained and tested a random forest (RF) binary classifier for the prediction of in-hospital death among patients with COVID-19.

Results: Among 1013 patients, 160 (15.8%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male sex (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.06-2.27) and atrial fibrillation (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.05-2.43) were independently associated with COVID-19 status. Patients with COVID-19 had increased stroke severity at admission [median NIHSS score, 9 (25th to75th percentile, 13) vs 6 (25th to75th percentile, 9)] and increased risk of in-hospital death (38.1% deaths vs 7.2%; HR 3.30; 95% CI 2.17-5.02). The RF model based on six clinical and laboratory parameters exhibited high cross-validated classification accuracy (0.86) and precision (0.87), good recall (0.72) and F1-score (0.79) in predicting in-hospital death.

Conclusions: Ischemic strokes in COVID-19 patients have distinctive risk factor profile and etiology, increased clinical severity and higher in-hospital mortality rate compared to non-COVID-19 patients. A simple model based on clinical and routine laboratory parameters may be useful in identifying ischemic stroke patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who are unlikely to survive the acute phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10620-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142879PMC
May 2021

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke in Lombardy, Italy: the STROKOVID network.

J Neurol 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit, Carlo Poma Hospital, ASST Mantova, Mantua, Italy.

Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the ten centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection (COVID-19) and non-infected patients (non-COVID-19) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Between March 8 and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients [median age, 74 years (interquartile range (IQR), 62-80.75); males, 154 (52.0%); 34 (11.5%) COVID-19] qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 group [230 (IQR 200.5-270) minutes vs. 190 (IQR 150-245) minutes; p = 0.007], especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤ 50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs. 16.6%; OR 5.05; 95% CI 1.82-13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion (55.6% vs. 81.0%; OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.10-0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages were more frequent (35.3% vs. 19.5%; OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs. 8.8%; OR 6.43; 95% CI 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10497-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937781PMC
March 2021

Neurologic manifestations in 1760 COVID-19 patients admitted to Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy.

J Neurol 2021 Jul 7;268(7):2331-2338. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Neurology, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Piazza OMS 1, 24127, Bergamo, Italy.

Objectives: Evidences from either small series or spontaneous reporting are accumulating that SARS-CoV-2 involves the Nervous Systems. The aim of this study is to provide an extensive overview on the major neurological complications in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients.

Methods: Retrospective, observational analysis on all COVID-19 patients admitted from February 23rd to April 30th, 2020 to ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy for whom a neurological consultation/neurophysiological assessment/neuroradiologic investigation was requested. Each identified neurologic complication was then classified into main neurologic categories.

Results: Of 1760 COVID-19 patients, 137 presented neurologic manifestations that manifested after COVID-19 symptoms in 98 pts and was the presenting symptom in 39. Neurological manifestations were classified as: (a) cerebrovascular disease [53 pts (38.7%)] including 37 ischemic and 11 haemorrhagic strokes, 4 transient ischemic attacks, 1 cerebral venous thrombosis; (b) peripheral nervous system diseases [31 (22.6%)] including 17 Guillain-Barrè syndromes; (c) altered mental status [49 (35.8%)] including one necrotizing encephalitis and 2 cases with RT-PCR detection of SARS-Cov-2 RNA in CSF; (d) miscellaneous disorders, among whom 2 patients with myelopathy associated with Ab anti-SARS-CoV-2 in CSF. Patients with peripheral nervous system involvement had more frequently severe ARDS compared to patients with cerebrovascular disease (87.1% vs 42%; difference = 45.1% 95% CI 42.0-48.2; χ= 14.306; p < 0.0002) and with altered mental status (87.1% vs 55.6%; difference = 31.5% 95% CI 27.5-37.5%; χ= 7.055; p < 0.01).

Conclusion: This study confirms that involvement of nervous system is common in SARS-CoV-2 infection and offers clinicians useful information for prevention and prompt identification in order to set the adequate therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10251-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539268PMC
July 2021

Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2-Related Encephalitis: The ENCOVID Multicenter Study.

J Infect Dis 2021 01;223(1):28-37

Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Background: Several preclinical and clinical investigations have argued for nervous system involvement in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Some sparse case reports have described various forms of encephalitis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, but very few data have focused on clinical presentations, clinical course, response to treatment, and outcomes.

Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 related encephalopaties (ENCOVID) multicenter study included patients with encephalitis with full infectious screening, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection recruited from 13 centers in northern Italy. Clinical presentation and laboratory markers, severity of COVID-19 disease, response to treatment, and outcomes were recorded.

Results: Twenty-five cases of encephalitis positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. CSF showed hyperproteinorrachia and/or pleocytosis in 68% of cases whereas SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction resulted negative. Based on MRI, cases were classified as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM; n = 3), limbic encephalitis (LE; n = 2), encephalitis with normal imaging (n = 13), and encephalitis with MRI alterations (n = 7). ADEM and LE cases showed a delayed onset compared to the other encephalitis cases (P = .001) and were associated with previous, more severe COVID-19 respiratory involvement. Patients with MRI alterations exhibited worse response to treatment and final outcomes compared to those with other encephalitis.

Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a wide spectrum of encephalitis characterized by different clinical presentation, response to treatment, and outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543535PMC
January 2021

Non-alcoholic beriberi, Wernicke encephalopathy and long-term eating disorder: case report and a mini-review.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Mar 4;26(2):729-732. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Neurology Unit, "A. Manzoni" Hospital-ASST Lecco, Via dell'Eremo 9/11, 23900, Lecco, Italy.

Introduction: Nowadays, reports of beriberi are rare in developed countries. Wernicke encephalopathy may be present in about 25% of patients with beriberi.

Case Report: We report the case of a woman with history of depression and chronic eating disorder, who complained Wernicke encephalopathy and beriberi. Sural nerve and muscular biopsy were performed, showing severe axonal neuropathy. Thiamine supplementation was started with rapid improvement of the pulmonary and cardiac affections; improvement of peripheral neuropathy was incomplete.

Conclusions: Thiamine deficiency can be misdiagnosed. Beriberi is an important cause of acute flaccid paralysis; hence, clinicians should consider this diagnosis and prompt start thiamine treatment to avoid permanent neurological sequelae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-020-00880-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Thrombectomy for Wake-Up Stroke in a Patient with Mild Symptoms and in an Adolescent.

Can J Neurol Sci 2020 Jan 21;47(1):131-133. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Neurology, Ospedale Alessandro Manzoni, Lecco, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2019.299DOI Listing
January 2020
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