Publications by authors named "Nichola Cooper"

89 Publications

Multi-arm Trial of Inflammatory Signal Inhibitors (MATIS) for hospitalised patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 pneumonia: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 12;22(1):270. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Imperial College, London and Imperial NHS Trust, London, UK.

Objectives: The primary objective of MATIS is to determine the efficacy of ruxolitinib (RUX) or fostamatinib (FOS) compared to standard of care (SOC) with respect to reducing the proportion of hospitalised patients progressing from mild or moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Secondary objectives, at 14 and 28 days, are to: Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce mortality Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce the need for invasive ventilation or ECMO Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce the need for non-invasive ventilation Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce the proportion of participants suffering significant oxygen desaturation Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce the need for renal replacement therapy Determine the efficacy of RUX and FOS to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism Determine the efficacy of RUX and FOS to reduce the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia [graded by a 9-point modified WHO Ordinal Scale* Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce systemic inflammation Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to the incidence of renal impairment Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce duration of hospital stay Evaluate the safety of RUX and FOS for treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Trial Design: A multi-arm, multi-stage (3-arm parallel-group, 2-stage) randomised controlled trial that allocates participants 1:1:1 and tests for superiority in experimental arms versus standard of care.

Participants: Patients will be recruited while inpatients during hospitalisation for COVID-19 in multiple centres throughout the UK including Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust.

Inclusion: Patients age ≥ 18 years at screening Patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, defined as Grade 3 or 4 severity by the WHO COVID-19 Ordinal Scale Patients meeting criteria: Hospitalization AND SARS-CoV2 infection (clinically suspected or laboratory confirmed) AND Radiological change consistent with COVID-19 disease CRP ≥ 30mg/L at any time point Informed consent from patient or personal or professional representative Agreement to abstain from sexual intercourse or use contraception that is >99% effective for all participants of childbearing potential for 42 days after the last dose of study drug. For male participants, agreement to abstain from sperm donation for 42 days after the last dose of study drug.

Exclusion: Requiring either invasive or non-invasive ventilation including CPAP or high flow nasal oxygen at any point after hospital admission but before baseline, not related to a pre-existing condition (e.g., obstructive sleep apnoea) Grade ≥ 5 severity on the modified WHO COVID-19 Ordinal Scale, i.e. SpO < 90% on ≥ 60% inspired oxygen by facemask at baseline; non-invasive ventilation; or invasive mechanical ventilation In the opinion of the investigator, progression to death is inevitable within the next 24 hours, irrespective of the provision of therapy Known severe allergic reactions to the investigational agents Child-Pugh B or C grade hepatic dysfunction Use of drugs within the preceding 14 days that are known to interact with any study treatment (FOS or RUX), as listed in the Summary of Product Characteristics Pregnant or breastfeeding Any medical condition or concomitant medication that in the opinion of the investigator would compromise subjects' safety or compliance with study procedures. Any medical condition which in the opinion of the principal investigator would compromise the scientific integrity of the study Non-English speakers will be able to join the study. If participants are unable to understand verbal or written information in English, then hospital translation services will be requested at the participating site for the participant where possible.

Intervention And Comparator: RUXOLITINIB (RUX) (14 days): An oral selective and potent inhibitor of Janus Associated Kinases (JAK1 and JAK2) and cell proliferation (Verstovek, 2010). It is approved for the treatment of disease-related splenomegaly or constitutional symptoms in myelofibrosis, polycythaemia vera and graft-versus-host-disease. RUX will be administered orally 10mg bd Day 1-7 and 5mg bd Day 8-14. FOSTAMATINIB (FOS) (14 days): An oral spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in adult participants with chronic immune thrombocytopenia. FOS will be administered orally 150mg bd Day 1-7 and 100mg bd Day 8-14. Please see protocol for recommended dose modifications where required. COMPARATOR (Standard of Care, SOC): experimental arms will be compared to participants receiving standard of care. It is accepted that SOC may change during a rapidly evolving pandemic. Co-enrolment to other trials and rescue therapy, either pre- or post-randomisation, is permitted and will be accounted for in the statistical analysis.

Main Outcomes: Pairwise comparison (RUX vs SOC and FOS vs SOC) of the proportion of participants diagnosed with severe COVID-19 pneumonia within 14 days. Severe COVID-19 pneumonia is defined by a score ≥ 5 on a modified WHO COVID-19 Ordinal Scale, comprising the following indicators of disease severity: Death OR Requirement for invasive ventilation OR Requirement for non-invasive ventilation including CPAP or high flow oxygen OR O saturation < 90% on ≥60% inspired oxygen RANDOMISATION: Participants will be allocated to interventions using a central web-based randomisation service that generates random sequences using random permuted blocks (1:1:1), with stratification by age (<65 and ≥65 years) and site.

