Publications by authors named "Nicholas Q-X Wee"

9 Publications

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Gastropod first intermediate hosts for two species of Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda): I can't believe it's not bivalves!

Int J Parasitol 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

The trematode superfamily Monorchioidea comprises three families of teleost parasites: the Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911, Lissorchiidae Magath, 1917, and Deropristidae Cable & Hunninen, 1942. All presently known lissorchiid and deropristid life cycles have gastropods as first intermediate hosts, whereas those of monorchiids involve bivalves. Here, we report an unexpected intermediate host for monorchiids; two species of Hurleytrematoides Yamaguti, 1954 use gastropods as first intermediate hosts. Sporocysts and cercariae were found infecting two species of the family Vermetidae, highly specialised sessile gastropods that form calcareous tubes, from two locations off the coast of Queensland, Australia. These intramolluscan infections broadly corresponded morphologically to those of known monorchiids in that the cercariae have a spinous tegument, oral and ventral suckers, a simple tail and distinct eye-spots. Given the simplified morphology of intramolluscan infections, genetic data provided a definitive identification. ITS2 rDNA and cox1 mtDNA sequence data from the gastropod infections were identical to two species of Hurleytrematoides, parasites of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae); Hurleytrematoides loi McNamara & Cribb, 2011 from Moreton Bay (south-eastern Queensland) and Heron Island (southern Great Barrier Reef) and Hurleytrematoides morandi McNamara & Cribb, 2011 from Heron Island. Notably, species of Hurleytrematoides are positioned relatively basal in the phylogeny of the Monorchiidae and are a sister lineage to that of species known to infect bivalves. Thus, the most parsimonious evolutionary hypothesis to explain infection of gastropods by these monorchiids is that basal monorchiids (in our analyses, species of Cableia Sogandares-Bernal, 1959, Helicometroides Yamaguti, 1934 and Hurleytrematoides) will all prove to infect gastropods, suggesting a single host switching event into bivalves for more derived monorchiids (17 other genera in our phylogenetic analyses). A less parsimonious hypothesis is that the infection of vermetids will prove to be restricted to species of Hurleytrematoides, as an isolated secondary recolonisation of gastropods from a bivalve-infecting lineage. Regardless of how their use arose, vermetids represent a dramatic host jump relative to the rest of the Monorchiidae, one potentially enabled by their specialised feeding biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2021.05.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Retroporomonorchis pansho n. g., n. sp., an unusual monorchiid trematode exploiting an atypical host.

Syst Parasitol 2020 10 8;97(5):441-454. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

The Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911 are well represented in tropical and subtropical marine fishes worldwide but rarely reported from the Lutjanidae, an important family of tropical fishes that prey mainly on demersal fishes, decapods and cephalopods. Here, we report the first monorchiid from a lutjanid in Australian waters, Retroporomonorchis pansho n. g., n. sp. in Lutjanus fulvus (Forster), off Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef. It is morphologically and phylogenetically distinct among known monorchiids, resolves within the Monorchiinae Odhner, 1911, and is characterised by a relatively large ventral sucker, a sinistral genital pore immediately posterior to the ventral sucker, unfilamented eggs, a single testis, and vitelline follicles restricted to the level of the gonads. We assessed all previous records of monorchiids from lutjanid fishes and found only one to be convincing, that of Infundiburictus overstreeti (Gupta & Gupta, 1990) Wee, Cutmore, Pérez-del-Olmo & Cribb, 2020 from Lutjanus monostigma (Cuvier) in the Bay of Bengal. Another, Monorcheides xishaensis Shen, 1985, from Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) in the Paracel Islands, South China Sea, is here recognised as a cryptogonimid, and is synonymised with Siphoderina asiatica Gu & Shen, 1979. In the remaining reports, the identity of the host is either ambiguous or doubtful, or the identity of the worm is not supported with sufficient evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-020-09926-4DOI Listing
October 2020

Pseudohurleytrema yolandae n. sp., the first monorchiid trematode reported from the Triacanthidae (Tetraodontiformes).

Syst Parasitol 2020 10 31;97(5):491-500. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Prior to the present study, species of the trematode family Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911 had been reported from four of the ten families of tetraodontiform fishes: the Balistidae, Monacanthidae, Ostraciidae and Tetraodontidae. Here we report the first monorchiid from the family Triacanthidae, Pseudohurleytrema yolandae n. sp. infecting Tripodichthys angustifrons (Hollard), from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. The species conforms well to the morphological concept of the subfamily Hurleytrematinae Yamaguti, 1958, and the genus Pseudohurleytrema Yamaguti, 1954, in the possession of filamented eggs, a bipartite terminal organ, and a unipartite seminal vesicle. Relative to the other three recognised species of Pseudohurleytrema, the present species is distinctive in the size of the testis and eggs, position of the ovary, and the form of the vitellarium and excretory vesicle. We consider Pseudohurleytrema magnum Kaikabad & Bilqees in Bilqees, 1991 as a species inquirenda. Sequence data for the 28S ribosomal RNA gene and cox1 mitochondrial gene were generated for P. yolandae, providing the first molecular data for the genus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that P. yolandae does not form a clade with the other three hurleytrematine genera for which there are molecular data (Helicometroides Yamaguti, 1934, Hurleytrematoides Yamaguti, 1953 and Provitellus Dove & Cribb, 1998), forming a poorly-supported clade with Proctotrema addisoni Searle, Cutmore & Cribb, 2014 within the clade of the subfamily Monorchiinae Odhner, 1911. The four hurleytrematine genera resolved as four distinct clades, indicating that the current subfamilial classification requires comprehensive revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-020-09924-6DOI Listing
October 2020

