Publications by authors named "Nicholas Govsyeyev"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Safety and Effectiveness of Paclitaxel Drug-Coated Devices in Peripheral Artery Revascularization: Insights From VOYAGER PAD.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Nov;78(18):1768-1778

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: Paclitaxel drug-coated devices (DCDs) were developed to improve lower extremity revascularization (LER) patency in peripheral artery disease (PAD) but have been associated with long-term mortality.

Objectives: This study assessed DCD safety and effectiveness in LER for PAD.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] Along with Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) randomized patients with PAD who underwent LER to rivaroxaban or placebo. The primary VOYAGER PAD study efficacy and safety outcomes were composite cardiovascular and limb events and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. For prespecified DCD analyses, primary safety and effectiveness outcomes were mortality and unplanned index limb revascularization (UILR). Major adverse limb events (MALE) were a secondary outcome. Inverse probability treatment weighting was used to account for each subject's propensity for DCD treatment. Effects of rivaroxaban were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Among 4,316 patients who underwent LER, 3,478 (80.6%) were treated for claudication, and 1,342 (31.1%) received DCDs. Median follow-up was 31 months, vital status was ascertained in 99.6% of patients, and there were 394 deaths. After weighting, DCDs were not associated with mortality (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.83-1.09) or MALE (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.90-1.30) but were associated with reduced UILR (3-year Kaplan-Meier: 21.5% vs 24.6%; HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.76-0.92). Irrespective of DCD use, consistent benefit of rivaroxaban for composite cardiovascular and limb events (P = 0.88) and safety of rivaroxaban with respect to bleeding (P = 0.57) were observed.

Conclusions: In >4,000 patients with PAD who underwent LER, DCDs were not associated with mortality or MALE but were associated with persistent reduction in UILR. These findings provide insight into the safety and effectiveness of DCDs in PAD. (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] Along with Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD [VOYAGER PAD]; NCT02504216).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.08.052DOI Listing
November 2021

Etiology and Outcomes of Amputation in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease: Insights From the EUCLID Trial.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colo; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colo.

Objective: Amputation remains a frequent and feared outcome in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Although typically characterized as major or minor on the extent of tissue loss, the etiologies and outcomes after amputation by extent are not well-understood. In addition, emerging data suggest that the drivers and outcomes of amputation in patients with PAD may differ in those with and without diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: The EUCLID trial randomized 13,885 patients with symptomatic PAD, including 5345 with concomitant diabetes, to ticagrelor or clopidogrel and followed them for long-term outcomes. Amputations were prospectively reported by trial investigators. Their primary and contributing drivers were adjudicated using safety data, including infection, ischemia, or multifactorial etiologies. Outcomes following major and minor amputations were analyzed, including recurrent amputation, major adverse limb events, adverse cardiovascular events, and mortality. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors of minor amputations. Analyses were performed overall and stratified by the presence or absence of DM at baseline.

Results: Of the patients randomized, 398 (2.9%) underwent at least one lower extremity nontraumatic amputation, for a total of 511 amputations (255 major and 256 minor) over a median of 30 months. A history of minor amputation was the strongest independent predictor for a subsequent minor amputation (odds ratio, 7.29; 95% confidence interval, 5.17-10.30; P < .001) followed by comorbid DM (odds ratio, 4.60; 95% confidence interval, 3.16-6.69; P < .001). Compared with patients who had a major amputation, those with a minor amputation had similar rates of subsequent major amputation (12.2% vs 13.6%), major adverse limb events (15.1% vs 14.9%), and major adverse cardiovascular events (17.6% vs 16.3%). Ischemia alone was the primary driver of amputation (51%), followed by infection alone (27%), and multifactorial etiologies (22%); however, infection was the most frequent driver in those with DM (58%) but not in those without DM (15%).

Conclusions: Outcomes after amputation remain poor regardless of whether they are categorized as major or minor. The pattern of amputation drivers in PAD differs by history of DM, with infection being the dominant etiology in those with DM and ischemia in those without DM. Greater focus is needed on the prognostic importance of minor amputation and of the multifactorial etiologies of amputation in PAD. Nomenclature with anatomical description of amputations and eliminating terms "major" or "minor" would seem appropriate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.08.096DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Surgical Revascularization: Insights From the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12;144(14):1104-1116. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO (M.R.N., N.G., W.H.C., T.B., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H., M.P.B.).

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease requiring lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [Acetylsalicylic Acid] Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) demonstrated that rivaroxaban significantly reduced this risk. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described in patients who underwent surgical LER.

Methods: The VOYAGER PAD trial randomized patients with peripheral artery disease after surgical and endovascular LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or matching placebo plus aspirin and followed for a median of 28 months. The primary end point was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major vascular amputation, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding was a secondary safety outcome. All efficacy and safety outcomes were adjudicated by a blinded independent committee.