Blinding (masking): No participants or caregivers are blinded to group assignment. Clinical outcomes will be compared blind to group assignment.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): For an early informal dose examination by the Data Monitoring Committee a minimum of 30 participants will be recruited. For Stage 1 of this multi-arm multi-stage study, 171 participants will be randomised, with 57 participants in each arm. If at least one experimental intervention shows promise, then Stage 2 will recruit a further 95 participants per arm. Sample size calculations are given in the protocol.

Trial Status: Recruitment is ongoing and started 2 October 2020. We anticipate completion of Stage 1 by July 2021 and Stage 2 by April 2022. The current protocol version 2.0 of 11 February 2021 is appended.

Trial Registration: EudraCT: 2020-001750-22 , 9 July 2020 ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04581954 , 9 October 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05190-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Tapering and Discontinuation of Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonist Therapy in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia: Results from a Modified Delphi Panel.

Acta Haematol 2021 Mar 31:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, New Jersey, USA.

Background: Recent evidence suggests that in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) with a stable response on thrombopoietin receptor agonists, treatment may be tapered and/or discontinued.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to provide a guide for tapering and discontinuation of TPO-RA therapy in patients with ITP, based on hematologist survey results, existing evidence, and expert consensus.

Patients/methods: UK hematologists completed a survey to characterize self-reported practice patterns related to TPO-RA tapering and discontinuation in patients with ITP. Using a modified Delphi panel approach, ITP experts developed consensus statements regarding the use of TPO-RA tapering and discontinuation.

Results: Survey respondents estimated that 30-34% of their patients were suitable for tapering or discontinuation and that 29-35% of these patients required treatment re-initiation after an average treatment-free interval of 86-106 days. No clear predictors of patient suitability or response to tapering or discontinuation were identified. The ITP expert consensus was that approximately 30% of patients are eligible for tapering and discontinuation, which may be considered after 6-12 months for patients demonstrating an adequate treatment response (platelet count >50,000/µL at ≥75% of assessments in the preceding 6 months). Treatment re-initiation may be considered if the platelet count decreases or if the patient becomes symptomatic. Individual differences need to be taken into account when considering TPO-RA tapering or discontinuation.

Conclusions: Tapering and discontinuation of TPO-RA therapy may be considered for certain patients with ITP. Further study is needed to better predict patients likely to achieve sustained off-treatment responses after tapering and discontinuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000510676DOI Listing
March 2021

Tocilizumab in Hospitalized Patients with Severe Covid-19 Pneumonia.

N Engl J Med 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

From Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (I.O.R.); James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York - both in New York (N.B.); eStudy Site, Chula Vista (M.W.), Genentech, South San Francisco (M.B., L.T.), and the University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (A.M.) - all in California; Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine and Hacksensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ (R.C.G.); Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City (B.D.H.); Royal Free Hospital (S.B.) and Imperial College London (N.C., T.Y.), London, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and National Institute for Health Research-Leeds Biomedical Research Centre, Leeds (S.S.), North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester (A.U.), and Roche Products, Welwyn Garden City (S.D., E.G., B.M., H.S.) - all in the United Kingdom; the University of Massachusetts Medical School-Baystate, Springfield (D.S.); Rush University Medical Center, Chicago (M.S.A.); Denver Health Medical Center, Denver (I.S.D.), and the University of Colorado, Anschutz School of Medicine, Aurora (I.S.D.); University Health Network, Toronto (L.D.S.); Hospital Universitario HM Sanchinarro, Centro Integral, Oncológico Clara Campal and Departamento de Ciencias Médicas Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad CEU San Pablo, Madrid (A.C.G.); and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami (D.J.D.L.Z.).

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with immune dysregulation and hyperinflammation, including elevated interleukin-6 levels. The use of tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor, has resulted in better outcomes in patients with severe Covid-19 pneumonia in case reports and retrospective observational cohort studies. Data are needed from randomized, placebo-controlled trials.

Methods: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients who were hospitalized with severe Covid-19 pneumonia in a 2:1 ratio receive a single intravenous infusion of tocilizumab (at a dose of 8 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo. Approximately one quarter of the participants received a second dose of tocilizumab or placebo 8 to 24 hours after the first dose. The primary outcome was clinical status at day 28 on an ordinal scale ranging from 1 (discharged or ready for discharge) to 7 (death) in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all the patients who had received at least one dose of tocilizumab or placebo.

Results: Of the 452 patients who underwent randomization, 438 (294 in the tocilizumab group and 144 in the placebo group) were included in the primary and secondary analyses. The median value for clinical status on the ordinal scale at day 28 was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 1.0) in the tocilizumab group and 2.0 (non-ICU hospitalization without supplemental oxygen) (95% CI, 1.0 to 4.0) in the placebo group (between-group difference, -1.0; 95% CI, -2.5 to 0; P = 0.31 by the van Elteren test). In the safety population, serious adverse events occurred in 103 of 295 patients (34.9%) in the tocilizumab group and in 55 of 143 patients (38.5%) in the placebo group. Mortality at day 28 was 19.7% in the tocilizumab group and 19.4% in the placebo group (weighted difference, 0.3 percentage points (95% CI, -7.6 to 8.2; nominal P = 0.94).