First steps to restructuring the problematic genus Lasiotocus Looss, 1907 (Digenea: Monorchiidae) with the proposal of four new genera.

Parasitol Int 2020 Dec 24;79:102164. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Lasiotocus Looss, 1907 is the largest genus within the Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911, with 52 species currently considered valid. Species belonging to this genus exhibit wide morphological variation and it is likely that many of them belong in other genera; however, testing the validity of the group has been hampered by a lack of molecular sequence data, especially for the type-species. Here, we report the first DNA sequences for Lasiotocus mulli (Stossich, 1883) Odhner, 1911, the type-species of the genus, and only the sixth Lasiotocus species to be sequenced. Sequences were generated for three ribosomal DNA markers, the ITS2, 18S and 28S regions, and for one mitochondrial DNA marker, the cox1 region. Phylogenetic analyses show that the six sequenced species form four clearly distinct clades, each of which we argue require separate genera. On the basis of these relationships and review of the morphology of all species in the genus, we propose a system of six genera. Four genera, Lasiotocus, the resurrected concept of Ancylocoelium Nicoll, 1912, Infundiburictus n. gen., and Sinistroporomonorchis n. gen., represent the four molecular clades. Two genera, Paralasiotocus n. gen. and Alloinfundiburictus n. gen., are proposed on the basis of morphology only. Ancylocoelium is resurrected for Ancylocoelium typicum Nicoll, 1912, Infundiburictus is erected for Lasiotocus arrhichostoma Searle, Cutmore & Cribb, 2014, Sinistroporomonorchis is erected for Lasiotocus glebulentus Overstreet, 1971and Lasiotocus lizae Liu, 2002, Paralasiotocus is erected for Lasiotocus okinawaensis Machida, 2011, and Alloinfundiburictus is erected for Lasiotocus cacuminatus Nicoll, 1915. Of the 52 species presently recognised in Lasiotocus, 43 are distributed among these genera; nine are considered species inquirendae or are transferred to other genera. We think it likely that more genera will be required for the species reviewed here but more sequence data are essential to further refine the classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2020.102164DOI Listing
December 2020

Four new monorchiids from the golden trevally, Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Carangidae), in Moreton Bay, Australia.

Syst Parasitol 2019 04 22;96(3):265-278. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Four new monorchiid trematodes are reported from Moreton Bay, Australia; three new species of Provitellus Dove & Cribb, 1998 and one species of Ovipusillus Dove & Cribb, 1998, are described from Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål) (Carangidae), the golden trevally. Provitellus chaometra n. sp., Provitellus infrequens n. sp. and Provitellus infibrova n. sp. differ significantly from the only other species of this genus, Provitellus turrum Dove & Cribb, 1998, in the structure of the eggs, vitelline follicles and terminal organ. The four species are united, however, in the possession of short caeca and a long genital atrium, a combination not reported previously. Ovipusillus geminus n. sp. strongly resembles its only congener, Ovipusillus mayu Dove & Cribb, 1998, but differs in the morphology of the diverticulum in the cirrus-sac and the shape of the pharynx. Complete ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA sequence data were generated for all four species, as well as for two known species of Hurleytrematoides Yamaguti, 1953, Hurleytrematoides galzini McNamara & Cribb, 2011 and Hurleytrematoides loi McNamara & Cribb, 2011. These sequences were analysed with those for other monorchiids available on GenBank, and phylogenetic analyses showed that the four species of Provitellus and two species of Ovipusillus each form strongly supported clades. As with previous monorchiid phylogenetic studies, however, the overall resolution of the phylogeny of the Monorchiidae is poor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-019-09851-1DOI Listing
April 2019

Two monorchiid species from the freckled goatfish, Upeneus tragula Richardson (Perciformes: Mullidae), in Moreton Bay, Australia, including a proposal of a new genus.

