Publications by authors named "Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman"

64 Publications

Menopausal Hormone Therapy Formulation and Breast Cancer Risk.

Obstet Gynecol 2022 06 3;139(6):1103-1110. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, the Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, and Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate whether the increased risk of breast cancer is dependent on the formulation of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) used.

Methods: We performed a population-based case-control study of women aged 50 years or older using data from the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Women with incident cases of breast cancer were age-matched (1:10) with a control group of women with comparable follow-up time with no history of breast cancer. Exposures were classified as ever or never for the following menopausal HT formulations: bioidentical estrogens, animal-derived estrogens, micronized progesterone, and synthetic progestin. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the adjusted effect of menopausal HT formulation on breast cancer risk.

Results: Between 1995 and 2014, 43,183 cases of breast cancer were identified and matched to 431,830 women in a control group. In adjusted analyses, compared with women who never used menopausal HT, its use was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15). Compared with never users, estrogens were not associated with breast cancer (bioidentical estrogens: OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09; animal-derived estrogens: OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.06; both: OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89-1.03). Progestogens appeared to be differentially associated with breast cancer (micronized progesterone: OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.55-1.79; synthetic progestin: OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.22-1.35; both OR 1.31, 0.30-5.73).

Conclusion: Although menopausal HT use appears to be associated with an overall increased risk of breast cancer, this risk appears predominantly mediated through formulations containing synthetic progestins. When prescribing menopausal HT, micronized progesterone may be the safer progestogen to be used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004723DOI Listing
June 2022

Maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with a history of chemotherapy exposure: a population-based study of 8 million obstetric admissions.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2022 May 7. Epub 2022 May 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Pavilion H, Room 325, 5790 Cote-des-Neiges Road, Montreal, H3S 1Y9, Canada.

Purpose: With improvement in cancer care and fertility preservation, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are requiring obstetrical care. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of history of chemotherapy exposure on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) to obtain data on maternal and newborn outcomes in a cohort of births occurring between the years 2006 and 2015. The annual and overall prevalence of chemotherapy exposure was calculated among pregnant women, and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of history of exposure to chemotherapy on the risk of adverse maternal and newborn outcomes.

Results: Of 7,907,139 birth admissions, 613 had a history of chemotherapy exposure for an overall incidence of 7.75 per 100,000 admissions. The prevalence of chemotherapy exposure in pregnancy increased during the study period (P < 0.001). Women with a history of chemotherapy were more likely to suffer from obstetric and medical complications including pre-eclampsia, chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, and venous thromboembolism as well as an increased risk in overall mortality (OR 9.39, 95% CI 1.31-67.32). No differences were observed in the incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes, including stillbirth, intra-uterine growth restriction, or preterm birth.

Conclusion: Women with history of chemotherapy have higher incidence of pregnancy complications and maternal death, with no differences in fetal or newborn outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-022-06566-5DOI Listing
May 2022

Incidence and risk factors of bladder injury during cesarean delivery: a cohort study.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2022 Mar 27. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, 3755 Chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montreal, QC, H3T 1E2, Canada.

Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with bladder injury during cesarean delivery, and to determine the frequency of associated morbidities.

Methods: Data obtained from the United States' Health Care Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to conduct a retrospective population-wide cohort study. ICD-9 codes were used to identify women who underwent a cesarean delivery between 1999 and 2015. Subsequently, women were classified based on whether or not they experienced a bladder injury during delivery. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of bladder injury in cesarean deliveries and to examine the associated morbidities while adjusting for baseline maternal demographics and clinical characteristics.

Results: Of 4,169,681 cesarean deliveries identified, there were 7,627 (0.2%) bladder injuries for an overall incidence of 18 per 10,000. Women ≥ 35 years were at greater risk of bladder injury 1.5 (1.4-1.6), as were women with endometriosis 2.0 (1.5-2.7) and Crohn's disease 2.7 (1.7-4.2). Risk of bladder injury increased if the cesarean delivery was associated with placenta previa 2.2 (1.9-2.4), previous cesarean delivery 4.3 (4.1-4.6), failed instrumental delivery 4.1 (3.5-4.8), fetal distress 1.7 (1.6-1.8), failed trial of labor after cesarean delivery 1.3 (1.2-1.4), and labor dystocia 1.7 (1.6-1.8). Cesarean hysterectomies presented the greatest risk for bladder injury 37.0 (33.7-40.6). Bladder injury was associated with an increased frequency of sepsis, venous thromboembolism, peritonitis, blood transfusions and longer hospital stays.

Conclusion: Bladder injury during cesarean deliveries is a rare outcome but it is more common among women with certain demographic and clinical characteristics. Among these cases, strategies to prevent sepsis and venous thromboembolism should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-022-06447-xDOI Listing
March 2022

Maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with inflammatory myopathies.

J Perinat Med 2022 Jun 14;50(5):587-594. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objectives: Pregnancy outcomes in women with inflammatory myopathies (IM) are not well studied. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of IM on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) from 1999 to 2015. Among all pregnant women who delivered during this period, those with a diagnosis of IM were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding, which included all patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared in pregnant women with and without IM. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted effects of IM on these outcomes.

Results: A total of 13,792,544 pregnant women delivered between 1999 and 2015, of which 308 had a diagnosis of IM, for an overall prevalence of 2 per 100,000 pregnant women, with rates increasing over the study period. Pregnant women with IM were more likely to be older, African American and suffer from other autoimmune connective tissue diseases. IM in pregnancy was associated with greater risk of preeclampsia, caesarean delivery, major postpartum infections, urinary tract infections and longer hospital stay. Neonates born to mothers with IM had greater risk of prematurity, small for gestational age and intrauterine fetal demise.