Conclusions: In this randomized trial involving hospitalized patients with severe Covid-19 pneumonia, the use of tocilizumab did not result in significantly better clinical status or lower mortality than placebo at 28 days. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche and the Department of Health and Human Services; COVACTA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04320615.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2028700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953459PMC
February 2021

How I treat immune thrombocytopenia - a global view.

Br J Haematol 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17324DOI Listing
February 2021

Fostamatinib is an effective second-line therapy in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.

Br J Haematol 2020 09 23;190(6):933-938. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Fostamatinib demonstrated efficacy in phase 3 trials of adults with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Post hoc analysis compared patients who received fostamatinib as second-line therapy (after steroids ± immunoglobulins) versus third-or-later-line therapy (after ≥2 prior lines of therapy including a second-line agent). Platelet responses ≥50 000/µl were observed in 25/32 (78%) second-line and 54/113 (48%) third-or-later-line patients. Bleeding events were less frequent in second-line (28%) versus third-or-later-line (45%) patients. Responses once achieved tended to be durable in both groups. The safety profile was similar in both groups. In this post hoc analysis, fostamatinib was more effective as second-line than third-or-later-line therapy for ITP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540289PMC
September 2020

Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP): Current Limitations in Patient Management.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Nov 30;56(12). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Departments of Hemato-oncology and Research, Østfold Hospital, 1714 Grålum, Norway.

Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia caused by increased platelet destruction and impaired platelet production. First-line therapies include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and anti-D immunoglobulin. For patients who are refractory to these therapies, those who become corticosteroid dependent, or relapse following treatment with corticosteroid, options include splenectomy, rituximab, and thrombopoietin-receptor agonists, alongside a variety of additional immunosuppressive and experimental therapies. Despite recent advances in the management of ITP, many areas need further research. Although it is recognized that an assessment of patient-reported outcomes in ITP is valuable to understand and guide treatment, these measures are not routinely measured in the clinical setting. Consequently, although corticosteroids are first-line therapies for both children and adults, there are no data to suggest that corticosteroids improve health-related quality of life or other patient-related outcomes in either children or adults. In fact, long courses of corticosteroids, in either children or adults, may have a negative impact on a patient's health-related quality of life, secondary to the impact on sleep disturbance, weight gain, and mental health. In adults, additional therapies may be needed to treat overt hemorrhage, but unfortunately the results are transient for the majority of patients. Therefore, there is a need to recognize the limitations of current existing therapies and evaluate new approaches, such as individualized treatment based on the probability of response and the size of effect on the patient's most bothersome symptoms and risk of adverse effects or complications. Finally, a validated screening tool that identifies clinically significant patient-reported outcomes in routine clinical practice would help both patients and physicians to effectively follow a patient's health beyond simply treating the laboratory findings and physical symptoms of ITP. The goal of this narrative review is to discuss management of newly diagnosed and refractory patients with ITP, with a focus on the limitations of current therapies from the patient's perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56120667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761470PMC
November 2020

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) World Impact Survey (iWISh): Patient and physician perceptions of diagnosis, signs and symptoms, and treatment.

Am J Hematol 2021 02 19;96(2):188-198. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is now well-known to reduce patients' health-related quality of life. However, data describing which signs and symptoms patients and physicians perceive as having the greatest impact are limited, as is understanding the full effects of ITP treatments. I-WISh (ITP World Impact Survey) was an exploratory, cross-sectional survey designed to establish the multifaceted impact of ITP, and its treatments, on patients' lives. It focused on perceptions of 1507 patients and 472 physicians from 13 countries regarding diagnostic pathway, frequency and severity of signs and symptoms, and treatment use. Twenty-two percent of patients experienced delayed diagnosis (caused by several factors), 73% of whom felt anxious as a result. Patients rated fatigue among the most frequent, severe symptom associated with ITP at diagnosis (58% most frequent; 73% most severe), although physicians assigned it lower priority (30%). Fatigue was one of the few symptoms persisting at survey completion (50% and 65%, respectively) and was the top symptom patients wanted resolved (46%). Participating physicians were experienced at treating ITP, thereby recognizing the need to limit corticosteroid use to newly-diagnosed or first-relapse patients and espoused increased use of thrombopoietin receptor agonists and anti-CD20 after relapse in patients with persistent/chronic disease. Patient and physicians were largely aligned on diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment use. I-WISh demonstrated that patients and physicians largely align on overall ITP symptom burden, with certain differences, for example, fatigue. Understanding the emotional and clinical toll of ITP on the patient will facilitate shared decision-management, setting and establishment of treatment goals and disease stage-appropriate treatment selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898610PMC
February 2021

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) World Impact Survey (I-WISh): Impact of ITP on health-related quality of life.