Results: Of the 6564 randomized, 2185 (33%) underwent surgical LER and 4379 (67%) endovascular. Compared with placebo, rivaroxaban reduced the primary end point consistently regardless of LER method (-interaction, 0.43). After surgical LER, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 199 (18.4%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 242 (22.0%) patients in the placebo group with a cumulative incidence at 3 years of 19.7% and 23.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]; =0.026). In the overall trial, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding were increased with rivaroxaban. There was no heterogeneity for Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding (-interaction, 0.17) or International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding (-interaction, 0.73) on the basis of the LER approach. After surgical LER, the principal safety outcome occurred in 11 (1.0%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 13 (1.2%) patients in the placebo group; 3-year cumulative incidence was 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.39-1.95]; =0.75) Among surgical patients, the composite of fatal bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (=0.95) and postprocedural bleeding requiring intervention (=0.93) was not significantly increased.

Conclusions: The efficacy of rivaroxaban is associated with a benefit in patients who underwent surgical LER. Although bleeding was increased with rivaroxaban plus aspirin, the incidence was low, with no significant increase in fatal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, or postprocedural bleeds requiring intervention. Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02504216.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054835DOI Listing
October 2021

A systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes after acute limb ischemia in patients with cancer.

J Vasc Surg 2021 09 24;74(3):1033-1040.e1. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Surgery, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, Colo; CPC Clinical Research, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, Colo; Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Surgery, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, Colo.

Background: Cancer results in a hypercoagulable state that is associated with both venous and arterial thromboses. However, little is known about the effects of acute limb ischemia (ALI) in this cohort of patients. In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, we analyzed the available clinical data on cancer and its association with ALI and evaluated the outcomes in these patients after a diagnosis of ALI.

Methods: Three databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, were queried. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were included regardless of the publication year, language, sample size, or follow-up length. All the steps of the meta-analysis were conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) and MOOSE (meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology) guidelines.

Results: Seven studies from 6222 references with a total of 2899 patients were included. Of the 2899 patients, 1195 (41%) had had a diagnosis of ALI before their cancer diagnosis, and 1704 (59%) had presented with ALI after a cancer diagnosis. Nearly three quarters of ALI events were among patients with cancer of the skin and soft tissue (19%), genitourinary (18%), lung (17%), and gastrointestinal (16%) systems. ALI recurrence was similar between the two groups, and major amputation was more likely in patients with a diagnosis of ALI after a cancer diagnosis (7.4% vs 4.6%; P < .01). The incidence of mortality at 1 year was significantly greater for patients with established cancer who had presented with ALI compared with the patients who had presented with ALI before a cancer diagnosis (50.6% vs 29.9%; P < .01). After adjusting for study variability using the random effects model, the mortality at 1 year for all patients was 52.3% (95% confidence interval, 37.7%-66.5%). No significant heterogeneity (P = .73) was found between the two groups of patients, which varied by the timing of the ALI diagnosis in relation to the cancer diagnosis.

Conclusions: The 1-year mortality after the development of ALI in patients with cancer was >50%. For patients presenting with ALI of unclear etiology, the presence of an underlying cancer should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.03.058DOI Listing
September 2021

Massive Pulmonary Embolism with Cardiac Arrest during Routine Tibial Bypass Surgery.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 May 14;73:509.e15-509.e19. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO. Electronic address:

We report the case of a massive pulmonary embolism with intraoperative cardiac arrest in a 48-year-old male during routine surgical tibial bypass successfully managed by catheter-based interventions. Our experience supports the trending shift in pulmonary embolism therapy guidelines to include endovascular approaches and emphasizes the need for vascular surgeons to adapt their training protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.11.002DOI Listing
May 2021

A systematic review of diagnosis and treatment of acute limb ischemia during pregnancy and postpartum period.

J Vasc Surg 2020 11 20;72(5):1793-1801.e1. Epub 2020 May 20.

CPC Research, Aurora, Colo; Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, Colo.

Background: Acute limb ischemia (ALI) carries significant overall morbidity and mortality. Pregnant and postpartum women are physiologically hypercoagulable, but little is known about the impact of ALI in this cohort of patients. The goal of this systematic review was to gather available data on diagnosis and treatment of ALI during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

Methods: A systematic review of studies on patients with ALI during pregnancy and the puerperium was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Three databases including PubMed MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library were queried. Manuscripts that provided data on diagnosis and treatment of ALI in pregnant and postpartum patients were included regardless of language or study design. Outcomes of interest included type of treatment for ALI (open and endovascular), morbidity, and mortality.

Results: Fourteen manuscripts of 6222 references were included with a total of 14 patients. The median age of patients was 31.5 years. Embolism, present in eight (57%) patients, was slightly more common than thrombosis. All patients had a pregnancy complication or concomitant medical condition that might have predisposed to arterial occlusion either directly or indirectly by leading to iatrogenic arterial injury; peripartum cardiomyopathy, the most common, occurred in six (43%) patients. Open surgery was the preferred treatment option in 11 (79%) patients, followed by anticoagulation alone. No endovascular procedures were described. One patient underwent major amputation on presentation, and an additional patient required major amputation for recurrent ALI. No deaths occurred. Twelve (86%) patients had complete recovery with no other ALI-associated sequelae.