Conclusions: Pregnant women with IM are at higher risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and should be closely followed in specialized centers with collaboration between maternal-fetal medicine and rheumatology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2021-0361DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of hidradenitis suppurativa on obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2022 Feb 8:1-6. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a debilitating chronic inflammatory skin disease with an often-unsatisfactory response to treatment. The objective was to evaluate the association between HS and pregnancy, delivery and neonatal outcomes.

Methods: The United States' Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to conduct a retrospective cohort study among all women who delivered between 1999 and 2015. ICD-9 code 705.83 identified those with HS, with the remaining deliveries composing the comparison group. Multivariate logistic regression compared maternal and neonatal outcomes between these two groups, while adjusting for baseline maternal variables.

Results: The study included 13,792,544 deliveries, of which 1021 were associated with an HS diagnosis (7.4/100,000 deliveries). During the observation period, there was an upward trend in the prevalence of HS among pregnant women (<0.0001). Pregnant women with HS were more likely to be African-American, to belong to a lower income quartile, and to be insured by Medicaid. They were also more likely to smoke, to be morbidly obese, and to be hypertensive. Compared with women without HS, those with HS had a greater likelihood of developing preeclampsia (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.71), delivering by cesarean section (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.56-2.02), and having a baby with congenital anomalies (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.10-3.62).

Conclusions: Although HS is a complex skin disorder, pregnancies complicated by HS had comparable outcomes to non-HS pregnancies, with the exception of a greater risk of preeclampsia, cesarean sections, and congenital anomalies. Health-care providers and women should be aware of these HS associated risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1974833DOI Listing
February 2022

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of births to women with psoriasis: a population-based cohort of 13 million births.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Dec 27:1-8. Epub 2021 Dec 27.

Obstetrics & Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Psoriasis is a common auto-immune disease affecting the skin and joints for which the current literature remains limited and contradictory in the context of pregnancy. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the association between psoriasis in pregnancy and maternal and newborn outcomes.

Methods: A population based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the 1999-2015 United States' Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample. ICD-9 codes were used to identify delivery admissions to women with or without psoriasis, as well as maternal and fetal outcomes. Adjusting for baseline characteristics, multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the effects of psoriasis on maternal and newborn outcomes.

Results: The cohort consisted of 3737 women with psoriasis, among a total of 13,792,544 pregnancy admissions in US hospitals between the years 1999 and 2015, for a period prevalence of 27.1 cases per 100,000 pregnant women. Psoriasis was associated with preeclampsia, OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.6), gestational diabetes, 1.27 (1.13-1.42), myocardial infarction, 13.4 (3.3-54.6), chorioamnionitis, 1.3 (1.0-1.6), delivery by cesarean section, 1.2 (1.1-1.3), anemia, 1.74 (1.18-2.57), and requiring blood transfusions, 1.4 (1.0-1.8). Their newborns were at higher risk of being born preterm, 1.2 (1.1-1.4), congenital anomalies, 1.7 (1.2-2.4), and intra-uterine growth restriction, 1.5 (1.2-1.7).

Conclusion: Women with psoriasis and their newborns appear more prone to adverse outcomes of pregnancy. It would be prudent for these women to be followed closely during pregnancy by their obstetrical caregiver and dermatologist. Further investigation is warranted regarding the management of psoriasis during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.2020238DOI Listing
December 2021

Cesarean delivery on maternal request in the United States from 1999 to 2015.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 03 8;226(3):411.e1-411.e8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: The rate of cesarean delivery has increased in the United States over the last several decades. However, the rate of cesarean delivery on maternal request remains undetermined, and recent data on cesarean delivery on maternal request are lacking.

Objective: This study aimed to describe the prevalence and temporal trends of cesarean delivery on maternal request in the United States and characterize the population of women who elect to undergo a cesarean delivery in the absence of fetal or maternal indications. Maternal outcomes between women who delivered by cesarean delivery on maternal request and those who did not were compared.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1999 to 2015. An algorithm based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes was created to identify patients who underwent a primary elective cesarean delivery in the absence of fetal or maternal indications. Maternal characteristics and outcomes between women who delivered by cesarean delivery on maternal request and those who did not were compared using descriptive and logistic regression analyses.

Results: Of the 13,698,835 deliveries included throughout the study period, 228,586 were identified as cesarean delivery on maternal request. Rates of cesarean delivery on maternal request among all live births increased throughout the study period, from 1% in 1999 to 1.62% in 2015 (P<.0001). Women who delivered by cesarean delivery on maternal request were more likely to be >35 years of age, were in the highest income quartile, and have private insurance. Cesarean delivery on maternal request was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-2.0), myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 6.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.8-10.4), sepsis (odds ratio, 5.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.7-6.6), disseminated intravascular coagulation (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-3.7), death (odds ratio, 14.5; 95% confidence interval, 11.4-18.6), and prolonged hospital stay (odds ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence interval, 4.8-5.1) and a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage (odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-0.7).

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that cesarean delivery on maternal request accounts for a small but increasing proportion of all cesarean deliveries in the United States. Cesarean delivery on maternal request was more prevalent among women with certain demographic characteristics, indicating that the option of cesarean delivery on maternal request may be more appealing or more frequently offered to a certain population of women. Although the overall risk of adverse events is low for individual births, population effects can result in increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the rates of cesarean delivery on maternal request should be monitored on a national level. Study findings were limited by the absence of a specific diagnostic code for cesarean delivery on maternal request.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.10.003DOI Listing
March 2022

Perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by acute pancreatitis.