Am J Hematol 2021 02 19;96(2):199-207. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has a substantial, multifaceted impact on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Data describing which aspects of ITP physicians and patients perceive as having the greatest impact are limited. The ITP World Impact Survey (I-WISh) was a cross-sectional survey, including 1507 patients and 472 physicians, to establish the impact of ITP on HRQoL and productivity from patient and physician perspectives. Patients reported that ITP reduced their energy levels (85% of patients), capacity to exercise (77%), and limited their ability to perform daily tasks (75%). Eighty percent of physicians reported that ITP symptoms reduced patient HRQoL, with 66% reporting ITP-related fatigue substantially reduced patient HRQoL. Patients believed ITP had a substantial impact on emotional well-being (49%) and 63% worried their condition would worsen. Because of ITP, 49% of patients had already reduced, or seriously considered reducing their working hours, and 29% had considered terminating their employment. Thirty-six percent of patients employed at the time of the survey felt ITP decreased their work productivity, while 51% of patients with high/very high symptom burden reported that ITP affected their productivity. Note, I-WISh demonstrated substantive impact of ITP on patients' HRQoL both directly for patients and from the viewpoint of their physicians. Patients reported reduced energy levels, expressed fears their condition might worsen, and those who worked experienced reduced productivity. Physicians should be aware not only of platelet counts and bleeding but also the multi-dimensional impact of ITP on patients' lives as an integral component of disease management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898815PMC
February 2021

International survey on Helicobacter pylori testing in patients with immune thrombocytopenia: Communication of the platelet immunology scientific and standardization committee.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 01;19(1):287-296

Division of Hematology and Thromboembolism, Department of Medicine, McMaster Centre for Transfusion Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Essentials When to test and treat H pylori among patients with ITP is controversial. We report the results of an international survey administered to physicians with experience treating ITP across 39 countries. The decision to test for H pylori was influenced by country, country of origin, and concomitant gastrointestinal symptoms. Testing and treating for H pylori among patients with ITP varied across geographic regions. ABSTRACT: Background Investigations for patients suspected of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) lack standardization. A controversial issue is whether such patients should be tested for Helicobacter pylori, a known cause of secondary ITP. Objectives This Scientific and Standardization Committee Communication reports the results of an international survey to describe patterns of practice with respect to screening and treatment of H pylori among patients with ITP. Patients/Methods A 17-item scenario-based questionnaire was delivered to hematologists in countries across the world. The questionnaire was pilot tested before use. We used snowball sampling and a contact list of physicians from the Platelet Disorders Support Association to identify survey respondents. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results A total of 186 respondents from 39 countries completed the survey. Response rate from the snowball sample was 53.6%. Twenty-nine percent (n = 55) of respondents always tested ITP patients for H pylori, and 53% (n = 98) sometimes tested. Of the 37 respondents from Asia and the Middle East, 51.4% (n = 19) always tested for H pylori for the stated reasons of high local prevalence and perceived benefit of treatment on platelet count levels. Respondents were more likely to test patients who were from Asia (145/177, 80%) and who had concomitant gastrointestinal symptoms (133/183, 72%). For eradication therapy, 71 of 118 (60.2%) respondents used the combination of a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin for 14 days. Conclusions This international survey showed that testing for H pylori was most common in Asia and in patients from Asia. Testing and treating practices varied across geographic regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15136DOI Listing
January 2021

Romiplostim treatment for children with immune thrombocytopenia: Results of an integrated database of five clinical trials.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 11 9;67(11):e28630. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California.

Background: Treatment for chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) in children is largely limited to immunosuppressive agents. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TRAs) have been used to treat cITP in adults for over a decade. The objective of this integrated analysis was to examine the safety and efficacy of the TRA romiplostim in children with ITP.

Methods: We examined efficacy and safety in children with ITP across five romiplostim trials: final data from two double-blind placebo-controlled trials and two open-label extensions, and interim data from an ongoing single-arm trial.

Results: Patients (n = 24 initially placebo; n = 262 initially romiplostim) had a median age of 10.0 years (Q1: 6.0, Q3: 13.0), ITP duration of 1.9 years (Q1: 1.0, Q3: 4.0), and baseline platelet count of 14.3 × 10 /L (Q1: 7.5, Q3: 23.0). Among 282 patients receiving romiplostim, median treatment duration was 65 weeks (range 8-471 weeks) and median weekly dose was 6.6 μg/kg (range 0.1-9.7 μg/kg). Overall, 89% of romiplostim-treated patients had platelet responses. Nineteen patients (7%) maintained treatment-free responses for ≥6 months while withholding all ITP therapy. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events of bleeding occurred in 10% and <1% of romiplostim-treated patients, respectively. Twenty-five percent of patients had a serious adverse event, most commonly epistaxis (6%). Seven patients (2%) had neutralizing antibodies against romiplostim postbaseline and none had neutralizing antibodies against endogenous thrombopoietin. Efficacy and safety results appeared similar between children with ITP for ≤12 months and >12 months at baseline.