Conclusions: ALI is rare in pregnant and postpartum women despite their transient physiologic hypercoagulability and is almost uniformly associated with pregnancy complications. Open surgical revascularization or anticoagulation alone appears to have acceptable outcomes as most patients present with embolism or thrombosis without underlying systemic arterial disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.04.516DOI Listing
November 2020

Tackling Elevated Risk in PAD: Focus on Antithrombotic and Lipid Therapy for PAD.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2020 Jan 29;22(3):13. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO, USA.

The PAD population is at increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE). Risk factor modification, symptom control, antithrombotic, and lipid therapies are the mainstays of PAD medical therapy. Recent data has challenged prior recommendations regarding the optimal secondary prevention strategies in PAD. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review clinical evidence from large randomized controlled trials showing the benefit of antithrombotic and lipid therapy in the PAD population. RECENT FINDINGS: The COMPASS trial challenged prior recommendations regarding anticoagulation in PAD. Among the PAD subgroup, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg plus aspirin reduced MACE (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.90, p = 0.0047), MALE (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35-0.82, p = 0.0037), and major amputation (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.80, p = 0.011) compared with aspirin monotherapy. The THEMIS trial showed a 55% risk reduction for MALE with ticagrelor DAPT compared with aspirin monotherapy (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.86). The FOURIER trial revealed that lowering LDL cholesterol below current targets with a PCSK9 inhibitor reduced MACE (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.91, p = 0.0040) and MALE (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-0.99, p = 0.042) in subjects with symptomatic PAD. Recent high-quality evidence shows the benefit of antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation therapy, and lipid therapy in reducing MACE and MALE in PAD. Despite these findings, implementation remains a challenge and focus should now shift towards adopting evidence-based recommendations in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-020-1264-zDOI Listing
January 2020

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is indicated for patients with thick clinically lymph node-negative melanoma.

Cancer 2015 May 11;121(10):1628-36. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of California at Irvine Medical Center, Orange, California.

Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is indicated for the staging of clinically lymph node-negative melanoma of intermediate thickness, but its use is controversial in patients with thick melanoma.

Methods: From 2002 to 2012, patients with melanoma measuring ≥4 mm in thickness were evaluated at a single institution. Associations between survival and clinicopathologic characteristics were explored.

Results: Of 571 patients with melanomas measuring ≥4 mm in thickness and no distant metastases, the median age was 66 years and 401 patients (70.2%) were male. The median Breslow thickness was 6.2 mm; the predominant subtype was nodular (45.4%). SLNB was performed in 412 patients (72%) whereas 46 patients (8.1%) presented with clinically lymph node-positive disease and 113 patients (20%) did not undergo SLNB. A positive SLN was found in 161 of 412 patients (39.1%). For SLNB performed at the study institution, 14 patients with a negative SLNB developed disease recurrence in the mapped lymph node basin (false-negative rate, 12.3%). The median disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) for the entire cohort were 62.1 months, 42.5 months, and 21.2 months, respectively. The DSS and OS for patients with a negative SLNB were 82.4 months and 53.4 months, respectively; 41.2 months and 34.7 months, respectively, for patients with positive SLNB; and 26.8 months and 22 months, respectively, for patients with clinically lymph node-positive disease (P<.0001). The median RFS was 32.4 months for patients who were SLNB negative, 14.3 months for patients who were SLNB positive, and 6.8 months for patients with clinically lymph node-positive disease (P<.0001).

Conclusions: With an acceptably low false-negative rate, patients with thick melanoma and a negative SLNB appear to have significantly prolonged RFS, DSS, and OS compared with those with a positive SLNB. Therefore, SLNB should be considered as indicated for patients with thick, clinically lymph node-negative melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4515965PMC
May 2015

Is multimodality therapy necessary for the management of pure myxoid liposarcomas? A multi-institutional series of pure myxoid liposarcomas of the extremities and torso.

J Surg Oncol 2015 Feb 12;111(2):146-51. Epub 2014 Sep 12.

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background And Objectives: The treatment of patients with pure (<5% round cell component) myxoid liposarcomas (pMLS) has not been well characterized. We hypothesized that multimodality therapy (oncological resection with radiation therapy) may not be necessary for pMLS.

Methods: Patients who underwent resection of localized pMLS at three institutions from 2000 to 2010 were identified and treatment variables were analyzed.

Results: Of 75 pts with pMLS, the median tumor size was 10 cm, the majority (95%) were deep tumors, and located in lower extremity. Radiation (XRT) was administered to 58 pts(77%). Comparing the no XRT to XRT patients, lower extremity location (77% vs. 79%, P=1.0), tumor size (13 vs. 11 cm, P=0.3), and positive margins (13% vs. 16%, P=1.0) were similar. The majority (82%) of patients not receiving XRT had deep tumors. After a median follow-up of 60 months, 2 pts (3%) developed local recurrence and 10 pts (13%) developed distant recurrence with a mean recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) of 114 and 148 mos, respectively. In multivariate analyses, increasing age and tumor size were the only significant predictors of recurrence. XRT was not a significant predictor of RFS in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: pMLS is an STS subtype with favorable tumor biology and an extremely low-rate of local recurrence. Our results suggest that multimodality therapy may not be necessary for all pMLS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.23786DOI Listing
February 2015
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