J Perinat Med 2022 Jan 15;50(1):68-73. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objectives: Acute pancreatitis is a rare condition that can be associated with significant complications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the maternal and newborn outcomes associated with acute pancreatitis in pregnancy.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the United States was performed. All pregnant patients with acute pancreatitis were identified using International Classification of Disease-9 coding from 1999 to 2015. The effect of acute pancreatitis on maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancy was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression, while adjusting for baseline maternal characteristics.

Results: From 1999 to 2015, there were a total of 13,815,919 women who gave birth. There were a total of 14,258 admissions of women diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, including 1,756 who delivered during their admission and 12,502 women who were admitted in the antepartum period and did not deliver during the same admission. Acute pancreatitis was associated with increased risk of prematurity, OR 3.78 (95% CI 3.38-4.22), preeclampsia, 3.81(3.33-4.36), postpartum hemorrhage, 1.90(1.55-2.33), maternal death, 9.15(6.05-13.85), and fetal demise, 2.60(1.86-3.62) among women diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. Among women with acute pancreatitis, delivery was associated with increased risk of requiring transfusions, 6.06(4.87-7.54), developing venous thromboembolisms, 2.77(1.83-4.18), acute respiratory failure, 3.66(2.73-4.91), and disseminated intravascular coagulation, 8.12(4.12-16.03).

Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is associated with severe complications, such as maternal and fetal death. Understanding the risk factors that may lead to these complications can help prevent or minimize them through close fetal and maternal monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2020-0580DOI Listing
January 2022

Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies with obstructive sleep apnea.

J Perinat Med 2021 Nov 15;49(9):1064-1070. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Obstetrics & Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is linked to many health comorbidities. We aimed to ascertain if OSA correlates with a rise in poor obstetrical outcomes.

Methods: Employing the United States' Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - National Inpatient Sample, we performed our retrospective cohort study including all women who delivered between 2006 and 2015. ICD-9 codes were used to characterize women as having a diagnosis of OSA. Temporal trends in pregnancies with OSA were studied, baseline features were evaluated among gravidities in the presence and absence of OSA, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was utilized in assessing consequences of OSA on patient and newborn outcomes.

Results: Of a total 7,907,139 deliveries, 3,115 belonged to patients suffering from OSA, resulting in a prevalence of 39 per 100,000 deliveries. Rates rose from 10.14 to 78.12 per 100,000 deliveries during the study interval (p<0.0001). Patients diagnosed with OSA were at higher risk of having pregnancies with preeclampsia, OR 2.2 (95% CI 2.0-2.4), eclampsia, 4.1 (2.4-7.0), chorioamnionitis, 1.4 (1.2-1.8), postpartum hemorrhage, 1.4 (1.2-1.7), venous thromboembolisms, 2.7 (2.1-3.4), and to deliver by caesarean section, 2.1 (1.9-2.3). Cardiovascular and respiratory complications were also more common among these women, as was maternal death, 4.2 (2.2-8.0). Newborns of OSA patients were at elevated risk of being premature, 1.3 (1.2-1.5) and having congenital abnormalities, 2.3 (1.7-3.0).

Conclusions: Pregnancies with OSA were linked to an elevated risk of poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. During pregnancy, OSA patients should receive attentive follow-up care in a tertiary hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2020-0551DOI Listing
November 2021

Hospital antenatal admissions for threatened preterm labor: how long should we be "observing"?

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2022 01 30;305(1):31-37. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: We sought to describe temporal trends in hospital admissions for threatened preterm labor (TPTL) and to examine hospital admission duration among women delivered or discharged undelivered.

Methods: We carried out a cohort study on all TPTL admissions among pregnancies with a live singleton fetus and intact membranes between 1999 and 2015 using the United States' Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample. ICD-9 codes were used to identify women with TPTL. Duration of antenatal admission length of stay was calculated in days following admission to hospital until delivery ("Delivery Admission") or undelivered discharge ("Observation Admission"). Analyses included evaluating trends of birth admissions over total admissions, identifying predictors of delivery using logistic regression, and measuring risk for delivery with increasing duration of antepartum hospitalization.

Results: Of 15,335,288 pregnancy admissions, 1,089,987 admissions were for TPTL, with 61.8% being 'Delivery Admissions". During the 16-year study period, overall rates of TPTL admissions declined with a rising proportion of admissions being "Delivery Admissions". "Delivery Admissions" were more common among patients who were older, non-Caucasian, obese, or who had placental abruption. "Observation Admissions" were more common among admissions for antepartum hemorrhage or antepartum spotting. Among all "Delivery Admissions" for TPTL, 89% had delivered within 2 days, 7% delivered within 3-6 days, and 5% delivered beyond 6 days.

Conclusion: Overall admissions for TPTL declined over the study period with increasing proportions being "Delivery Admissions". Protocols taking into consideration declining risk of preterm birth among patients undelivered after 2 days may be helpful in reducing unnecessary prolonged observation admissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06106-7DOI Listing
January 2022

Decreasing Incidence of Palatoplasty in the United States.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Nov-Dec 01;32(8):2710-2712

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, McGill University Health Center.

Introduction: Cleft palate is amongst the most common birth defect across the world. Although its etiology is multifactorial, including genetic and environmental contributors, the investigators were interested in exploring whether its incidence was changing over time.

Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, the largest publically available healthcare database in the United States, was used to identify all primary palatoplasties performed under 2 years of age and births which occurred over a 17-year period from 1999 to 2015. The change in rate of palatoplasties and overall maternal demographics were assessed longitudinally using the chi-squared test. Significance level was set at P < 0.001.