Conclusions: Across five pediatric clinical trials, romiplostim was well tolerated. Most patients had a platelet response; some maintained responses for at least 6 months while withholding all ITP therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28630DOI Listing
November 2020

Phase 2 multiple-dose study of an FcRn inhibitor, rozanolixizumab, in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia.

Blood Adv 2020 09;4(17):4136-4146

Immunodeficiency Centre for Wales, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a predominantly immunoglobulin G (IgG)-autoantibody-mediated disease characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. Rozanolixizumab, a subcutaneously infused humanized monoclonal anti-neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) antibody, reduced serum IgG in healthy volunteers. In this phase 2, multicenter, open-label study, patients with persistent/chronic primary ITP received 1 to 5 once-weekly subcutaneous infusions of rozanolixizumab (cumulative doses, 15-21 mg/kg). Primary objectives were safety and tolerability, and secondary objectives were clinical efficacy (change in platelet count) and pharmacodynamic effect (change in IgG). In all, 51 (77.3%) of 66 patients reported 1 or more adverse events (AEs), all mild-to-moderate, most commonly headaches (26 [39.4%] of 66), of which 15 were treatment related. Four patients had serious AEs, but none were treatment related. No AEs resulted in discontinuation of the study drug. No serious infections occurred. Platelet counts of ≥50 × 109/L were achieved at least once at any time after multiple infusions (5 × 4, 3 × 7, or 2 × 10 mg/kg: 35.7%, 35.7%, and 45.5% of patients, respectively) or single infusions (15 or 20 mg/kg: 66.7% and 54.5% patients, respectively). Minimum mean IgG levels and maximum mean platelet counts both occurred by day 8 in the higher (15 and 20 mg/kg) single-dose cohorts and maximum platelet count occurred by day 11 onward in the multiple-dose cohorts. No clinically meaningful changes occurred in IgA, IgM, IgE, or albumin levels. In patients with persistent/chronic primary ITP, rozanolixizumab demonstrated a favorable safety profile and rapid, substantial platelet increases concordant with substantial IgG reductions, especially with single doses. By day 8, in the 15 and 20 mg/kg single-dose cohorts, >50% patients achieved clinically relevant platelet responses (≥50 × 109/L), coinciding with the lowest mean IgG levels. These data support phase 3 development of rozanolixizumab in persistent/chronic primary ITP. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02718716.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479959PMC
September 2020

Identification of occult cerebral microbleeds in adults with immune thrombocytopenia.

Blood 2020 12;136(25):2875-2880

Department of Brain Sciences, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

Management of symptoms and prevention of life-threatening hemorrhage in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) must be balanced against adverse effects of therapies. Because current treatment guidelines based on platelet count are confounded by variable bleeding phenotypes, there is a need to identify new objective markers of disease severity for treatment stratification. In this cross-sectional prospective study of 49 patients with ITP and nadir platelet counts <30 × 109/L and 18 aged-matched healthy controls, we used susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to detect cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) as a marker of occult hemorrhage. CMBs were detected using a semiautomated method and correlated with clinical metadata using multivariate regression analysis. No CMBs were detected in health controls. In contrast, lobar CMBs were identified in 43% (21 of 49) of patients with ITP; prevalence increased with decreasing nadir platelet count (0/4, ≥15 × 109/L; 2/9, 10-14 × 109/L; 4/11, 5-9 × 109/L; 15/25 <5 × 109/L) and was associated with longer disease duration (P = 7 × 10-6), lower nadir platelet count (P = .005), lower platelet count at time of neuroimaging (P = .029), and higher organ bleeding scores (P = .028). Mucosal and skin bleeding scores, number of previous treatments, age, and sex were not associated with CMBs. Occult cerebral microhemorrhage is common in patients with moderate to severe ITP. Strong associations with ITP duration may reflect CMB accrual over time or more refractory disease. Further longitudinal studies in children and adults will allow greater understanding of the natural history and clinical and prognostic significance of CMBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020004858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751366PMC
December 2020

An autocrine Vitamin D-driven Th1 shutdown program can be exploited for COVID-19.

bioRxiv 2020 Jul 19. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Pro-inflammatory immune responses are necessary for effective pathogen clearance, but cause severe tissue damage if not shut down in a timely manner . Excessive complement and IFN-γ-associated responses are known drivers of immunopathogenesis and are among the most highly induced immune programs in hyper-inflammatory SARS-CoV2 lung infection . The molecular mechanisms that govern orderly shutdown and retraction of these responses remain poorly understood. Here, we show that complement triggers contraction of IFN-γ producing CD4 T helper (Th) 1 cell responses by inducing expression of the vitamin D (VitD) receptor (VDR) and CYP27B1, the enzyme that activates VitD, permitting T cells to both activate and respond to VitD. VitD then initiates the transition from pro-inflammatory IFN-γ Th1 cells to suppressive IL-10 Th1 cells. This process is primed by dynamic changes in the epigenetic landscape of CD4 T cells, generating superenhancers and recruiting c-JUN and BACH2, a key immunoregulatory transcription factor . Accordingly, cells in psoriatic skin treated with VitD increased BACH2 expression, and BACH2 haplo-insufficient CD4 T cells were defective in IL-10 production. As proof-of-concept, we show that CD4 T cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with COVID-19 are Th1-skewed and that VDR is among the top regulators of genes induced by SARS-CoV2. Importantly, genes normally down-regulated by VitD were de-repressed in CD4 BALF T cells of COVID-19, indicating that the VitD-driven shutdown program is impaired in this setting. The active metabolite of VitD, alfacalcidol, and cortico-steroids were among the top predicted pharmaceuticals that could normalize SARS-CoV2 induced genes. These data indicate that adjunct therapy with VitD in the context of other immunomodulatory drugs may be a beneficial strategy to dampen hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.18.210161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7388488PMC
July 2020