Syst Parasitol 2018 05 19;95(4):353-365. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Two monorchiid species are reported from the freckled goatfish, Upeneus tragula Richardson, from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Specimens of a species new to science were most morphologically similar to species of the genus Timonia Bartoli & Prevot, 1966, but significant differences in the arrangement of the testes (symmetrical vs oblique) and morphology of the terminal organ (bipartite vs unipartite) necessitate the proposal of a new genus; Madhavia n. g. is proposed for M. fellaminutus n. sp. Specimens of the second species are identified as Parachrisomon delicatus (Manter & Pritchard, 1964) Madhavi, 2008, extending its known range from Hawaii to Australia. Complete ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA sequence data were generated for both species and analysed with those for other monorchiids available on GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses of the 28S rDNA dataset showed that both genera are distinct from other sequenced monorchiids, but overall the resolution between genera is poor and more sequence data are required to elucidate relationships within the family. We propose to transfer Timonia stunkardi (Ahmad, 1985) and Timonia vinodae (Ahmad, 1987) to the genus Neotimonia Madhavi, 2008, as Neotimonia stunkardi (Ahmad, 1985) n. comb. and Neotimonia vinodae (Ahmad, 1987) n. comb. Additionally, we were unable to locate any literature on Parachrisomon brotulidorum (Toman, 1973) Madhavi, 2008 and consider this species as nomen nudum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9789-xDOI Listing
May 2018

Two new and one known species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) with novel molecular characterisation for the genus.

Syst Parasitol 2017 10 2;94(8):861-874. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Combined morphological and molecular analyses are employed to characterise three species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) from fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Tergestia clonacantha Manter, 1963 is reported here for the first time from the halfbeak (Beloniformes: Hemiramphidae) species Arrhamphus sclerolepis krefftii (Steindachner), Hyporhamphus australis (Steindachner), H. quoyi (Valenciennes) and H. regularis ardelio (Whitley). Two new species, both infecting trevally (Perciformes: Carangidae) species, are described: T. maryae n. sp. from Alepes apercna Grant and T. henryi n. sp. from Pantolabus radiatus (MacLeay). Complete ITS2 and partial 28S ribosomal DNA data were generated for each of the new taxa. The three species differ from each other by 47-58 base pairs (bp) in the ITS2 rDNA region. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA supports Tergestia as a reliable generic concept, with our analyses showing that some species of the genus form a well-supported clade to the exclusion of all other fellodistomids for which sequence data are available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9749-xDOI Listing
October 2017

Two known and one new species of Proctoeces from Australian teleosts: Variable host-specificity for closely related species identified through multi-locus molecular data.

Parasitol Int 2017 Apr 15;66(2):16-26. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) have been reported from a wide range of marine animals globally. Members of the genus tend to lack strongly distinguishing morphological features for diagnosis, making identification difficult and the true number of species in the genus contentious. Combined morphological and molecular analyses were used to characterise three species of Proctoeces from Moreton Bay and the southern Great Barrier Reef. Data for two ribosomal regions and one mitochondrial region were generated for specimens collected from Australia. Three unique 18S-genotypes were identified which corresponded to subtle, but reliable, morphological differences. Two species of Proctoeces were identified from fishes of Moreton Bay, Proctoeces insolitus (Nicoll, 1915) Yamaguti, 1953 and P. major Yamaguti, 1934, and a third, P. choerodoni n. sp. from off Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 18S and partial 28S rDNA indicated that these three species differ from the four species reported outside of Australia for which sequence data are available. Phylogenetically, Proctoeces proved to be a reliable concept, with all species of Proctoeces that have been characterised genetically forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. Dramatically different patterns of host-specificity were identified for each of the three Australian species; P. insolitus apparently infects a single species of fish, P. choerodoni n. sp. infects multiple species of a single genus of fish, and P. major infects multiple species of two teleost orders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2016.11.008DOI Listing
April 2017

A complex of Cardicola Short, 1953 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) species infecting the milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskål (Gonorynchiformes), with descriptions of two new species.

Syst Parasitol 2016 11 14;93(9):831-846. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Two new species of Cardicola Short, 1953 are described from the milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskål (Gonorynchiformes: Chanidae), obtained from off Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and North Stradbroke Island in southeast Queensland. These are the first known blood flukes from this order of fishes. Cardicola suni n. sp. differs from all other Cardicola spp. by a combination of a large ovoid oral sucker surrounding a subterminal mouth, recurved tegumental spines up to 16 μm long, anterior caeca occupying 25.1-31.3% (28.7%) of total body length and a mostly-intercaecal ovary. Cardicola jiigurru n. sp. differs from C. suni n. sp. and all other species of Cardicola by a combination of a narrowly lanceolate body, weakly-muscularised and poorly-demarcated oral sucker, minute tegumental spines <1 µm in length, and anterior caeca occupying 15.9-22.0% (19.4%) of total body length, an almost entirely post-caecal ovary and the male genital pore terminal on a dorsolateral protuberance. A third species, closely resembling C. suni n. sp., was also discovered off Wangetti Beach, north Queensland, but is not described due to lack of material. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on both ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA regions, shows that these three species form a clade nested within that formed by existing species of Cardicola.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-016-9673-5DOI Listing
November 2016
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