Results: A total of 13,808,795 pregnancies were reviewed during the time period, from 1999 to 2015, inclusively. A total of 10,567 primary palatoplasties were performed in that period of time reflecting an overall rate of 7.7 palatoplasties per 10,000 deliveries. Palatoplasty rates decreased across the study period from 9.5 per 10,000 in 1999 to 7.1 per 10,000 died/delivered pregnancies in 2015 which corresponds to an average compounded year-to-year decrease of 1.76%, P < 0.001.

Conclusions: The rate of primary palatoplasties, as a proxy for the rate of cleft palate prevalence, has been significantly decreasing over the last 2 decades and may represent improvements in early diagnosis in pregnancy, changing genetic or racial demographics, and/or environmental factors such as decreased maternal smoking in the US population. Future research may be directed at better understanding the definitive etiology of this decreasing prevalence of children undergoing primary cleft palate repairs in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007799DOI Listing
November 2021

Maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with disorders of lipid metabolism.

J Perinat Med 2021 Nov 1;49(9):1129-1134. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objectives: The effects of lipid metabolism disorders (LMD) on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of LMD on maternal and fetal outcomes.

Methods: Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - National Inpatient Sample from the United States, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of all births between 1999 and 2015 to determine the risks of complications in pregnant women known to have LMDs. All pregnant patients diagnosed with LMDs between 1999 and 2015 were identified using the International Classification of Disease-9 coding, which included all patients with pure hypercholesterolemia, pure hyperglyceridemia, mixed hyperlipidemia, hyperchylomicronemia, and other lipid metabolism disorders. Adjusted effects of LMDs on maternal and newborn outcomes were estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis.

Results: A total of 13,792,544 births were included, 9,666 of which had an underlying diagnosis of LMDs for an overall prevalence of 7.0 per 10,000 births. Women with LMDs were more likely to have pregnancies complicated by diabetes, hypertension, and premature births, and to experience myocardial infarctions, venous thromboembolisms, postpartum hemorrhage, and maternal death. Their infants were at increased risk of congenital anomalies, fetal growth restriction, and fetal demise.

Conclusions: Women with LMDs are at significantly higher risk of adverse maternal and newborn outcomes. Prenatal counselling should take into consideration these risks and antenatal care in specialized centres should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2021-0028DOI Listing
November 2021

Timing of delivery in obese women and risk of stillbirth.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Increased body mass index (BMI) is an independent risk factor for stillbirth. The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal time of delivery at term in obese women in order to decrease the risk of stillbirth in this population.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using the CDC's Period Linked Birth-Infant Death and Fetal Death data. The study population included all singleton, term births with a recorded pre-pregnancy BMI that occurred between 2014 and 2017. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of stillbirth in each BMI class at each gestational week from 37 weeks and onwards comparing with births to normal-weight women at 41 weeks.

Results: Of 12,742,980 births in our cohort, 46.8% were to women with a normal BMI, 26.9% were to women who were classified as overweight, 14.5% were to women in obesity class I, 7.3% in obesity class II, and 4.8% in obesity class III. Within each BMI class, the risk of stillbirth increased with gestational age, with the most pronounced rises in risk occurring at later gestational ages. In a dose-response relationship, the risk of stillbirth exceeded that of a normal BMI pregnancy at 41 weeks at the following gestational age and BMI category: obese class 1 at 39 weeks (OR 1.15 95% CI 1.00-1.31), obese class II at 38 weeks (OR 1.21 95% CI 1.04-1.41) and obese class III at 37 weeks (OR 1.30 95% CI 1.11-1.52).

Conclusion: Compared to women with a normal BMI at 41 weeks, there was a higher risk of stillbirth at term in women with each increase in BMI class. Consideration should be given to early induction among these women to reduce the risk of stillbirth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1937107DOI Listing
June 2021

Characteristics and outcomes among pregnant women with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 24:1-7. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Pregnancy among women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has risen in frequency, which may be attributed to improvements in hemodialysis care. Our objective was to describe baseline characteristics and pregnancy outcomes among women with ESRD on hemodialysis.

Methods: Using the United States' Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we created a cohort of women with ESRD on hemodialysis who gave birth between 2005 and 2015. We determined the proportion of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes among this cohort. Then, we created a composite measure of vascular-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes. Women who experienced at least one of either preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, or intrauterine fetal death were categorized as having the composite measure. Then, multivariate regression models were used to estimate the associations between maternal baseline demographic and clinical characteristics and the composite measure.

Results: Among 8,765,973 deliveries between 2005 and 2015, 307 were to women with ESRD on hemodialysis. Over the study period, the incidence of pregnancies to women with ESRD increased from 0.47 to 5.76/100,000 births. An estimated 28% of pregnancies were complicated by preeclampsia, 8% by placental abruption, 58% delivered by cesarean, and in the postpartum, 28% required blood transfusions and 6% experienced sepsis. About 45% of babies were born preterm and 14% had IUGR. The composite measure of adverse events was not found to be associated with any baseline maternal characteristics.

Conclusions: The frequency of pregnant women with ESRD on hemodialysis has risen, with adverse pregnancy complications for both mother and fetus. Transfer to high-risk centers is suggested for women with ESRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1900106DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of celiac disease on maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jul 5;34(13):2117-2123. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent immune reaction to gluten that is likely related to genetic factors. Some studies have linked CD to adverse maternal and/or neonatal outcomes but the data has been contradictory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CD on pregnancy outcomes.

Materials And Methods: We used data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the USA to conduct a population-based retrospective cohort study of women who delivered between 1999 and 2014. Pregnancies were categorized as having CD if corresponding ICD-9 code was present. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted effect on maternal and fetal outcomes.