Whole-genome sequencing of a sporadic primary immunodeficiency cohort.

Nature 2020 07 6;583(7814):90-95. Epub 2020 May 6.

Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology and Infectious Disease, Jeffrey Cheah Biomedical Centre, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK.

Primary immunodeficiency (PID) is characterized by recurrent and often life-threatening infections, autoimmunity and cancer, and it poses major diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Although the most severe forms of PID are identified in early childhood, most patients present in adulthood, typically with no apparent family history and a variable clinical phenotype of widespread immune dysregulation: about 25% of patients have autoimmune disease, allergy is prevalent and up to 10% develop lymphoid malignancies. Consequently, in sporadic (or non-familial) PID genetic diagnosis is difficult and the role of genetics is not well defined. Here we address these challenges by performing whole-genome sequencing in a large PID cohort of 1,318 participants. An analysis of the coding regions of the genome in 886 index cases of PID found that disease-causing mutations in known genes that are implicated in monogenic PID occurred in 10.3% of these patients, and a Bayesian approach (BeviMed) identified multiple new candidate PID-associated genes, including IVNS1ABP. We also examined the noncoding genome, and found deletions in regulatory regions that contribute to disease causation. In addition, we used a genome-wide association study to identify loci that are associated with PID, and found evidence for the colocalization of-and interplay between-novel high-penetrance monogenic variants and common variants (at the PTPN2 and SOCS1 loci). This begins to explain the contribution of common variants to the variable penetrance and phenotypic complexity that are observed in PID. Thus, using a cohort-based whole-genome-sequencing approach in the diagnosis of PID can increase diagnostic yield and further our understanding of the key pathways that influence immune responsiveness in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2265-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334047PMC
July 2020

"ITP" is not always immune thrombocytopenia.

Am J Hematol 2020 12 12;95(12):1614-1615. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Centre for Haematology, St Mary's Hospital Campus of Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25872DOI Listing
December 2020

Immune Thrombocytopenia. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2020 03;382(11):1077-1078

Østfold Hospital, Sarpsborg, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1913324DOI Listing
March 2020

Mechanisms and therapeutic prospects of thrombopoietin receptor agonists.

Semin Hematol 2019 10 19;56(4):262-278. Epub 2019 Oct 19.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY. Electronic address:

The second-generation thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists eltrombopag and romiplostim are potent activators of megakaryopoiesis and represent a growing treatment option for patients with thrombocytopenic hematological disorders. Both TPO receptor agonists have been approved worldwide for the treatment of children and adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenia. In the EU and USA, eltrombopag is approved for the treatment of patients with severe aplastic anemia who have had an insufficient response to immunosuppressive therapy and in the USA for the first-line treatment of severe aplastic anemia in combination with immunosuppressive therapy. Eltrombopag has also shown efficacy in several other disease settings, for example, chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, selected inherited thrombocytopenias, and myelodysplastic syndromes. While both TPO receptor agonists stimulate TPO receptor signaling and enhance megakaryopoiesis, their vastly different biochemical structures bestow upon them markedly different molecular and functional properties. Here, we review and discuss results from preclinical and clinical studies on the functional and molecular mechanisms of action of this new class of drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminhematol.2019.09.001DOI Listing
October 2019

American Society of Hematology 2019 guidelines for immune thrombocytopenia.

Blood Adv 2019 12;3(23):3829-3866

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Hudson College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK.

Background: Despite an increase in the number of therapies available to treat patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), there are minimal data from randomized trials to assist physicians with the management of patients.

Objective: These evidence-based guidelines of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) are intended to support patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals in their decisions about the management of ITP.

Methods: In 2015, ASH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel that included 8 adult clinical experts, 5 pediatric clinical experts, 2 methodologists with expertise in ITP, and 2 patient representatives. The panel was balanced to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest. The panel reviewed the ASH 2011 guideline recommendations and prioritized questions. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, including evidence-to-decision frameworks, to appraise evidence (up to May 2017) and formulate recommendations.

Results: The panel agreed on 21 recommendations covering management of ITP in adults and children with newly diagnosed, persistent, and chronic disease refractory to first-line therapy who have non-life-threatening bleeding. Management approaches included: observation, corticosteroids, IV immunoglobulin, anti-D immunoglobulin, rituximab, splenectomy, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists.