Results: There were 14,513,587 births during the study period of which 2755 were to women with CD, for an overall prevalence of 1.9 cases/10,000 births and with rates increasing over the study period. Women with CD tended to be older, Caucasian and to have pre-existing comorbidities, especially other autoimmune diseases. Women with CD were at greater risk of hyperemesis gravidarum, 4.52 (3.68-5.57), colitis, 7.56 (3.14-18.20), and venous thromboembolic events, 2.93 (2.07-4.15), as well as, hospital stays >3 d, 2.06 (1.75-2.43). Infants of women with CD were more likely to be growth restricted, 1.80 (1.46-2.21) and have congenital malformations, 3.51 (2.68-4.58).

Conclusions: CD in pregnancy is associated with increased adverse maternal and newborn complications. These pregnancies should be considered high risk and may benefit from increased surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1658733DOI Listing
July 2021

Maternal and fetal outcomes of urolithiasis: A retrospective cohort study.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 Nov 10;50(9):102161. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Although urolithiasis is relatively common in the general population, there is limited information on this condition available in the pregnant population. The objectives of this study are to identify the incidence of urolithiasis in pregnancy, as well as to compare maternal and fetal outcomes associated with urolithiasis in pregnancy.

Methods: Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from the United States, a population-based retrospective cohort study consisting of pregnant women who delivered between 1999 and 2015 was conducted. ICD-9-CM code 592.X was used to identify pregnant women with urolithiasis within the cohort, with pregnant women without urolithiasis forming the comparison group. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between urolithiasis in pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes, while adjusting for baseline maternal characteristics.

Results: A cohort of 13,792,544 pregnant women was identified, of which 11,528 had a urolithiasis-related admission during pregnancy, for an overall incidence of 8.3 per 10,000 pregnancies. Women with urolithiasis had a greater risk of developing preeclampsia/eclampsia, OR 1.35(95% CI 1.24-1.47), gestational diabetes, 1.29(1.20-1.30), abruptio placenta, 1.41(1.22-1.64), placenta previa, 1.55(1.27-1.90), pyelonephritis, 88.87(81.69-96.69), venous thromboembolism, 1.65(1.23-2.22), and more likely to deliver by cesarean, 1.20(1.15-1.25). As well, maternal death was more common among these women, 2.85(1.07-7.60). Congenital anomalies, 2.84(2.43-3.31) and prematurity, 1.92(1.82-2.03) were more commonly found among babies born to women with urolithiasis.

Conclusion: Although the mechanism is unclear, women with urolithiasis in pregnancy have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy and newborn outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2021.102161DOI Listing
November 2021

Association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in the USA: a population-based cohort study.

Arch Womens Ment Health 2021 12 10;24(6):971-978. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder linked to functional impairments and adverse health outcomes. We sought to examine the association between pregnant women with OCD and obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in the USA. A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted using data provided by pregnant women from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative database of hospitalizations in the USA, from 1999 to 2015. Using diagnostic and procedure codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), we identified births and classified women by OCD status. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared for women with and without OCD and multivariate logistic regressions were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) to compare obstetrical and neonatal outcomes between the two groups, adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical variables. Between 1999 and 2015, there were 3365 births to women with OCD, corresponding to an overall prevalence of 24.40 per 100,000 births. Women with OCD were more likely to be older than 25, Caucasian, of higher socioeconomic status, smokers or used drugs and alcohol, and have other comorbid psychiatric conditions. In adjusted models, OCD was associated with a higher risk of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membranes, caesarean and instrumental deliveries, venous thromboembolisms and preterm birth. Pregnancies in women with OCD are at high risk of adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. A multidisciplinary approach should be used to identify high risk behaviours and ensure adequate prenatal follow-up and care be available for those with high risk pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-021-01140-5DOI Listing
December 2021

Clinical presentation and management of urolithiasis in the obstetric patient: a matched cohort study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 9:1-6. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of pregnancy on the clinical presentation, inpatient procedure rates, and length of hospital stay, on women with urolithiasis.

Materials And Methods: We carried out a matched cohort study using the United States' Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 1999 to 2015. Pregnant women with urolithiasis were compared to age-matched non-pregnant women (1:1) with urolithiasis. Baseline clinical characteristics were compared between the two cohorts and the effect of pregnancy on select inpatient procedural and clinical outcomes was evaluated using conditional logistic regression models.

Results: There were 42,113 pregnant patients diagnosed with urolithiasis during the study period. It was observed that pregnant patients were less likely to present with classic clinical symptoms of urinary tract stones, such as flank pain, OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.56-0.70, and fever, 0.22 (0.16-0.30), but tended to have longer hospital stays. The pregnant patients were less commonly affected by infectious conditions, namely urinary tract infections, 0.56 (0.53-0.59), sepsis, 0.17 (0.14-0.20), and pyelonephritis, 0.34 (0.36-0.44). Invasive and surgical procedures were less commonly performed in pregnant women.

Conclusions: Pregnant women admitted with urolithiasis appear to be less symptomatic with fewer interventions and complications than non-pregnant women with urolithiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1915274DOI Listing
May 2021

Induction of labor at 39 weeks and risk of cesarean delivery among obese women: a retrospective propensity score matched study.

J Perinat Med 2021 Sep 25;49(7):791-796. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Objectives: To evaluate if induction of labor (IOL) in obese women at 39 weeks of gestation decreases the risk of cesarean delivery (CD).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective propensity score matched study using the Center for Disease Control's (CDC's) Period Linked Birth-Infant Death data. The study population consisted of cephalic singleton births to women with BMI greater or equal to 30.0 kg/m who delivered at or beyond 39 weeks between 2013 and 2017. Women with prior CD were excluded. Women who underwent IOL at 39 weeks were propensity score matched 1:5 on the basis of CD risk factors to women who did not undergo IOL at 39 weeks but may have had an IOL at a later gestational age. Conditional logistic regression compared CD rates and maternal outcomes between obese women induced at 39 weeks with those not induced at 39 weeks.

Results: Our cohort consisted of 197,343 obese women induced at 39 weeks and 986,715 obese women not induced at 39 weeks. Overall, the risk of CD among women who had an IOL at 39 weeks was lower than those without an IOL at 39 weeks, 0.59 (0.58-0.60). The decrease in CD risk was more pronounced in multiparas, 0.47 (0.46-0.49) than nulliparas, 0.81 (0.79-0.83). When stratified by BMI, the effect of IOL on lowering CD risk was similar across all obesity classes. Aside from an increased risk of instrumental deliveries, morbidities were comparable in both groups.

Conclusions: IOL at 39 weeks among obese women appears to lower the risk of CD, without compromising maternal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2021-0043DOI Listing
September 2021

Association Between First-Trimester Bleeding and Retained Placenta Requiring Dilatation and Curettage.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 Apr 25;43(4):463-468. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, QC; Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, QC. Electronic address:

Objective: Early subchorionic hemorrhage may lead to a disruption in the placental-uterine matrix, which may result in an adherence of the placenta to the endometrium. We evaluated the effect of a first-trimester bleed on the need for a post-vaginal delivery dilatation and curettage (D&C) for removal of retained placenta.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study at a tertiary care centre between 2012 and 2016. Patients identified through medical records as having required a post-vaginal delivery D&C for retained placenta were considered cases and were matched 1:5 with patients delivering vaginally within 1 week who did not require a D&C. History of first-trimester bleeding and subchorionic hemorrhage were identified through chart review. Conditional logistic regression analyses estimated the effect of a first-trimester bleed on the requirement for D&C for retained placenta. Models were adjusted for maternal age and previous uterine surgery.

Results: There were 68 cases of retained placenta requiring D&C, for an estimated 3 in 1000 deliveries. Patients requiring D&C were slightly older than controls but were otherwise comparable with respect to baseline demographic characteristics. In adjusted analyses, patients who required a postpartum D&C were more likely than controls to have had a first-trimester bleed at 11.8% and 0.6%, respectively (OR 25.3; 95% CI 4.7-135.4, P < 0.001). Postpartum D&C for retained placenta was associated with postpartum hemorrhage, need for blood transfusion, and manual removal of placenta.

Conclusion: First-trimester bleeding should be considered a high-risk determinant for post-vaginal delivery D&C for retained placenta and for severe postpartum hemorrhage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2020.07.012DOI Listing
April 2021

Maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with myasthenia gravis.

J Perinat Med 2020 Oct;48(8):793-798

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objectives Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction marked by weakness and fatiguability of skeletal muscle. MG has an unpredictable course in pregnancy. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of MG on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods Using the United States' Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2015, we conducted a retrospective cohort study consisting of women who delivered during that period. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for baseline maternal demographics and comorbidities, were used to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnancies in women with and without MG. Results During the study period, 974 deliveries were to women diagnosed with MG. Women with MG were more likely to be older, African American, obese, have Medicare insurance and be discharged from an urban teaching hospital. Women with MG were also more likely to have chronic hypertension, pre-gestational diabetes, hypothyroidism, and chronic steroid use. Women with MG were at greater risk for acute respiratory failure (OR 13.7, 95% CI 8.9-21.2) and increased length of hospital stay (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9-3.3). No significant difference was observed in the risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes, caesarean section or instrumental vaginal delivery. Neonates of women with MG were more likely to be premature (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.8). Conclusions MG in pregnancy is a high-risk condition associated with greater risk of maternal respiratory failure and preterm birth. Management in a tertiary care center with obstetrical, neurological, anesthesia and neonatology collaboration is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2020-0163DOI Listing
October 2020

Pregnancy outcomes in women with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2022 May 13;35(9):1683-1689. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Purpose: Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is an inherited connective tissue disorder caused by abnormal collagen synthesis. Little is known about its effects on pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes in women with EDS.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from the United States. The study included women who delivered between 1999 and 2014. We measured the prevalence of EDS over time, and compared the baseline, obstetrical, and neonatal outcomes among women with EDS to the general obstetrical population without EDS. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted effect of EDS on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Results: The overall prevalence of EDS in pregnancy was 7 per 100,000 births, with the trend increasing over the 16 year study period ( < .0001). Women with EDS were more likely to be Caucasian, belong to a higher income quartile, and smoke. Pregnancies in women with EDS were associated with prematurity, 1.47 (1.18-1.82), cervical incompetence, 3.11 (1.99-4.85), antepartum hemorrhage, 1.71 (1.16-2.50), placenta previa, 2.26 (1.35-3.77) and maternal death, 9.04 (1.27-64.27). Pregnant women with EDS were more likely to be delivered by cesarean section, 1.55 (1.36-1.76), have longer postpartum stays (>7 days), 2.82 (2.08-3.85), and have a neonate with intra-uterine growth restriction, 1.81 (1.29-2.54).

Conclusions: EDS in pregnancy is a high-risk condition with increased maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as newborn morbidity. Consideration should be given to prematurity preventative measures and high-risk pregnancy consultation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1767574DOI Listing
May 2022

Pregnancy outcome among women with drug dependence: A population-based cohort study of 14 million births.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2020 Sep 11;49(7):101741. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: Drug dependence is on the rise worldwide. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between drug dependency in pregnancy (DDP) and maternal and newborn outcomes.