Conclusions: There was a lack of evidence to support strong recommendations for various management approaches. In general, strategies that avoided medication side effects were favored. A large focus was placed on shared decision-making, especially with regard to second-line therapy. Future research should apply standard corticosteroid-dosing regimens, report patient-reported outcomes, and include cost-analysis evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963252PMC
December 2019

Updated international consensus report on the investigation and management of primary immune thrombocytopenia.

Blood Adv 2019 11;3(22):3780-3817

Division of Hematology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Over the last decade, there have been numerous developments and changes in treatment practices for the management of patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This article is an update of the International Consensus Report published in 2010. A critical review was performed to identify all relevant articles published between 2009 and 2018. An expert panel screened, reviewed, and graded the studies and formulated the updated consensus recommendations based on the new data. The final document provides consensus recommendations on the diagnosis and management of ITP in adults, during pregnancy, and in children, as well as quality-of-life considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880896PMC
November 2019

The child with immune thrombocytopenia: to treat or not to treat, is that still the question?

Haematologica 2019 11;104(11):2132-2134

Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Medicine, University of Pennsylvania-Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.229179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6821618PMC
November 2019

Immune Thrombocytopenia.

N Engl J Med 2019 09;381(10):945-955

From the Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London (N.C.); and the Departments of Medicine, Hematology-Oncology, and Research, Østfold Hospital Trust, Kalnes, and the Department of Hematology, Oslo University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (W.G.) - both in Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcp1810479DOI Listing
September 2019

Thrombopoietin receptor agonists: ten years later.

Haematologica 2019 06 9;104(6):1112-1123. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

The two thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RA), eltrombopag and romiplostim, were licensed in the US for treatment of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in 2008 and, since then, their use has progressively increased around the world; they are currently used in more than 100 countries. The six largest randomized controlled trials conducted in ITP have used one of these two agents. All studies have demonstrated a platelet response rate between 50-90%, depending on the criteria used, with good safety and tolerability. TPO-RA were shown to be effective in reducing bleeding and the need for concomitant or rescue medication. Many other investigations of their mechanism of effect, prospective and retrospective trials, and studies focusing on toxicity have been performed widening our knowledge of these two agents. Initial concerns on issues such as myelofibrosis have not been confirmed. Only a small number of patients develop moderate-severe reticulin fibrosis and/or collagen fibrosis; however, these are usually reversed after discontinuation of TPO-RA. Studies indicate, however, that TPO-RA may increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. Both TPO-RA are currently approved in patients with chronic ITP aged >1-year who are refractory to at least one other treatment. Eltrombopag has acquired two additional indications: severe aplastic anemia refractory to first-line treatment and hepatitis C patients undergoing treatment with interferon-ribavirin. Despite these wide-ranging studies, important questions still need to be answered. This summary review on TPO-RA will summarize what is known regarding efficacy in ITP, evaluate safety concerns in more depth, and focus on the questions that remain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.212845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6545830PMC
June 2019

Diagnostic high-throughput sequencing of 2396 patients with bleeding, thrombotic, and platelet disorders.

Blood 2019 12;134(23):2082-2091

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

A targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) panel test for clinical diagnostics requires careful consideration of the inclusion of appropriate diagnostic-grade genes, the ability to detect multiple types of genomic variation with high levels of analytic sensitivity and reproducibility, and variant interpretation by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the context of the clinical phenotype. We have sequenced 2396 index patients using the ThromboGenomics HTS panel test of diagnostic-grade genes known to harbor variants associated with rare bleeding, thrombotic, or platelet disorders (BTPDs). The molecular diagnostic rate was determined by the clinical phenotype, with an overall rate of 49.2% for all thrombotic, coagulation, platelet count, and function disorder patients and a rate of 3.2% for patients with unexplained bleeding disorders characterized by normal hemostasis test results. The MDT classified 745 unique variants, including copy number variants (CNVs) and intronic variants, as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance. Half of these variants (50.9%) are novel and 41 unique variants were identified in 7 genes recently found to be implicated in BTPDs. Inspection of canonical hemostasis pathways identified 29 patients with evidence of oligogenic inheritance. A molecular diagnosis has been reported for 894 index patients providing evidence that introducing an HTS genetic test is a valuable addition to laboratory diagnostics in patients with a high likelihood of having an inherited BTPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2018891192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993014PMC
December 2019

Long-term fostamatinib treatment of adults with immune thrombocytopenia during the phase 3 clinical trial program.

Am J Hematol 2019 05 13;94(5):546-553. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Rigel Pharmaceuticals Inc., South San Francisco, California.

Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies demonstrated responses (≥50 000/μL) to fostamatinib in adults with long-standing immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The long-term safety and efficacy of fostamatinib were evaluated in a follow-on, open-label extension (OLE) study. Patients received double-blind fostamatinib in the randomized trials, and responders continued the same dose, 100 to 150 mg BID, in the OLE study. Nonresponders received 100 mg BID for 4 weeks and could escalate to 150 mg BID at week 4. Endpoints included stable response, platelet count ≥50 000/μL at 4/6 biweekly (randomized trials) or 2/3 monthly visits (OLE), and overall response, ≥1 platelet count ≥50 000/μL during weeks 1 to 12. A total of 146 patients received fostamatinib including 123 in the OLE study. Median treatment duration was 6.7 months. Baseline median ITP duration was 8 years and median platelet count was 16 000/μL; prior treatments included thrombopoietic (TPO) agents (47%), splenectomy (35%), and rituximab (32%). Twenty-seven (18%) patients achieved a stable response with median duration of >28 months and a median platelet count of 89 000/μL. Sixty-four (44%) patients achieved an overall response (including stable responders) with a median platelet count of 63 000/μL and a median response duration of >28 months. Twenty-four of 71 (34%) patients who had failed TPO agents achieved overall responses to fostamatinib. The most common adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea, hypertension, nausea, epistaxis, and abnormal liver function tests. Most AEs were mild/moderate and resolved or were managed with dose reduction, dose interruption, and/or secondary medication. Almost half of the patients achieved an overall response, and most of these maintained their responses for >2 years. No new or increased frequency of AEs was seen at up to 31 months of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594140PMC
May 2019

Characterization and treatment of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Blood 2019 04 15;133(15):1644-1651. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Haematology, University College London Hospital (UCLH), London, United Kingdom.

Congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (cTTP) is an ultra-rare thrombomicroangiopathy caused by an inherited deficiency of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13). There are limited data on genotype-phenotype correlation; there is no consensus on treatment. We reviewed the largest cohort of cTTP cases, diagnosed in the United Kingdom, over the past 15 years. Seventy-three cases of cTTP were diagnosed, confirmed by genetic analysis. Ninety-three percent were alive at the time of review. Thirty-six percent had homozygous mutations; 64% had compound heterozygous mutations. Two presentation peaks were seen: childhood (median diagnosis age, 3.5 years) and adulthood, typically related to pregnancy (median diagnosis age, 31 years). Genetic mutations differed by age of onset with prespacer mutations more likely to be associated with childhood onset ( = .0011). Sixty-nine percent of adult presentations were associated with pregnancy. Fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and intermediate purity factor VIII concentrate were used as treatment. Eighty-eight percent of patients with normal blood counts, but with headaches, lethargy, or abdominal pain, reported symptom resolution with prophylactic therapy. The most common currently used regimen of 3-weekly FFP proved insufficient for 70% of patients and weekly or fortnightly infusions were required. Stroke incidence was significantly reduced in patients receiving prophylactic therapy (2% vs 17%; = .04). Long-term, there is a risk of end-organ damage, seen in 75% of patients with late diagnosis of cTTP. In conclusion, prespacer mutations are associated with earlier development of cTTP symptoms. Prophylactic ADAMTS13 replacement decreases the risk of end-organ damage such as ischemic stroke and resolved previously unrecognized symptoms in patients with nonovert disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-11-884700DOI Listing
April 2019

Evidence-based management of immune thrombocytopenia: ASH guideline update.

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2018 11;2018(1):568-575

Imperial College Health Care NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

In 1996 and 2011, the American Society of Hematology (ASH) supported efforts to create guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). These guidelines used different approaches to arrive at recommendations for testing and treatment. Despite differences in methodology, in both cases there was a paucity of randomized trials to inform recommendations. As data on the diagnosis and management of ITP expands, the ASH Committee on Quality is dedicated to maintaining updated guidelines representing recent evidence and guideline methodology. Here, we will review the updated ASH guidelines on ITP with a focus on recommendations with new understanding and future research to close knowledge gaps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/asheducation-2018.1.568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6245979PMC
November 2018

Human retinoic acid-regulated CD161 regulatory T cells support wound repair in intestinal mucosa.

Nat Immunol 2018 12 5;19(12):1403-1414. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

MRC, Centre for Transplantation, King's College London, London, UK.

Repair of tissue damaged during inflammatory processes is key to the return of local homeostasis and restoration of epithelial integrity. Here we describe CD161 regulatory T (T) cells as a distinct, highly suppressive population of T cells that mediate wound healing. These T cells were enriched in intestinal lamina propria, particularly in Crohn's disease. CD161 T cells had an all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-regulated gene signature, and CD161 expression on T cells was induced by ATRA, which directly regulated the CD161 gene. CD161 was co-stimulatory, and ligation with the T cell antigen receptor induced cytokines that accelerated the wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells. We identified a transcription-factor network, including BACH2, RORγt, FOSL2, AP-1 and RUNX1, that controlled expression of the wound-healing program, and found a CD161 T cell signature in Crohn's disease mucosa associated with reduced inflammation. These findings identify CD161 T cells as a population involved in controlling the balance between inflammation and epithelial barrier healing in the gut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-018-0230-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474659PMC
December 2018