Methods: We carried out a population-based retrospective cohort study evaluating DDP using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1999 to 2014. DDP was identified using ICD-9 coding. The associations between DDP and maternal and newborn outcomes were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analyses to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals.

Results: Among 14,513,587 deliveries, 50,570 were to mothers with DDP for an overall prevalence of 35 cases/10,000 deliveries. The rate of pregnancies to drug-dependent women increased during the 15-year study period, from approximately 25/10,000 in 1999 to 69/10,000 in 2014. Women with DDP were younger in age, users of tobacco, and in lower income quartiles with more pre-existing health conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension. DDP was associated with greater risk of venous thromboembolism (OR 1.60; 95 % CI, 1.45-1.76), sepsis (OR 2.94; 95 % CI, 2.48-3.49), and maternal death (OR 2.77; 95 % CI, 1.88-4.08). Neonates born to mothers with drug dependence were at higher risk of prematurity (OR 1.37; 95 % CI, 1.33-1.41), intrauterine growth restriction (OR 1.60; 95 % CI, 1.54-1.67), and intrauterine fetal death (OR 1.27; 95 % CI, 1.16-1.40).

Conclusion: DDP is increasing in frequency and it is associated with maternal and newborn deaths and adverse events. Further research and public health initiatives should be undertaken to address prevention, screening, and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101741DOI Listing
September 2020

Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in obstetric patients: a retrospective cohort study.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2020 06 3;301(6):1377-1382. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, 3755 Chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montreal, QC, H3T 1E2, Canada.

Purpose: There is little information on the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in pregnant women. Our objectives are to estimate the use of ECMO in pregnant patients, identify clinical conditions associated with ECMO use, and assess survival rates by the associated condition.

Methods: Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of all delivery admissions in the United States from January 1, 1999, to October 1, 2015. Within the cohort, women who received ECMO therapy were identified using ICD-9 codes and then survival rates among these women were calculated.

Results: There were 83 women who underwent ECMO therapy in our cohort of 15,335,205 births, for an overall ECMO use rate of 0.54/100,000 pregnancies. The incidence of ECMO use increased from 0.23/100,000 in 1999 to 2.57/100,000 in 2015. Patients on ECMO were more likely to be older, have a lower income, and have pre-existing medical conditions when compared with the patients not on ECMO. The overall survival rate for the ECMO group was 62.7%. The most common reason for ECMO use was acute respiratory failure. Etiologies associated with the highest survival in those on ECMO were pneumonia and venous thromboembolism, which were found to have survival rates of 75.0% and 81.0%, respectively.

Conclusion: The incidence of ECMO use in the obstetric population increased over the last decade and a half. Although it carries a limited survival rate within this population, it has proven life-saving for many suffering from complications of pregnancy and delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05530-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Pregnancy outcomes among women with peptic ulcer disease.

J Perinat Med 2020 Mar;48(3):209-216

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background Little is known about the impact of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) on pregnancy. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of PUD on pregnancy and newborn outcomes. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)-National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from the United States. The cohort consisted of all births that took place from 1999 to 2015. PUD was classified on the basis of the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision (ICD-9) coding. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the adjusted effect of PUD on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results Of the 13,792,544 births in this cohort, 1005 were to women with PUD (7/100,000 births). Between 1999 and 2015, prevalence of PUD in pregnancy increased from 4/100,000 to 11/100,000, respectively. Women with PUD were more commonly older and more likely to have comorbid illnesses. Women with PUD were at greater risk of preeclampsia [odds ratio (OR) 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-2.66], preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM; OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.30-3.59), cesarean delivery (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.40-1.82), venous thromboembolism (OR 3.77, 95% CI 2.08-6.85) and maternal death (OR 24.50, 95% CI 10.12-59.32). Births to women with PUD were at increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR; OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.11-2.14), preterm birth (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.54-2.21), intrauterine fetal death (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.35-3.52) and congenital anomalies (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.59-4.56). Conclusion The prevalence of PUD in pregnancy has risen over the last several years. PUD in pregnancy should be considered a high-risk condition associated with important adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2019-0344DOI Listing
March 2020

Pregnancy outcomes among leukemia survivors: a population-based study on 14.5 million births.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jul 18;34(14):2283-2289. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Leukemia is the most common cancer among children and young adults and an increasing number of affected patients can expect a full recovery and long-term survival. The study objective was to determine the prevalence of leukemia survivors among pregnant women and to examine the maternal and fetal outcomes of this population.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study on all births recorded in the Health - Care Cost and Utilization Project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 1999 and 2014. We measured the prevalence of leukemia survivors in pregnancy and performed multivariate logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for maternal and fetal outcomes among this group compared to a nonaffected one.

Results: Our cohort consisted of 14,513,587 births, of which 1,269 were to women with a history of leukemia or leukemia in remission, corresponding to a prevalence of 8.74 per 100,000 births. The prevalence rose steadily over the 16-year study period. Pregnant women who were leukemia survivors were more likely to experience gestational diabetes (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.70), threatened preterm labor (1.50, 1.09-2.08), venous thromboembolism (4.40, 2.86-6.78), and to require blood transfusions (1.89, 1.24-2.88). Preterm deliveries (1.25, 1.02-1.54) and congenital anomalies (2.32, 1.39-3.86) among their newborns were also more common.

Conclusion: The prevalence of leukemia survivors among pregnant women has been steadily rising. While the disease may no longer be active during their pregnancy, leukemia survivors appeared to have increased risks of several adverse outcomes and as such, should be monitored closely in centers with access to specialized care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1663818DOI Listing
July 2021

Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies with long-term corticosteroid use.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 20;34(11):1797-1804. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Long-term corticosteroids are administered in pregnant patients with an array of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Our objective is to determine whether long-term corticosteroid use is associated with increased maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-national Inpatient Sample from the USA. All pregnant patients on long-term corticosteroids were identified using International Classification of Disease-9 coding from 2003 to 2015. The effect of long-term corticosteroid use on maternal and neonatal outcomes was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: Out of the 10,491,798 births included in our study, 3999 were among women with long-term use of steroids, for an overall prevalence of 38 per 100,000 births. There was a steady increase in chronic steroid use from 2 to 81 per 100,000 births over the 13-year study period ( < .0001). Women on long-term steroids were more likely to have pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, 1.72 (1.30-2.29) and were at greater risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes, 1.63 (1.01-2.44), pyelonephritis, 4.81 (1.18-19.61), and venous thromboembolisms, 2.50 (1.32-4.73). Neonates born from mothers on long-term steroids were more likely to suffer from prematurity, 1.51 (1.13-2.05), and lower weight for gestational age, 2.10 (1.34-3.30).

Conclusion: Long-term corticosteroids use in pregnancy is associated with maternal and fetal adverse outcomes. These patients would benefit from close follow-up throughout their pregnancy to minimize complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1649392DOI Listing
June 2021

Pregnancy outcomes after thyroid cancer.

J Perinat Med 2019 Sep;47(7):710-716

Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Montreal, Canada.

Background Thyroid cancer is one of the most common cancers in women of reproductive age. Our purpose was to evaluate the association between thyroid cancer and maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) database from the US. A cohort consisting of women who delivered between 1999 and 2014 was created. Multivariate logistic regression, controlling for baseline maternal characteristics, was used to compare pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with thyroid cancer [International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition (ICD-9) code 193] diagnosed before or during pregnancy with those of the obstetric population without thyroid cancer. Results The study included 14,513,587 pregnant women, of which 581 women had a diagnosis of thyroid cancer (4/100,000). During the observation period, there was an upward trend in the prevalence of thyroid cancer among pregnant women, though not statistically significant (P = 0.147). Women with thyroid cancer were more likely to be Caucasian, belong to a higher income quartile, have private insurance, to be discharged from an urban teaching hospital and to have pre-gestational hypertension. Women with thyroid cancer had a greater chance of delivering vaginally, requiring transfusion of blood and developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). Neonates of mothers with thyroid cancer were not found to be at increased risk for the adverse neonatal outcomes examined, specifically, congenital malformations, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal death and preterm labor. Conclusion Pregnancies complicated by thyroid cancer have higher incidences of VTE and need for transfusions, with comparable overall newborn outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2019-0039DOI Listing
September 2019

Influence of intrauterine growth restriction on caesarean delivery risk among preterm pregnancies undergoing induction of labor for hypertensive disease.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2019 Sep 9;45(9):1860-1865. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on the success rate of labor induction of preterm pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study conducted using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Linked Birth-Infant Death File in the United States from 2009 to 2013. Our cohort included live normal singleton cephalic pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders that underwent induction of labor and delivered between 24 and 35.6 weeks' gestation. Study subjects were categorized by the presence or absence of IUGR. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted effect of IUGR on risk of caesarean deliveries.

Results: Of 41 640 births meeting study criteria, 39 890 had no IUGR and 1750 had IUGR infants. The overall caesarean delivery rate was 22.2%, with caesarean delivery risk being higher among pregnancies complicated by IUGR versus those not complicated by IUGR (33.2% vs 21.7%, respectively) (odds ratio 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.78-2.25). The effect of IUGR on risk of caesarean sections was most pronounced for gestational ages between 28 and 36 weeks. The effect of IUGR was highest among obese women, with the risk of caesarean in IUGR vs non-IUGR pregnancies being 62.8% vs 41.4%, respectively (odds ratio 2.53, 95% confidence interval 1.98-3.24).

Conclusion: Induction of labor of preterm pregnancy complicated by hypertensive disorders should be considered a reasonable option for delivery; however, in the context of IUGR, women should be informed of the considerable higher risk of caesarean delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14062DOI Listing
September 2019

Effect of Sjögren's syndrome on maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy.

J Perinat Med 2019 Aug;47(6):637-642

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Background Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease affecting the body's moisture-producing glands. Some studies have linked SS to adverse maternal/neonatal outcomes, but sample sizes have tended to be small, with few outcomes examined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of SS on pregnancy outcomes for mother and neonate using a large dataset. Methods We carried out a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered between 1999 and 2014 using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the United States. SS categorization is based on ICD-9 coding. Baseline characteristics were compared in both groups and multivariate logistic regression was used to compare maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancies in women with and without SS. Results The prevalence of SS in our population was 1.34 cases/10,000 births, with the rate increasing over the study period. Women with SS tended to be older, Caucasian and to have pre-existing comorbidities. Births to women with SS were at greater risk of pre-eclampsia [odds ratio (OR) 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-1.99]; premature rupture of membranes (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.57); preterm delivery (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.34-1.81); cesarean delivery (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.17-1.41); and venous thromboembolic events (OR 3.71, 95% CI 2.57-5.35). Infants of women with SS were more likely to have intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.46-3.65); and congenital malformations (OR 3.26, 95% CI 2.30-4.62). Conclusion SS is a high-risk pregnancy condition associated with significant comorbidities and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Women with SS may benefit from increased surveillance during their pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2019-0034DOI Listing
August 2019
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